Purpose: To look into if impulse is conserved in planar interactions within an stray system.
Hypothesis: Without the effects of clash the impulse will be conserved in the stray system. In all three experiments the impulse before the interaction will be the impulse after the interaction.
Method: An air hockey tabular array was set up and a picture camera on a tripod was placed over the air hockey tabular array. The camera was positioned so it was straight above the air hockey table facing downwards. The air hockey tabular array was turned on and two near indistinguishable Pucks were placed on the tabular array. one at one terminal of the tabular array and one in the Centre. The Puck at the terminal of the tabular array was launched by manus towards the other Puck which was stationary. On impact the first Puck continued in gesture and initiated the gesture of the 2nd Puck. The hit was filmed on the picture camera. After this a 2nd experiment was set up with the same two Pucks. but this clip they were placed in either corner of the air hockey tabular array.
They were launched at the same clip into the Centre of the tabular array. where they collided and bounced off each other and this hit was besides filmed. In the concluding experiment the two Pucks were replaced with larger Pucks with Velcro around the borders. Like the old experiment the two Pucks were placed in two of the corners of the tabular array and launched at the same clip towards the Centre. Due to the Velcro the Pucks stuck together when they collided and they both continued in the same way. and this was filmed. The movies of the hits were put onto a computing machine and they were analysed frame by frame.
Discussion: The overlayed images of the Pucks on the air hockey tabular array show the patterned advance of the Pucks and the consequence the hit had on them. Momentum is found by utilizing the equation where P is momentum. m is aggregate and V is speed. The jurisprudence of the preservation of impulse provinces that i. e. the entire impulse of an stray system is conserved. To detect if impulse has been conserved vector diagrams can be drawn. In experiment 1 and 2. is the impulse of the black Puck and is the impulse of the ruddy Puck.
The first experiment is where the ruddy Puck is ab initio stationary and the black Puck is launched into it and so rebounds off at an angle. As the ruddy Puck is ab initio stationary. i. e. the initial impulse is 0 ; the entire initial impulse ( pTi ) consists wholly of the impulse from the black Puck. hence. By utilizing vector add-on it is apparent that so impulse is conserved.
In experiment 2 both the black and ruddy Puck are ab initio traveling and they collide in the Centre of the air hockey tabular array where they bounce and travel off from each other. As both Pucks are ab initio traveling their sum combined impulse is equal to the entire initial impulse. i. e. . By utilizing vector add-on the entire initial impulse is equal in magnitude and way to the entire concluding impulse. This shows that impulse is conserved.
For the concluding experiment the two Pucks had Velcro around the border. so when they collided in the Centre they stuck together. As both Pucks are ab initio traveling the entire initial impulse can be found by adding the initial impulse of both Pucks. i. e. . After the hit the Pucks stick together and go on ‘as one’ . this means that the entire concluding impulse merely consists of one object. However as the mass of this object is doubled. the impulse is besides doubled. This means that the vector for the entire concluding impulse must be doubled in length. Through the usage of vector add-on it can be seen that impulse is conserved as the entire initial impulse is equal in both magnitude and way to the entire concluding impulse.
Mistake: There were many random and systematic mistakes that could hold occurred in this experiment. A random mistake occurred when establishing the two Pucks. As the Pucks had to be launched by handed towards each other. the individual making this about surely exerted a downwards force upon them. This would hold created clash which is regarded as an external force ; therefore the Pucks were no longer in an stray system. Another random mistake occurred in the first experiment where the ruddy Puck was ab initio held down to forestall it from traveling and released when the black Puck collided with it. Due to the person’s reaction clip. keeping it in topographic point may hold interfered with the hit as it was an external force and this may hold impacted upon the consequences.
Several systematic occurred in this experiment. but the most of import one would hold been the fact that the air hockey tabular array was non wholly degree. This wedged upon the experiment in two ways. In the first experiment where the ruddy Puck is ab initio stationary. as the tabular array was non flat it moved about before the black Puck collided with it. To get the better of this the ruddy Puck had to be held in topographic point and every bit mentioned before this would hold provided and external force moving upon the Puck.
The variability of the air hockey tabular array besides meant that there was a possibility of clash moving on the Pucks while they were traveling. In the 3rd hit with the Velcro another systematic mistake occurred. When the two Pucks collided and stuck together they did non go on directly. alternatively they rotated. This is non additive impulse but instead it is angular impulse. This is reflected in the consequences as the magnitude of the initial and concluding impulse of the system is equal. but the way is non.
Improvements: One of the best ways to better this practical would be to seek and extinguish all of the random and systematic mistakes. A manner to diminish the sum of downward force exerted on the Pucks when being launched would be to hold them pushed from behind by a rod that launches automatically. This would intend that there is no downward force being exerted on the Pucks and this would diminish the sum of clash they experience. Clash was besides created by the variability of the tabular array and the lone manner to do certain that it is wholly flat would be to utilize a spirit degree. This would let the air hockey tabular array to be adjusted so it is wholly level. To forestall the two Velcro Pucks from revolving as they were traveling a similar system could hold been set up. as mentioned earlier. where both Pucks are launched automatically by a rod. This would do it possible to command the speed and angle at which the Pucks were launched. If these two variables could be replicated for the other Puck. when they collided they would hold continued in a consecutive line instead than revolving.
Applications: The theory of preservation of impulse has legion applications but one of the most important 1s is spacecraft propulsion. If a projectile is ab initio at rest the impulse of the projectile ( ) plus the impulse of the gases ( ) must be nothing as both of their speeds are zero. i. e. . Through the jurisprudence of preservation of impulse so in this instance the entire concluding impulse must be nothing as the entire initial impulse peers zero. Newton’s 3rd jurisprudence provinces that for every force there is an equal and opposite force. When the gasses are released from the projectile a downwards force is exerted. and due to Newton’s 3rd jurisprudence and equal upwards force is besides exerted. This means that the projectile pushes on the gases and the gases push on the projectile. This can be shown through preservation of impulse as therefore.
Another application for preservation of impulse is look intoing hits. By utilizing the rules of preservation of impulse it is possible to find the speed of a vehicle before a hit which can impact who is apt in an accident. The entire initial impulse of the system must be the entire concluding impulse of the system. This means that if the mass of each auto and the speed of two combined autos after the impact are known so their speeds before the impact can be calculated.
Decision: The purpose of the experiment was to look into if impulse was conserved within an stray system. By analyzing the flight of the Puck both before and after the hit and pulling vector diagrams it is apparent that in all three instances impulse is conserved despite any interactions that occur within the stray system. Through this the hypothesis was proved to be right. Although there were legion random and systematic mistakes that occurred a successful consequence was still achieved. This practical allowed me to derive assurance with the usage of vector diagrams and vector add-on every bit good as addition a greater apprehension of the applications of preservation of impulse.