Classification of Macromolecules Essay

The substances tested were glucose, rectos, sucrose, maltose, milk, corn syrup, starch, glycogen, gelatin, egg albumin, ascorbic acid, apple juice, orange juice, and fruit punch.

It was hypothesized that all the substances tested for carbohydrates would test positive, that all the substances tested for proteins would test positive, and that ascorbic acid and orange juice would test positive for vitamin C. To test for carbohydrates, a Beirut test and a starch test were conducted on each substance. To test for proteins, a Benedicts test and a Concentration test were conducted on each substance.Finally, to test for vitamin C, each absence was titrated with indolent. Carbohydrates are macromolecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Most carbohydrates have a hydrogen to oxygen ratio of two to one.

When photosynthesis takes place, the result is carbohydrates and oxygen gas. These macromolecules are the main source of energy for both plants and animals. In plants, the carbohydrate cellulose is used in the physical structure of the organism. Carbohydrates are referred to as saccharine, or simply as sugars, and are vital to life.

They can be divided into incarcerations, disaccharide, and polysaccharides, depending on the umber of sugar molecules involved. A single sugar molecule is a macroeconomics and includes things such as glucose and fructose, and two sugar molecules are a disaccharide. When many sugars (sometimes thousands) are joined together, they form a polysaccharide. (Campbell, 2004) (Malay, JUJU (Malay Bibb) (Brown, 2007)The other main distinction between different sugars is whether they are an allayed or a ketene.This difference affects what sort of structure the sugar will display. An altitude’s hydrocarbon chain ends in a carbonyl group, whereas a ketene group is found in the middle of the chain.

The reducing sugar test checks to see if the carbohydrate has carbonyl groups with double bonded oxygen atoms, thus a positive result indicates an allayed. The test for reducing sugars functions by creating a colored precipitate when the oxygen is bonded to the Beirut solution. Starches, a polysaccharide, are a form of storage sugar made up Of thousands of sugar molecules.The test functions through the iodine, which reacts with the starch to create a blue-black color. The substances tested for reducing sugars and starch were glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, milk, corn syrup, starch, and glycogen. Campbell, 2004) (Malay, AAA) (Malay, Bibb) (Reuses, AAA)Proteins are another of the macromolecules tested in this lab. Structurally, protein is made up of amino acids, joined together by peptide bonds. Amino acids consist of an amino group and a carbonyl group linked to a side chain, which determines the nature of the amino acid.

They form much of the structure of animals, including skin and muscles. Twenty amino acids allow for an almost unlimited variety of proteins. Structurally, proteins are made up of four levels.

The primary level is formed based on the order of amino acids. The secondary structure is the folds and coils in the protein, caused by the hydrogen bonds in the polar sections of the amino acids. The third level is formed by a variety of causes, including hydrogen bonds, the tendency of hydrophobic group to go together, ionic bonds, and disulfide bridges, bonds between two sulfur atoms.The last level of structure isn’t always present but is caused by the bonding of two polypeptide chains together. Proteins are vital to many processes in the human body, such as movement and oxygen transport (in the form of hemoglobin).

Elementally, proteins are made up of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Smaller chains, of only a few amino acids, are called peptides rather than proteins. Gelatin, egg albumin, and milk were the substances tested for proteins. The Benedicts test tested for the presence of peptide bonds, whereas the concentration test tested for a benzene ring.

Peptide bonds are found in all proteins, while benzene rings are not. (Campbell, 2004) (Malay, ICC) (Reuses, Bibb)The last macromolecule tested for was vitamin C. Vitamin C is an acid, which is produced from glucose or gathered from nature. Being a vitamin, it is essential to animals but cannot be synthesized by the animal. It lays a crucial role in the production or collagen, helps wound healing, and helps boost the immune system. It is found naturally in foods like citrus fruits, cabbage and tomatoes.

Vitamin C is made up entirely of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, and has the chemical formula of CHICHI. Vitamin C is best taken from raw foods due to the fact that the chemical structure can easily be changed by heat or air exposure. To test for vitamin C, it will be titrated with a known volume of indolent. When equilibrium is achieved, indicated by a color change to pink or colorless, the test is considered positive. Ascorbic acid, orange juice, apple juice, and fruit punch were tested for vitamin C.

Malay, 20th) (Higher, 2007)Interrelatedness’s solutions% glucose’s tube rack% fructose’s tube tongs 1% maltose’s tubes (35 total)l% sucrose plate % glycogen ml beaker 1% stereoscopically pipettes 0% corn syrups platelets milksop’s reagent (iodine solution)potato extraterrestrial waters. MM Success% egg albumin Noah% collaborationist Homelike. 125 % ascorbic acid salutatorians accordance kiwifruit punishment’s OR Procedure’s lab was broken down into three smaller experiments; one for each of carbohydrates, routine, and vitamin C. Each set of tests was done separately.

