Computers and architecture

The intention of my research is to carry out a systematic
inquiry to discover and examine the facts about models in architecture such as
digital, through computers programs or physical, using the traditional
approach, this means a predominantly use of hand drawings and prototypes models,
and what roleplay computers as instrument of visualization and illustration in
the creation of an architectural project. The concept of this is to proposes
and to discover a fitting comprehension of our experience of the emanant
computerized domains. This requires exploring and questioning the “need” to
anticipate the image within our imagination of a construction or a building
before this is built in practice and how much CAD programs are utilized as the
main device for methods and for testing and assessing design forms. As a
feature of looking at the advantages computers have in the field of design and
architecture I surveyed how much they have separated the people who are very
well trained in architecture from hand illustrations and physical model making
and how virtual design could cause harm to the disciplinary field – Involving
the development of ‘paper’ architecture demonstrating hypothetical proposition
utilizing representations. Many architects and designers believe that the
traditional drawings, hand renderings and conceptual models and sketches have
now turned into an unappreciated skill to the cost of structural outlines, such
as architecture design.

The examination inspects how these computerized advances
technologies help the architects or the designers to outline or to create and
how perceptions act as a method of correspondence amongst customer and
architect. This includes an investigation into compositional illustrations as a
promoting device and investigating the eventual fate of computational
strategies as a visual and improved device for the building plan.

The inquiry will subsequently be proposed of whether
architects and creators (designers) have kept up the ‘hands-on’ approach
related with the method, or whether this has been dropped for computers
illustrations as a visual instrument.  
Are computers taking away from the classic ways, traditional design
mechanisms, and if so what are their favorable circumstances to the practice?





To survey how much CAD programming helps the architectural
plans and design firms, I have looked at two firms which depend vigorously on
CAD programming as an outline apparatus and one firm, which put stock in a
conventional, classic approach, as well as utilize dominatingly models and hand
illustrations and drawings for sketch or conceptual steps of an project. This
included surveying critic’s perspectives, individual judgment and breaking
down, analyzing the directions they took in connection to beginning briefs and
ideas, concepts to development stages. The three contextual investigations
chose are expected to demonstrate the differed utilization of processing
programming, software, and its adaption to different styles of office
association and nationalities. A portrayal of the three firms working
techniques is investigated and examinations drew against these contextual
investigations concentrating on the different working strategies. The
examination at that point shaped the premise of a decision in which a rundown
of the outcomes is reported.


Chapter 1: Literature review of current trends in


What is or what should be the implication of a precise scope
for an electronic device, such as a computer, in architectural or design
domain. This inquiry has been available since the start of the utilization of
computer which was aided to help the design and develop projects easily with
special architecture software. It is outstanding that a significant number of
the designs we find, and see, in the present architectural and design world
would have been almost impossible to accomplish, without utilization of
computers perceptions and algorithms, three-dimensional (3D) graphics and
imagines. However, the topic of what amount should calculation methods be
utilized is, and will always be, constantly present. Would the well-established
two dimensional smoothed picture offer route to the canny three-dimensional
advanced models and prototypes as a method for correspondence? As clearly basic
as this inquiry may be, the appropriate and logical responses are significantly
more perplexing.

From the beginning, an architect has communicated his ideas
and proposals with a pen or pencil and space where the ideas should lay, paper.
They have a fast capacity to distinguish their ventures and how the projects
are working and particularities with a straightforward sketch or doodle.
According to Vesselin Gueorguiev (2008, p.6) “the
architectural and design visualization industry is predicted to grow 23% over
the next 7 years and this is a many time bigger than the expected” [1].
Another age of structures and ideas is being made that perceives the computer
as a drafting, creating and rendering device, as well as a conceivably capable
of powerful and almost unlimited energy, in the age of outlines themselves,
using other words to describe it: an intelligent and powerful machine which
helps the use to create drafts sketches and renders with a high quality
product. With the utilization of three-dimensional modelling, renderings and
images, a designer or an architect has a brilliant chance to play with your
creative abilities, imagination or ideas, to be successful in his duty, to make
a high-quality project, empowering the making of bits, segments or parts of
architecture that would never have been justified with the utilization of pen
and paper system alone.

