Child development is the term used to describe the process that a childgoes through in order to change and growInchild development there are 5 aspects of development which are PhysicalDevelopment, Emotional & Social Development, Cognitive Development and LanguageDevelopment.
Emotional Development is theterm used to describe the emotional change in the developing child again frompre-birth to adulthood. It is concerned with a wide range of feelings,expression & emotions, including mental health of the developing child. Social Development is the term used todescribe the ability to understand attitudes, manners and rights/wrongs within other people and yourself. They need tounderstand what is ‘acceptable’ in day to day life as it encourages them tobecome responsible citizens and understand the wider community Language development is thelinguistic change in the child. It supports the child’s ability to communicateand express and understand feelings.
From birth to the age of 5 childrendevelop language at a very fast pace, however the age that a child reaches eachlanguage milestone varies. Cognitive Development is theterm used to describe the intellectual change in the developing child. It isconcerned with problem solving, gaining knowledge, facts and understandingconcepts such as early maths and science. They need to understand about allthey do and in the wider world/communities & cultural contexts. They learnfacts about life, their lives, and make relationships between things.Developing and acquiring cognitive life skills, such as overcomingproblems/difficulties; working things out; cause and effect; telling the time,counting – handling money.
Physical Development is splitup into two sections, growth and development. Growth is the physical changes inthe child’s appearance such as weight and height. Development is when the child’sbody learns to do more complex skills which like riding a bike. PhysicalDevelopment is split up into Gross Motor skills and Fine motor skills Progressionis when you improve and get better at something, by developing to an advancestate.
It is the process that a young child makes from being a child to a youngadult. Within the first 3 months of a child being born they can only hold theirheads up for a couple of seconds while being on their front, they can open andshut their hands and push their legs down onto a flat surface. Through the yearthey then progress as by the age of 8 – 12 months the baby can now sit upwithout support as their muscles have now grown strong enough to do so. At 15to 18 months a typical toddler understands 10 times more words than they speak.By the second birthday most toddlers can say at least 50 words.
Now at 5 years the child can now show goodbalance by running and skipping, and possibly ride a bike without stabiliser,they now have good co-ordination and can play on swings and climbing frames.Their I a big progression between 5 years of age and 7 as a seven-year-old areskilful in catching and throwing a ball, their stamina is now increased withinactivities like swimming and gymnastics. By the age of 16 the child head, feetand hands grow to adult size along with their arms and legs which grow I length Milestones is when achild has learned how to do something new. Different milestones may be walking,talking or riding a bike. For many children they learn how to do something atdifferent ages, meaning not all children hit the same milestones at the same time.It is not nessesary a bad thing Norms’ are the usual& expected elements of children’s development, this is used to identify andassess progress for any areas for concerns. For example, by the time a child isthe 2 years of age, it is usual to expect them to have a wide range of earlyvocabulary.
The sequence is theprocess that the child will usually move through in order to develop skills orgrow and change. Authoritative Parents – The relationshipis about building mutual trust and respect, both perspectives honoured andcommunication flows bow ways.Authoritarian Parents – Relationshipis about control, differing perspectives are not allowed, meaningfulcommunication generally flows both ways Permissive Parents – Relationship indulges the child and they havelittle control.
Uninvolved/Neglected Parents –Relationship is non-existent, no communication or parenting Thesedifferent parenting styles can have a huge effect on the child and their developmentfor example Uninvolved/Neglected Parents will have a bad effect on the child,the child may start to demonstrate antisocial behaviour which can lead to drugand alcohol abuse, poor health, mental health problems, unemployment and adultcrime. Genetics ChildDevelopment starts the minute your born. The chromosomes from your parents will determine your genes. Each new born baby contains 46 chromosomes, 23from the mum’s egg and 23 from the dad’s sperm. The genes and DNA will determine things suchas eye colour, physical appearance and height.Genetic defects can alsobe inherited from our parents these may cause deformity in the genes. Some Inherited Genetic Defects may include CysticFibrosis, Sickle-cell, anaemia, Haemophillia, Cancer, Marfan Syndrome and Huntington’sDisease Dyspraxia (DevelopmentalCoordination Disorder)Thisdisorder is 4 times more likely to affect boys than girls.
It causes difficultyin everyday movements and the child may appearclumsy, they have difficulty in concentrating and there will be a delay inearly development milestones. There is no cure but with support, therapy andlearning new strategies children can overcome some of the daily challenges theyface. Nature: The idea ortheory of those who believe that it is the way we are born, our genetic makeupor hereditary characteristics which determines how children behave and develop.Thisincludes traits such as eye colour and hair colour are determined by specificgenes encoded in each human cell. Also, abstract traits such as intelligence,personality and aggression. Nurture: The idea ortheory of those who believe that it is the way we encourage children and theirenvironment which determines how they behave and develop. Thisincludes environments such as your home, school, wider community and yourcity/village or town.
All the influences that impact you both positively andnegatively which change the way you think feel and behave. A child having parents that have split can turn theirworld upside down. The level of how upset the child is may vary on how bad thesplit up was and the circumstances the child may be in as they might not be oldenough to know what is properly going on. The child may feel a sense of loss asit feels like you have lost a parent and even a home which means your whole lifemay be different. They may feel rejected, unloved and insecure. They may getworried about picking a side and upsetting the other parent.
Emotionaland behavioural problems in children are more common when their parents arefighting or separating. Havingan arrival of a new baby can affectthe child that they already have as the child will feel that the new baby istaking over their role in the family. This may cause the child to dislike andhave rivalry with the new baby by behaving aggressively by pinching or pokingthem or throwing things at them all because of jealousy.