1) Compare and contrast the views of Dualism, Materialism, and Idealism. Dualism is defined as the view that hold what exist is either physical or mental. (pg. 98). Also dubbed the “two-realms view” by Plato, identifies some things as having both components, it is the most accepted idea since most believe that there has to be a mental connection with physical items. Materialism is the view that only the physical exist (pg. 98). There is no connection mentally to the physical material; I believe this is stating that we did not have a real idea towards the material.
Idealism is the view that only the mental exist. pg. 99). this is the most farfetched one of them all, that everything we know is a perception not a physical material. 2) Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes’ views on knowledge. Rene Descartes believed that reason is a gift of humans and that knowledge can be directly obtained not from books but only through the application of reason. Because Rene Descartes believed that every human possesses the “natural light” of reason, he believed that if he presented all his arguments as logical line of thought, then anyone could understand them. 3) Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes’ evil demon conjecture.
According to Descartes, it is impossible to prove whether an experience is a dream or not. As for the demon conjecture, Descartes makes proposition that it is possible for people to be under the realm of a demon who is stimulating ones brain to which may make people think they are experiencing things but in reality they are not. 4) Explain and evaluate Benedictus de Spinoza’s view the “God is all” (or everything). Benedictus de Spinoza believed differently than the other philosophers. Benedictus de Spinoza believed that God was here on earth and that he was everything in nature.
He said “God is all, and all is God “and he didn’t believe that God is no more than the sum of what exists. Instead, he thought that God had infinite qualities of which we can only perceive only two, thought and extension. Therefore, God must also exist in dimensions far beyond those of the visible world. Benedictus de Spinoza was much a pantheist, believing that God is identical to the universe as a whole. 5) Explain and evaluate George Berkeley’s view that “to be is to be perceived”. George Berkeley believed that nothing is real but minds and their ideas. Ideas do not exist without the mind.
Through a complicated line of reasoning he concluded that “to be is to be perceived. ” Something exists only if someone has the idea of it. George Berkeley stated that if a tree fell in the forest and there was no one there to hear it, not only would it not make a sound, but there would be no tree. According to George Berkeley, that the mind of God always perceives everything. 6) Explain the evaluate John Locke’s theory of representative realism. John Locke thought that the ideas or perceptions which we have of objects in the world partially represent the objects as they are in themselves, and so whether they are being perceived.
This view of Locke’s is called representative realism. The term realism refers to the view that objects are real or exist apart from perception. And representative means that some of our perceptions accurately represent an object as the thing which it is in itself apart from perception. Locke thought that only some of our ideas or perceptions are accurate representations of the object itself, and that others are partially due to properties of the object and partially due to us. 7) Explain and evaluate Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s view of monads.
The subject of any proposition signifies a complete individual substance, a simple, indivisible, dimensionless being or monad. Each monad is a complete individual substance in the sense that it contains all of its features, past, present, and future. The facts they express perpetually obtain. Each monad is a complete individual substance in the sense that its being is utterly independent of everything else. Because statements of identity are self-contained, any apparent relation between substances must actually be a matching pair of features that each possesses alone