The first set of us absences tested were glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, glycogen, starch, corn syrup, skim milk, and potato extract. These were all put through the Benedicts test, for reducing sugars, and through a starch test. For the Benedicts test, 4 ml of each solution were placed into labeled test tubes. 4 ml of each solution were then placed in a second set of test tubes, which served as a control. Next, 5 drops of Benedicts solution was added to each of the labeled test tubes. All the test tubes were then placed in a hot eater bath using the hot plate.After 2 to 3 minutes, any color changes were observed and recorded. A yellow color indicated a positive result.

The starch test was conducted next and consisted of putting five drops of each solution in a well on a drop plate. 5 drops of water was also added to a well, functioning as a control. To each well, 1 drop of iodine solution was added. Any color changes were observed and recorded. A color changed indicated a positive result. The results from the first two tests were then recorded in a table. (Malay, Bibb)Tests for protein were conducted next, and the substances used were egg albumin, gelatin, and milk.These substances were tested using the Beirut test and the concentration test.

The Beirut test was conducted by added 2 ml of each solution to a test tube, along with a distilled water control. 2 ml of 6 M Noah was then added to each test tube followed by 4 drops of 0. 02 M Cuss-4. Each test tube was then gently shaken to encourage mixing. Any color change was observed and recorded in a table. A violet or pink color indicated a positive result.

Next, the concentration test was conducted on the same substances. 1 ml of each substance was placed into a labeled test tube and 5 to 10 drops of incarcerated HON. was added.

Any color change was noted and recorded in a table. A yellow color indicated a positive result. (Malay, ICC)The last test was conducted on ascorbic acid, apple juice, orange juice, and fruit punch to test for the presence of vitamin C.

10 drops of indolent was placed in a test tube and 0. 125% ascorbic acid was added drop by drop until a color change in the indolent was noted. The number of drops required was noted and recorded. This procedure was repeated for the other substances, as well as a distilled water control.

These results were also recorded in a table.Malay, 20th)DATA OR FUNDAMENTALIST 1 : Test Results of potential carbohydrates (AP Biology Class, 2007)Simplemindedness Sugars Testator’s TestGlucosePositiveNegativeFructosePositiveNegativeSucroseNegativeNegati veMaltosePositiveNegativeMilkPositiveNegativeCorn SyrupPositiveNegativeStarchNegativePositiveGlycogenNegativeNegativeDistiIl De WaterNegativeNegativeTABLE 1 shows the results of the reducing sugars test, and the starch test, which show that glucose, fructose, maltose, milk, and corn syrup all tested positive for reducing sugars, while starch tested positive for starch.TABLE 2: Test Results of Potential Proteins (AP Biology Class, 2007)Simplicities Disproportionate TestWaterNegativeNegativeMilkPositivePositiveGelatin Positive Negative AlbuminPositiveNegativeTABLE 2 shows the results of the Beirut test, and the concentration test, which show that milk, gelatin, and egg albumin all tested positive in the Beirut test, while only milk tested positive in the concentration test.TABLE 3: Test Results of Potential Vitamin C Sources (AP Biology Class, 2007)Comprehensively Test (# of drops)Ascorbic Accidental Juicing/ Orange Juicily fruit Punch/Distilled Waters/TABLE 3 shows the results f the vitamin C test, which shows that ascorbic acid and orange juice both tested positive for vitamin C.

Disenfranchisement’s can be divided into three different classes: incarcerations, disaccharide, and polysaccharides. In this experiment, the Beirut test was used to test for reducing sugars, that is carbohydrates with double bonded oxygen that can be reduced into to saccharine.A colored precipitate formed from the double bonded oxygen indicated this result. Glucose, fructose, maltose, milk and corn syrup all tested positive for reducing sugars. The starch test, however, resulted in a positive from starch.

The starch test worked by added iodine to the samples, relying on the fact that when iodine comes into contact with starch, it reacts by turning a blue or black color. Starch is a polysaccharide and is primarily used as a storage molecule, and thus is an excellent source of energy for living beings.Since reducing sugars and starch are different kinds of carbohydrates, the test results for each differed substantially. If testing an unknown substance for carbohydrates, it would be best to perform both tests, due to their relative simplicity. (Malay, Bibb) (Reuses, AAA)Proteins are made up various amino acids joined together by peptide bonds, which form between the carbonyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another utilizing dehydration synthesis. Proteins are used in various roles in the human body, including motion, enzymes, and structure.