An expanding number of advanced outlines are presently being
distributed and applauded by pundits as important and powerful to the
structural field. This development of ‘paper’ and hypothetical design is
quickly extending with numerous architects embracing an examination way to
approach the process, driven predominantly by computers as a method for testing
the structures, aesthetic design, forms and communicating what the examinations
have accomplished. For example, Helen Castle is describing “how cities shapes might be “grown” in digital laboratories
in order to ad evolved the urban design. If the application of digital
processes is a consistent theme of the issue, so is the way that it is
perceived.”(Castle H. 2009, p.4) [3]. In Figure 1 is presented evidence
of this, showing a digital creation of Danish architects Bjarke Ingels Group of
a master-plan for a carbon material residential and resort development on Zira
Island in the Caspian Sea.


(Figure 1): Master-plan of a carbon-neutral
resort and residential development on Zira Island in the Caspian Sea


“For a long time, architecture was
thought of as a solid reality and entity: buildings, objects, matter, place,
and a set of geometric relationships. But recently, architects have begun to
understand their products as a liquid, animating their bodies, hyper-surfacing
their walls, crossbreeding different locations, experimenting new geometries.
And is only the beginning. We will see more and more architects realizing
spatialized moments, though standing narratives, though event designing,
working with effects and emotions.”(Castle H. 2005, p.22)[4].

It is without a doubt obvious that exceptional rendering and
three-dimensional frameworks can produce a high-quality image of what design
may be, or how it will look, however, the computer is not a person, a
being,  and should not be treated like a
living being. Eventually, the designers or the architects are controlling the
concepts, programming and ideas and the computer just encourages, shows and
point the directions for making the creative processing more easily.
Subsequently, the computer is only a method for replicating, reenacting or
supplanting manual strategies for design and creation, is just an instrument to
supplant the pencil and the paperwork. What Kostas Terzidis specify about
computers and humans mind is that a computer is not aware of the surrounding,
in contradistinction to a human, a person. However, for a person to use the
computer to at maximum capacity it “requires a synergetic relationship between
the human mind and a computer system.” (2006, p.37)[5]. In these days when the
computers are almost everywhere and in everything, architects and designers are
continually looking to use these technologies at their maximum capacity to help
them to generate, create and introduce a new way of designing and a new way of
thinking about creativity. The issue is that regularly neither the architect or
designer knows about the potential outcomes that are applied schemes can deliver
nor the product bundles can anticipate the moves or identity of every single
user of it. The outcome in this way is the computers are utilized more as a
medium of articulation instead of an auxiliary establishment for architectural
experimentation. Has the rise of advanced domains because of computers detailed
outline prompted architectural being delivered as a mass communications
picture, image as opposed to a bit of perfectly made, practical and innovative
design? The architects, for example, Beatriz Colomina took the subject of
media, such as publicity or broadcasting, of design and architecture as a
showpiece from the 1920’s to the 1950’s, in this way this whimsical picture,
illustrations of design an architecture was not simply exposed by the advanced
age of technologies. The extremely three-dimensional visual notion of
architecture and designs illustrations, renders and modeling was very
criticised by many architects and designers, who believe that the actual
technology which creates the image is unreal and far from reality, but also
majority were believers that the technology help the process of creating a more
realistic image than the traditional ways. Branko Kolarevic mention the problem
that Mark Goulthorpe pointed out;

“Generally, students are coming with
programming skills or parametric skills and they are teaching us something. I
think the university does have an incredible role to play in allowing the
necessary accumulation of skills to come into offices. Students after five
years of university education should be coming out as useful. One would
hope.”(Branko K., 2005, p.70)[5]

