Entire Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) is used as established procedure in which machine operator get trained to execute the simple care and fault-finding. This care procedure aims to better the organisational productiveness by doing procedures more dependable and less uneconomical. The fabrication of vehicle much depends on the machine procedure and hence the TPM as care procedure is widely used to command the waste during the fabrication procedure. This instance survey is the analysis of usage of Entire Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) ; and identifies the six losingss of TPM and analyzes the losingss of TPM utilizing Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) .
Three factors used to analyse the six losingss are discussed as handiness, public presentation and quality.Paper is designed as instance survey and comprises four chief subdivisions ; Introduction, literature reappraisal, analysis ( computation ) and decision.
Efficient and effectual usage of equipments is an of import factor in the fabrication industry. This importance rises when it comes to vehicle fabrication because working with stock list and halting production of huge works may do considerable jobs and instability to the production procedure ( Waer, 2003 ) . In modern universe when about in all industry machines are being used and operated, in which equipments and machines is the nucleus of the fabrication procedure, there is demand of such determiners that balance the public presentation of the organisational production map and besides equilibrate the degree of success achieved in the organisation ( Nakajima, 1988 ) .
This instance survey is prepared sing the importance of TPM peculiarly in vehicle fabrication industry. The survey design chosen is literature reappraisal which examines the TPM in vehicle industry with six losingss. These six losingss are identified and analyzed utilizing Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) .
Paper is designed to supply comprehensive literature on the usage of TPM and nowadayss six losingss such as breakdown losingss, set up and equipment accommodation losingss, minor arrests and break losingss, velocity losingss and decelerate running losingss, faulty quality and re-work, and output losingss / Start-up/ restart losingss. The analysis subdivision of paper has analyzed the TPM losingss utilizing OEE as it is an of import tool of TPM and besides presents the computation. Analysis is done to demo how three chief factors of OEE affect the TPM and how to better TPM utilizing OEE.The decision of the paper presents the findings of the instance survey.
Entire Productive Maintenance ( TPM )
With the fact that care is non an disbursal instead an investing, this investing in care is now considered as one of the most indispensable and basic map in vehicle fabrication industry ( Gulati et al, 2009 ) .
The purpose of this care is to better the fabrication procedure, have returns through quality, supplying safety and making dependableness ( Teresko, 1992 ) . Over the past decennaries, care has been recognized by universe category fabrication as such incorporate procedure that is portion of fabricating instead than an stray map in organisation. World ‘s largest houses strive to follow the care schemes to accomplish the houses ‘ ends and nonsubjective that is increased production ( Etienne-Hamilton, 1994 ) . Entire Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) is widely used as care tool in fabrication procedure and it is defined as such productive activities that are implemented by all employees. TPM chiefly involves every person in the organisation including operator and the senior direction in equipment betterment ( Wireman, 2004 ) . The chief sections in the organisation where TPM is implemented are care, operations, installations, design technology, undertaking technology, building technology, stock list and shops, buying, history and finance, and works and site direction ( Wireman, 2004 ) .
The execution of Total Productive Maintenance aims to construct a close relationship between Maintenance and Productivity that demonstrate the good attention and up-keep of equipment ensuing in higher productiveness rate ( Panneerselvam, 2006 ) . It farther represents the construct of betterment and creates ownership in machine operators. Through the care procedure organisation employees are empowered with the sense of efficiency and fabrication procedure. The procedure combines the senior direction and a machine operator to execute at equal degree by expeditiously executing on the production ends of organisation. Within the organisation productiveness, the construct of effectual and efficient is non new but the execution of TPM possesses both features ( Hermann, 2000 ) .
As a consequence of increased competition in the quality of merchandise and cost of merchandise, it is vitally of import for organisation to keep the quality, cost and bringing of the merchandise by bettering the productiveness procedure. The production quality can be increased by effectual and efficient equipment public presentation salvaging losingss of the organisation. The intent of TPM is to salvage the farther production investing and resources by using the machine expeditiously ( Chan, et al. , 2003 ) .
