This chapter is consisting of
relationship between job satisfaction, health, authentic leadership and
work-life balance with employee well being at workplace. Researchers explain
the details on background of the study, problem statement, research objectives,
research questions, research framework, hypotheses, significance of the study
and the definition of terms.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
defines as comfortable, happiness, healthy, safety, protection and so on with
our surroundings, which is including the way people feel about their lives,
jobs and their relationships with the people around them. In this context, research shows that an individual’s sense of
wellbeing is can influence by employer in workplace and they try to take this
opportunity to increase the wellbeing of employee to get the best achievement
in their organization while to increase the performance of employee. Well-being in the workplace is an
important issue that should occupy a much more prominent niche in mainstream
organizational research for some reasons (Danna & Griffin, 1999).
People that feels happy,
health and comfortable with their environment will do their work hardly and
more spent time to do their work to get the best result and good performance to
their organizations. The character of well-being in their-self bring long-term
effectiveness in their productivity and quality of work. According to Conrad (1988) workers spend about one-third of their time at work, and
don’t necessarily leave the job behind when they leave the work site.
The research finds out that there are
four factors that are closely related to the well-being of employee at
workplace that can boost their performance which are their job satisfaction,
health, authentic leadership and work-life balance. These factors are mostly
employee contributes to their employer and organizations. According to Price,
& Hooijberg (1992) workers with poor well-being may be less productive,
make lower quality decisions, be more prone to be absent from work, and make
consistently diminishing overall contributions to the organizations.
Well-being of job satisfaction is
employee satisfaction in their work performance. They feel satisfied and happy
with their work, which appreciated and accepted by employer or manager. Employees
do the job to satisfied their-self and their manager. When their job is noticed
by manager they feel that their job is quality and can become role to others
Job satisfaction is not just about work
performance but it is also include the benefits, payment, facilities, leader,
relationship with members, communication and so on. This will make employee
more satisfied and stay longer with organization if it fulfill the demand of
employee and make them like with their jobs.
Other than that, job satisfaction is when
they have affective job without depression, stressor and emotional. They do
their work with smoothly and follow the schedule that have plan.
Mostly people did not notice that health
is the most important at workplace for employee well-being. When employee have
good health, which is mental and physical health, they can make good quality
work but if their health is prevented the work will be delayed from time to
Employers also needs to have a training
and course about health in organization so it will be aware by employee that
everyone should take care of health to perform their work better. Other than
training and course about health, employer can make a training and course about
safety of employee at workplace. This is also one of precaution for employee in
doing their job to avoid any accident. In this situation, researcher can find
that whether employee is aware or not with their responsibility to protect their
health and safety and whether employers is committed to ensure their employee
health and well-being.
Authentic leadership is positive people
that build a trust and creating passionate support from their subordinates,
which are able to improve individual and team performance. Employee will more
respect to this leader who bring them spirit and determination into working
Besides that, authentic leadership shows
the potential of employer or leader to influence their employee in making
decisions, whether they are able to make others enthusiastic about his or her
plan, whether employer or leader can provides clear instructions and so on.
Employee will follow and trust their employer or leader if they are high
caliber and treat employee fairly. This is also the most important factor in
well-being that mostly people not realize that authentic leadership can help
employee well-being at workplace.
Work-life balance is balancing between
work situation and employee life likes family,theirself, friends and so on.
This kind of situation need have a balance in employee way because it will
influence employee working. When employee can finish their work on time, they
can have spent time with family after work and this make them feel love to work
every day without feeling anger or unsatisfied with their employer.
Employer or leader also need to
understand and respect of employee jobs and employee life after working hours. At
the same time, employee needs to be an efficient to complete their work so they
can balance the work and their life. Meanwhile, employer or leader can make
recognition to employee due to accomplishment for complete the task given on
time. These make employee feel being appreciated by employer and back home with
relax and peaceful with their family.