Today, using a computer as a marketing device, or for design
and illustration, is very strong. This is particularly vital in the midst of
economic subsidence where each specialty should be able to have a training in
illustrations, this ability will be used to offer a more attractive support and
product to the customer. Today very often a project, in architecture and even
in arts domain, is sold by its image, graphics and how good it is realized, as
an illustration. Therefore, numerous architects and designers who graduate, are
hired exclusively to utilize their abilities of computer renderings as opposed
as far as anyone is concerned about plan or design; this effect of turning the
graduates into a simply CAD(computer-aided design) users, who are just using
computer commands to achieve a illustration or a design, rather then
specialists into architecture and design. The image, with a high-quality
result,  that a computer provides it is
seen as a myth by a numerous people.

For many architects and designers, the computers it is seen
a simple but very important and advanced tool, which allows them to create
shapes and manipulate the form of the design or the product. Therefore, the
computer and its programmes enable them to create futuristic, organic and sharp
products, with a very precise control for the realization of the final product
for the client. The critic Kostas Terzidis pointed out that, “that we should
not consider the computer as an extension of the mind, but rather as a partner
in the design process with fundamentally different aptitudes and ways to
reason. The computer is the Other of the human mind, not its mirror.” (Terzidis
K. 2006, p.8). I agree with this point made by Terzidis, the computers are not
a human being, they are just tools which helps the user, in this case, an
architect or a designer, to achieve his imagination work and to communicate
their ideas via graphic images and renders or three-dimensional models.
Terzidis specify that computers are tools, “partners”, for its users and should
not be treated as a part of the use. However, even if there are computers and
programmes which helps the users to designs, and illustrations, they should not
lose the ability to make a sketch by hand.

In this computerized age, the advantages computers can
convey to the outlined procedure is significant anyway, we should not give
computers a chance to control the architecture or a design. Let people control
the architecture and permit a blend, combination of representations of CAD or
virtual models and calculation and hand drawings, but computers should not
completely control our future designs or renders.

However, the terms, ideas, and procedures that appear to be
incomprehensible, unpredictable and unimaginable by an architect or a designer
can be investigated, executed and tried, as a prototype, into new plan
techniques and arrangements inside the advanced technologies world. This
experimentation has offered to ascend to new architectural procedures and
ideas, for example, hereditary calculations, parametric outline, and isomorphic
layers or surfaces. Branko K. came with an argument that;

“Digital technologies are changing
architectural practices in ways that few were able to anticipate just a decade
ago. In the conceptual realm, computational, digital architectures of
topological, non-Euclidean geometric space, kinetic and dynamic systems, and
genetic algorithms, are supplanting technological architecture.
Digitally-driven design processes, characterized by dynamic […]
three-dimensional structures,”(Branko K. 2005, p.2).

Computer-aided design (CAD) programmes exist to assist and
help the user and his idea to be digital, physically realizable offering new
solutions and a wide variety of modifications. What computers do is just to
simply assist the user and reinforcing his ability to the creation and making
him capable of designing complicated shapes in a short time and in an easy way,
which are considered very hard to realized or even impossible by traditional
means. This ascent of algorithmic outline because of advanced outline might be
especially gainful to that of urban master planning for the eventual fate of
our urban communities. For instance, Michael Batty stating about algorithms:

“The digital tools used to generate
cities in this manner and to breed different urban forms are now widely
available as packages that allow cellular systems (incorporating principles of
cellular automata) and agent-based models to be constructed.”(Castle H., 2009,

From this statement, one might say that three-dimension (3D)
visual projects can enable us to comprehend, understand and break down our
urban areas and empower the architects to explore them in new ways and clear a
superior route for what is to come. However, this idea of a ‘digital city’ is
only an idea, a concept now with Planners being ignorant of the conceivable
outcomes of new interventions from 3D investigations. Subsequently the spatial
improvement of a computerized city, a digital city at this point in our days it
is yet untried, considered uncertain and ignorant, if the advanced changes
rising up out of our computers really work, practically.