To better understand the maps of TPM it is indispensable to reexamine ends and aims of TPM. The major aims of TPM are as follows:
Aims of TPM
Bettering equipment effectivityBettering care efficiency and effectivityEarly equipment direction and care barTraining to better the accomplishments of all people involvedInvolving operators in everyday careWith supra mentioned aims TPM increases productiveness, quality and controls costs stock list, increases safety and morale. With all these benefits of implementing TPM it becomes important for companies to implement TPM in the fabrication procedure of their industry ( Wireman, 2004 ) .If TPM is implemented with its true kernel in the organisation fabrication procedure it increases the organisational fundss both at the top and the underside of the organisation ( Harrison & A ; Petty, 2002 ) . However, extinguishing the losingss in the organisation concern procedure is considered as the primary kernel of TPM, there are two types of losingss that that it deals with: losingss measured as dislocations and quality defects and secondly it deals with the apparatus or alteration like minor arrests, every bit good as lesser resources use ( Takahashi & A ; Osada, 1990 ) . The execution of TPM mostly focuses on the both types of losingss mentioned above with the activities that enhance the overall effectivity of equipment procedure and works through inflexible remotion of 16 types of losingss and betterment of public presentation.
The procedure of TPM execution is foremost started with the designation and design of activities that eliminated the losingss carefully after mensurating and measuring them.
Losingss of TPM
There are more than 10 losingss found in the literature about TPM and these losingss are classified harmonizing to their effects. The Numberss of effects found are: major losingss that affect overall equipment efficiency, Losses that affect equipment burden clip, losingss that affect workers efficiency and losingss that affect efficient usage of production subordinate resources ( Blanchard et al, 1995 ) . The entire losingss found in these categorizations are:Major Losingss that Affect Overall Equipment EfficiencyFailure losingss ( Breakdown )Set up and accommodation losingssCuting blade alteration losingssStart-up losingssMinor arrest and idleness losingssSpeed losingssDefect & A ; rework lossLosingss that Affect Equipment Loading TimeShutdown ( SD ) losingssLosingss that Affect Workers EfficiencyManagement losingssGesture losingssLine organisation losingssDistribution losingssMeasurement and accommodation losingssLosingss that Affect Efficient usage of Production Subsidiary ResourcesEnergy losingssDie, gigue and tool losingssOutput losingss( Kister & A ; Hawkins, 2006 )This instance survey will turn to the six large losingss of TPM that can ensue from defective equipment or operation.Table 1 presents the list of losingss of TPM and has been discussed in the instance survey.
S. No.Six Major LosingssDetail of Losingss1Breakdown losingssIt includes such losingss caused by failures and types of failures may be sporadic function-stopping failures, and function-reduction failures in which the map of the equipment drops below normal2Set up and equipment accommodation losingssIt includes arrest losingss that faces set-up conversions3Minor arrests and break losingssIt includes the losingss that take topographic point when the equipment temporarily stops as a consequence of detector propulsion or jamming of the work. The equipment will run utilizing simple steps like remotion of the work and resetting.
4Speed losingss and decelerate running losingssIt includes the losingss caused by existent runing velocity dropping below the designed velocity of the equipment.5Defective quality and re-workIt includes the losingss caused by defects and make overing6Output losingss / Start-up/ restart losingssIt includes the stuff losingss caused by differences in the weight of the input stuffs and the weight of the quality merchandises( Wilson, 2002 )These losingss are of import to cover with by organisation due to the cost that organisation faces in a consequence of these losingss.
Organizational Cost for Losingss
The organisational costs of these losingss are as follows:Unexpected BreakdownIf organisation is non ready to cover with an unexpected dislocation it will hold to bear equipment downtime for fixs. The cost may be downtime labour and trim parts.
Set up and Adjustment LossesIf organisation has non arranged care for equipment it may confront the losingss in set up issue and accommodations like loss of production chances and ( outputs ) that take topographic point during merchandise conversions, displacement alteration or other alterations in operating conditions ( Hutchins, 1999 ) .Minor Stoppages and Interruption LossesLack of care may do minor arrests and loss of break. Organization without TPM can bear the loss of frequent downtime production. These losingss are normally non shown in the studies ever remain concealed flop these losingss may do considerable equipment downtime and lost production chance ( Willmott & A ; McCarthy, 2001 ) .Speed Losingss and Slow Running LossesLack of equipment care widely affects the velocity of production and finally slows down the procedure of production.