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
due to economic resistance regardless of day or night employee doing their work
as long as they get the best income to support their life. This situation can
change some behavior of employee because of negative vibe at work that causes
of mental health outcomes
that, workplace culture such as rudeness and bullying can cause psychological
injury to mental health disorders like depression, anxiety and stress.
that know only to giving an order and want perfect work without thinking of
welfare or goodness of employee also can causes employee change their negative
behavior. Employee will start rebel in doing their work, coming late to office,
ignore what their supervisor order them to do and so on.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
research questions used in this study are:
RQ1 – Is there a relationship between job satisfaction
influence employee well-being at workplace.
Is there a relationship between health influence employee well-being at
Is there a relationship between authentic leadership influence employee
well-being at workplace.
Is there a relationship between work-life balance influence employee well-being
Which relationship the most influence employee well-being.
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
objectives of this study will be to:
To investigate the influence of job satisfaction towards employee well-being.
To investigate the influence of health towards employee well-being.
To investigate the influence of authentic leadership towards employee
To investigate the influence of work-life balance towards employee well-being.
To investigate the most influence towards employee well-being.
There is relationship between job satisfaction influence employee well-being
There is relationship between health influence employee well-being
There is relationship between authentic leadership influence employee
There is relationship between work-life balance influence employee well-being.
H5 – Work-Life
Balance is the most influence employee well-being
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
factors of this research may important to help employee performance at
workplace and organization effectiveness and it is effect to responsibility to
employee to achieve organization goals. It is aimed at highlighting the
relationship between job satisfaction and employee well-being, the relationship
health and employee well-being, the relationship authentic leadership and
employee well-being, and the relationship work-life balance and employee
likes physical working conditions, freedom to choose your own method of
working, working environment and son on is considered in such a way that encourages of
informal interaction in workplace while give a well-being place to employees so
that they have opportunity to share knowledge and exchange ideas could be
improve and motivates them in higher productivity.
Health mostly will help employee-doing
work with high quality and good emotions in complete the work while affect
employee performance and their commitment to the organization. Good health in
workplace provides many positive factors such complete work on time, good
relationship with other colleagues and so on.
Leadership with the
leader style is in encourage active involvement on the part of everyone on the
team, people often are able to express their creativity and to demonstrate
abilities and talents that would not be made apparent otherwise that finally
improve the performance of employees. Authentic leadership will help employee
to be more confident, honest and comfortable to have conversation and communication,
which related to any working situations.
Work-life balance help
employee to find the perfect balance at work and home, which is, increase the
engagement levels. This is making employee more hard working and loyal to
organization. Work-life balance in employee well-being will help in less of
burnout on working which can affect every aspect of our lives.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
In this context, Greenberg
and Baron (2008) stated that job satisfaction means as a feeling that can
produce a positive or negative effect toward one’s roles and responsibilities
at work and added that it is important to understand the concept of job
satisfaction as there is no single way to satisfy all workers in the workplace.
Greenberg and Baron (2008) saw it as a positive feeling toward a person’s job.
This concept, according to George and Jones (2005), is the combination of
feelings and beliefs, which include the mental, emotional, and physical
The World Health Organization (WHO) (1948) defined health
is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity. In 1986, the WHO explained that health is a resource for everyday life, not the
objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal
resources, as well as physical capacities.
According to Hsiung, (2012) p.353,
authentic leaders exemplify high moral standards, integrity, and honesty and
authentic leaders acknowledge their personal limitations and shortcomings, and
are therefore less likely to adopt a defensive attitude about organizational
1.8.4 Work-Life Balance
Work-life balance, is defined as a
satisfactory level of involvement or ‘fit’ between the multiple roles in a
person’s life by Hudson (2005). Estes & Michael (2005) stated that there is
no one accepted definition of what constitutes a work-life balance practice,
the term usually refers to one of the following: organizational support for
dependent care, flexible work options, and family or personal leave).
The conclusion on this chapter is an
introduction of the planned study regarding the relationship
between the factors and well-being of employee at workplace at Theta Edge
Berhad. In this section, the researchers have explained on background of
the study, company background, problem statement, research questions research
objectives, research framework, hypotheses, and significance of the study and
the definition of terms.