If production procedure gets slow down due to deficiency of appropriate care equipment it may do the prevent quality defects and minor arrests. Since the equipment keeps operating, these sorts of losingss are non recorded and they remain concealed ( Ben-Daya & A ; Raouf, 2000 ) .Defective Quality and Re-workIf faulty quality such as low criterion production is caused by the malfunction of equipment or hapless public presentation of machine it may be the company to make over on the production procedure. The rework on the production procedure will increase the entire cost of entire production. Thus the production procedure which can be carried out in individual cost will be double as a consequence of deficiency of care ( Davis, 1995 ) .Output Losses / Start-up/ Restart LossesThe losingss like bit, rework, in-process harm, in-process termination, and wrong assembly may do the production procedure to re-start or give losingss.
These losingss can disrupt the production procedure as a consequence of improper set up and can increase the production cost for the organisation.The execution of TPM can develop the system that eliminates the overlapping from different degrees. The importance of TPM is due to riddance of likely losingss and wastes that cost big sum of investing.
By constructing TPM these cost can be saved and productiveness of organisation can be increased. The execution procedure of TPM is comprised of four chief phases including preparatory phase, introductory phase, and execution phase and stabilising phase. The above literature about the TPM discussed the importance of TPM within fabricating industry and besides identified the six large losingss of TPM. The designation of large losingss included the major countries of losingss, losingss inside informations and the cost of losingss that an organisation has to bear. The following subdivision of the paper presents the importance of TPM in vehicle industry, and so there would be treatment and analysis about Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) in 3rd chapter of the paper.
The Importance of TPM in Vehicle Industry
The considerable benefits of TPM have foremost influenced the Japan base vehicle fabricating company Toyota.
The importance of the TPM in a vehicle industry can be assessed by the fact that TPM has helped the Toyota to take its production system to the higher degree. With regard to execution of TPM in vehicle industry, working with the stock list and forestalling the production procedure can be caused by care instability job and make a sense of urgency in the labours. In vehicle fabrication industry, that is done in mass production works, if there is TPM enforced system there will be no urgency by the labours because there will be extra stock list that will take attention of operation during the care of machine jobs. In the instance of thin production, the production arrest by operator for care may do crisis and a sense of urgency.
In vehicle industry this can be prevented by implementing TPM that provides the stableness for thin production. In automotive industry the supply of merchandise is non possible unless causes of hapless equipment public presentation are evaluated and consistently removed. The turning demand in vehicle merchandise has increased the production of vehicle that is provided in clip to clients with quality, and lower operating rate and improved net income rates.
However, the TPM system Toyota adopted was facilitated by upgraded care unlike the old pattern of riddance of waste to cut down fabrication cost ; the new TPM was developed to place and take equipment losingss ( Bird, 2002 ) . The function of machine in thin fabrication pattern in vehicle industry is of import and care is critical portion that assures the handiness of machine. The pattern of TPM in vehicle fabrication industry helps to accomplish maximal efficient use of machines utilizing entire employee engagement ( Suzuki, 1994 ) . As Toyota with the execution of TPM has achieved to set up an organisational civilization, this organisational civilization induces the employee engagement in the fabrication procedure ( Salvendy, 2001 ) .
In vehicle fabrication industry, the demand of group activities is regarded as necessary among shop-floor squad members ; the organisational civilization developed in the consequence of TPM execution encourages the employee to better equipment dependability and productiveness to take downing care and operating costs ( Lu & A ; KyA?kai, 1989 ) . Two important facets if TPM in vehicle fabrication industry are developing and unfastened communicating between operators and technology. To do the TPM procedure successful and effectual, the most of import action required is to develop the production forces to execute everyday care. Harmonizing to this procedure operator is trained to be responsible for runing machines maps, technicians are trained to be responsible for specialised care and for bettering maintainability and applied scientist is responsible for bettering the procedure of care.
The modern vehicle fabrication procedure consists of “ TPS House ” diagram. This TPS house is a production system of Toyota and developed to show their supply establish the rules. The footing of the house represents operational stableness in the organisation and Total Productive Maintenance is defined as one of the constituents of the operational stableness.
The Analysis and Calculation
Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE )
Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) nowadayss such hierarchy of prosodies which is used in the measuring of effectual fabrication operation. Harmonizing to this theoretical account, consequences are used to compare the fabricating units in the production procedure ( Hansen, 2001 ) . This method is non yet proved to be best method for mensurating fabricating units but it is the most used method in organisation.
The method is used to place the range for procedure public presentation betterment and besides place the ways this betterment can be achieved. Therefore if the rhythm of the production procedure is reduced the OEE besides reduces, though more production is happening utilizing less resources ( Hansen, 2005 ) . The alteration in set up such as functioning high volume, low assortment market or functioning a low volume, high assortment market can besides take down the OEE in comparing, but in instance of the merchandising of merchandise at premium rate can increase the border with a lower OEE. OEE within organisation presents the overall effectual use of stuff, resources and clip in the production procedure. OEE provides such prosodies which straight point out the spread between existent and ideal public presentation ( Peters, 2006 ) .OEE is the basic step associated with Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) . OEE is used to bespeak the existent but concealed capacity in the organisation ( Stamatis, 2010 ) . The measuring is widely used by care section in organisation.
OEE is mostly affected by the design and installing of equipment and the manner they are operated and maintained. OEE is used to mensurate the TPM efficiency and effectivity with equipments ( Schmidt, 2004 ) .
The Indicators of OEE
OEE measurement theoretical account of effectivity and efficiency trades with three basic indexs of equipment public presentation and dependability. OEE maps with three indexs are as follows:HandinessPerformanceQualityTherefore OEE = A ten PE x QOrOEE = Availability x Performance Efficiency x Rate of Quality merchandiseSince OEE has to cover with all losingss caused by the equipment, it includes non merely factor of handiness but besides incorporates public presentation rate and quality rate. The cardinal intent of utilizing the OEE is to extinguish all these six losingss ( Jones, 1995 ) .
Here it is indispensable to advert that OEE represents merely figure comparative comparing of equipment public presentations, the existent usage of OEE is conducted using the factors of OEE that helps to happen the root cause by analysing it and take it and besides find the cause of hapless public presentation. So by utilizing the factors of OEE organisation merely aims to roll up and tendency. Surveies have demonstrated that the usage of OEE improves the effectual capacity of production while lead to reduced production procedure clip and cost per unit on the same capacity. Below is given a description of the factors of OEE.HandinessThe handiness is besides referred as uptime. The availability portion of the OEE metric gives the per centum of scheduled clip that the operation is available to run such as downtime, planned or unplanned, tool alteration, and occupation alteration etc. The Availability Metric presents an original measuring of Uptime and it is developed to cut down the effects of quality, public presentation, and scheduled downtime events. Availability prosodies to six large losingss histories for a machine ‘s losingss caused by downtime, in a ratio of existent operating clip to scheduled operating clip.
Of the Six Big Losses, handiness histories merely for those as a consequence of downtime, and non those caused by slowed production defects.The computation used for downtime in the vehicle fabrication industry is:Availability = Available Time / Scheduled TimeHandiness prosodies here means handiness of the machine. Thus the handiness is the proportion of the clip that shows that machine is really available out of the clip it must be available.Availability = ( Planned production clip – unscheduled downtime ) Planned production clipProduction clip = Planned production clip – DowntimeThis can be explained as if a auto fabrication works is scheduled to work for 8 hours therefore entire proceedingss count are 480 infinitesimal per displacement. So the normal displacement will be scheduled as 30 proceedingss break when works is expected to be down. The fabrication works is sing 60 proceedingss of unscheduled downtimeScheduled Time = 480 proceedingss – 30 proceedingss break = 450 MinAvailable Time = 450 proceedingss Scheduled – 60 proceedingss Unscheduled D MinAvailability = 390 Avail Minutes / 450 Scheduled Minutes = 90 %So, if existent available hours for production have 365 yearss, so it has 24 hours per twenty-four hours and 7 yearss a hebdomad.
The planned downtime besides has vacations. The handiness losingss have equipment failures and conversions demoing the scenario when the line is non running while it is anticipated to run.Performance EfficiencyThe public presentation efficiency represents the existent vs. design capacity.
This part of the OEE metric purposes to give the velocity at which the work runs as a per centum of its designed velocity. Thus the public presentation part of the OEE metric shows the velocity at which the fabrication works runs as a per centum of its designed velocity. The Performance Metric gives an original measuring of velocity that is developed to extinguish the effects of Quality and Availability.Therefore the public presentation efficiency is given by the computation of rate efficiency and velocity efficiency. This rate efficiency includes the existent mean rhythm clip and jams, child recorded arrests, little jobs and accommodation losingss and all these decreases the productiveness of organisation.
The velocity efficiency is the existent rhythm clip that decreases the end product of the machine. The rate of quality of merchandises is the per centum of machine parts out of the merchandise.The expression for Performance Efficiency can be expressed in this mannerThe expression gives the net production clip ; the net production clip is when merchandise is produced. The velocity losingss, minor arrests, demonstrate the line is running and it is returning the measure that it should.It can be understood as if a vehicle fabrication works is scheduled 8 hours displacement with 480 proceedingss while interruption is scheduled for 30 proceedingss.If the standard rate of the portion being produced = 40 hours so works is bring forthing 242 Entire Unit of measurements during the displacement. Here it is of import to advert that the footing on which it is calculated is Entire Unit of measurements instead than Good Unit of measurements. The ground is that public presentation efficiency metric does non cover with Quality.
Rate of QualityRate of quality refers to defects and rework. This portion of the OEE metric gives the Good Unit of measurements generated as a per centum of the Total Units Started. It is besides referred as First Pass Yield FPY.The Rate of Quality Metric is an original measuring of Process Yield that is developed to extinguish the effects of Availability and Performance.Rate of quality represents the per centum of good parts out of entire parts produced in the works. Since there are choice losingss caused by in-progress production, hence to explicate the computation here is the expression:It can be understood if a vehicle fabrication works is bring forthing 230 Good Unit of measurements during a displacement so 242 Unit of measurements were started to bring forth the 230 Good Unit of measurements.ThereforeOverall OEE is calculated as running per centum of clip, runing per centum of design capacity such as flow, rhythms, and units per hr and bring forthing quality end product per centum of the clip.
Formula for entire OEE will be:The successful TPM is achieved if the rates of OEE elements are as follows:Availability Rate____greater than 90 %Performance Rate____greater than 95 %Rate of Quality_____greater than 99 %On norm a successful TPM have OEE rate greater than 85 %OEE is the tool used to measure the handiness, public presentation and Output Quality of a machine by mensurating them. Machines in works like a Coordinate Measuring Machines or welding machine will be available for operation if they are productive instead than damaged or in broken status. The component of OEE handiness provides a planned chance for care of machines when machines are non available for bring forthing. It is a fact that non all machines can be available 100 % with conversions. Since conversion gives major losingss to efficiency and effectiveness, the analysis of OEE mostly focuses on the no conversion allowances. The public presentation efficiency measures the production end product during available clip, hence there could be analysis approximately at what standard end product should be determined. The public presentation computation can be made on the base of best public presentation ; this could either be greater or less than design velocity.
If welding machine has ne’er reached its best design public presentation of all time so it is non good to mensurate it on the opposed of that. If welding machine has ever performed the design velocity so its public presentation ability can be measured to conceal the hapless public presentation.Here it is worthwhile to advert that it is one of the aims of OEE to happen the capacity to run into client demand. The measuring of end product quality means per centum of the entire end product with no rework. So, the issue with OEE is that it does non happen immediate quality consequence. Surveies recommend that quality should non be included in OEE computation because in the fast moving universe where consumer are demanding they can come back with ailment after three months, hence focal point should be on step for quality. It is supported with the ground that if a constituent of OEE can non be measured so it should non be used. There are many vehicle companies including Toyota utilizing OEE as true works efficiency metric that measures and improves hard currency flow and improves the production capacity and eliminates equipment purchases capital.
The execution of OEE is helpful concentrating on the addition public presentation of machinery after measuring the public presentation with the singular effects on the bottom line. The of import factor is that this betterment is measureable and dependable.
The Application Analysis of OEE to Analyze the Losingss
The old subdivision of the paper analyzed the application of OEE by and large in footings of its constituents. This subdivision presents the analysis of OEE application on six large losingss. In the old subdivisions, large six losingss were found in the car fabrication company.
Since this subdivision is the analysis of large six losingss hence these large six losingss are concerned with car fabrication industry.Large six losingss identified in the paper are related to dislocations and conversion which farther divides into tool alterations, stuff alterations and decreased output at start up. If these losingss are analyzed they are in existent same losingss. Breakdowns of machines are of two basic types ; the one caused by bead or autumn of appropriate care and another is the 1 caused by complicated characteristics of machines.
Most of the machines used in the fabrication of cars are complicated in their characteristics therefore it responds to three different jobs related to handiness. The issues related handiness chiefly deals with betterment in conversions, basic care and machine features. Harmonizing to given analysis of losingss, handiness can be responded by moving on one or two of them.
Equally far as public presentation losingss are concerned, they are classified into velocity loss and little arrests. This public presentation loss includes the slow public presentation of machine, or non-running status of machine. If little and minor arrests are evaluated for the loss, they are really less than ten proceedingss and cut down to goes till three proceedingss. Using this attack it can be said that mensurating the lost clip caused by little arrests should be included in dislocation of machines instead than in minor arrests individually. It is fact that figure of arrests can be calculated but quantity cost of these arrests can non be measured.
However, minor arrests or decelerate velocity besides accounts for practical usage ; it is caused by a slow running of machine which can be sped up. On the other manus, in instance of jamming in the machine physical mechanism will be investigated and therefore the cause of jams will be removed. The determination of the root cause of the job is ever helpful to decide the chief issue. There is degree of differences observed in the public presentation losingss caused by diminution or infectivity and those caused by machine existent characteristics.
With the breakdown analysis, it is found that there are two types of betterment attacks ; one is better care and equipment re-design.
Improvement Analysis of TPM utilizing OEE
The degree of betterment is the ground to analyse the losingss vs. prosodies of OEE. If there is measureable betterment of utilizing tool for doing an operation successful so that procedure of tool can be considered as utile for the organisation.
The lone intent of mensurating and analysing it is to happen the degree of betterment it provides. In order to mensurate the OEE for the losingss it is necessary to utilize whole betterment rhythm because without whole betterment rhythm there is no intent of mensurating OEE. At a gross degree of all OEE the apprehension of the comparing of the needed consequence and the agenda helps to carry on original measuring.Making an mean OEE ‘s over whole workss and clip periods will simply cover up the issues and the usage of OEE as specific measuring tool is of import for specific betterment in undertakings. There are some abuse of OEE that uses the comparing between different procedures, workss and machines.
OEE will non be utile tool or a cardinal public presentation index unless it gives betterment steps. Even the operational steps aims to supply the betterment steps.
This instance survey examined TPM as effectual tool in the care of organisational productiveness and identified the large six losingss in the respect. The of import determination of the survey is the analysis of OEE vs. losingss utilizing three chief constituents of OEE.
To carry on the paper for analysing the TPM six losingss, it was of import to develop the apprehension with three factors of OEE. Three factors or prosodies of OEE were used as handiness, public presentation efficiency and rate of quality. Examination of three prosodies gave overview about the cardinal efficiency of the OEE and important productive losingss in the car fabrication works.
Since Overall equipment effectivity informations after computation is used to happen a individual plus such as machine or equipment and individual flow of procedure related losingss for the ground to increase entire machine public presentation and productiveness. Overall equipment effectivity informations ( information ) is besides used to happen and classicise major losingss of hapless or worse public presentation of machine or equipment. Through this instance analyze it is found that OEE is the best agencies of supplying the footing for set uping betterment and determination of root cause analysis. It besides gave computation base effects of OEE on losingss. The determination of the manner OEE can impact the TPM losingss are found by tracking OEE per centum and tendency the betterment in equipment effectivity over a period of clip. OEE per centums can be helpful to bespeak concealed capacity of machine or equipment in a fabrication procedure and lead to balanced flow.