Contemporary Issues In Financial Reporting Essay

Dear Sir David TweedieI am composing on behalf of the Msc Accounting class pupil in Leeds Metropolitan University. With this missive we are traveling to give our recommendations about the IAS 39 ( Financial Instrument Recognition and Measurement ) . The many ways of mensurating fiscal instrument and the associated regulations are the chief concern of this missive, because that assorted measuring of fiscal instrument is going more complexity these twenty-four hours.( International Accounting Standard Board,2008, [ p.10 ] )The potency for opacity has hence increased, so it is indispensable that accounting criterions are clear and capture the economic substance( Bank Of England,2004, [ P4 ] ) .Removing incompatibilities in the accounting for fiscal instruments between IFRS and US GAAP is another nonsubjective about this missive, Because by taking incompatibilities in accounting and fiscal instruments would enable comparing to be made more easy between entities using IFRS or those utilizing US GAAP. Here are the illustrations of assortment measuring methods required or allowed today for fiscal instruments, some of the measurings described below are IFRS demand merely, some are US GAAP demand merely, in add-on some of the measuring described below are applicable for investing that are outside of the range of IAS 38 or US criterions for fiscal instruments.

1. Equity method2. Consolidation – acknowledgment of single assets and liabilities of the issuer of the equity instruments3.

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Proportionate consolidation4. Fair value with additions and losingss in gaining5. Fair value with additions and losingss in other comprehensive income until realized6. Fair value with additions and losingss in other comprehensive income until realized except required damage losingss that are reported in net incomes instantly7. Fair value with portion of the additions and losingss in gaining and portion of the additions or losingss in other comprehensive income ( hard currency flow hedge accounting )8. cost less needed damage losingss that are reported in net incomesThose are the some of the measuring methods.( International Accounting Standard Board,2008, [ p.15 ] )My recommendations for the complexness job are:1.

To utilize individual measuring method for all types of fiscal instrument within the range of criterion for fiscal instruments as long term solution.2. Supply ideal criterion that present relevant information and more easy apprehensible information for users of fiscal statements, because if it does n’t it will cut down the relevant information available or do it more hard to understand.3. Ideally the criterion should be changed to be more simple for prepares, hearers and users.

Fair value seems to be the lone step that is appropriate for all types of fiscal instrument because:1. Having a individual measuring method for all types of fiscal assets would significantly simplify the bing criterions by avoiding ‘boundary ‘ issues ( eg how fixed is fixed and what variableness is needed to necessitate just value ) . A individual statement would besides extinguish any confusion about the measuring method for each different type of fiscal assets.

2. In add-on, just value is a better step for usage in measuring the consequence on hard currency flow chance of recognition hazard for fiscal assets because:1. It provides information about awaited hereafter losingss, non merely losingss that have been incurred2.

It provides information about betterments in recognition hazard since acquisition3. Compare with cost based steps, The just value of fiscal plus better reflects the monetary value of the plus that would be received at the measuring day of the month. Such information is by and large utile. There are frequently events and fortunes beyond direction ‘s control that create a demand to sell. Therefore even if direction has no programs to sell an plus, it is utile for users of fiscal statements to cognize the possible effects of such events and minutess ( although they are non considered extremely likely by direction ) .( International Accounting Standard Board,2008, [ p.44 ] )4. The best grounds to utilize just value for fiscal liabilities are:A individual measuring method for all fiscal liabilities would besides cut down complexness and enhancecomprehensibility1.

Enhance comparisonbecause entities with comparable recognition evaluations and duties will describe liabilities at comparable sums even if the adoption occurred at different times in different involvement rate environments. The contrary is besides true-entities with different recognition evaluations and duties will describe different liabilities.2. Fair value would ensue in an entity describing the same step for two every bit unafraid payment duties with indistinguishable hard currency flow demand ( sum and timing ) . Presently different sums are likely to be reported if two duties were incurred at different times ( because market involvement rates or the entity ‘s recognition spread alteration between the two )3.

Fair value better reflects the hard currency flows that would be paid if liabilities were transferred at the rhenium measuring day of the month.( International Accounting Standard Board,2008, [ p.50 ] )4. Full just value accounting for all fiscal instrument provide information that is more dependable to the users of fiscal statements because for liquid instruments traded on an active market, just value can be faithfully determined.

It is equal to the citation monetary value. For instruments non quoted on an active market, but managed on a just value footing, sophisticated rating and patterning techniques have been employed to gauge just value.( International Banking Federation,2008, [ p.14 ] )5. MoreTransparencybecause investor and others users have greater insight into directions view as to ultimate colony sums. ( Price Waterhouse Coopers,2008.

[ p1 ] )How of all time the fiscal markets around the universe began sing important illiquidity and volatility and its making conditions that made just value method more controversial, the value of today advanced and complex fiscal instruments is capable to market illiquidity and volatility. Many people agree that just value is non perfect method (Monetary value Waterhouse Coopers,2008. [ p1 ] )Net incomes volatilitysometimes happened when markets become illiquid and market monetary values are non available( Price Waterhouse Coopers,2008. [ p3 ]) , When the methods described above for finding just value are applied, the consequence on net incomes may be every bit unpredictable as the market. It may fluctuate as a consequence of market worlds revealed in just value appraisals.In response to recent economic status, it has been suggested that just value accounting besuspendedor changed for certain fiscal instruments, or that concerns should use their ain method, which may demo a less volatile long-run scenario( Price Waterhouse Coopers,2008. [ p3 ]. The current market, it is contended, is an anomalousness.

However, these concerns must be balanced against investors ‘ desires to cognize thecurrent valuesof these assets. If just value were suspended or replaced with some method based on historical cost, investors would be left to their ain devices to find the current value of these instruments-which would be less dependable and could detain any market recovery.( Price Waterhouse Coopers,2008. [ p3 ] )Although it has generated contentions, Fair value continues to stand for the best available methodological analysis for finding and describing the value of fiscal instruments.Markets of course respond to fiscal information that just value provides.

The impactsof such measurings whether positive or negative, it because the consequence of market forces, non accounting methodological analysiss. When market conditions result in volatility in values and net incomes, investors benefit when companies transparently report on these fortunes and their impact on fiscal coverage.( Price Waterhouse Coopers,2008. [ p3 ]I hope my account and statement above being your consideration to revise or do betterment in IAS 39.Yours unfeignedlySusetiyo Putranto


In reacting of Susetyo Putranto missive, we as user or company do non hold with him because we are covering with uncertainness of future hard currency flows, uncertainness of planetary economic state of affairs and several hazards. Which as direction we have to extenuate or cut down those sort of hazards such as foreign currency exchange rate hazard, Liquidity hazard, Credit hazard, Interest rate hazard, trade good hazard and other monetary value hazard.

But in some country of his statement we agree about the complexness of measuring in relation with fiscal instrument method. We need flexible method or measuring to mensurate or classified fiscal instrument which represent our intent as direction which responsible to fiscal describing users or our stakeholder. Based on our experience and cognition we suggest there are two measurings, the first is amortized cost and the 2nd is just value method, because with two measurings we can take which method is the best harmonizing to current economic state of affairs and direction demands. The most of import thing is how we classified which instrument utilizing amortized cost and which instrument utilizing just value method. We recommend procedure of finding measuring as below:

Procedure for finding Measurement

NOAmortized CostFair value( International Accounting Standard Board,2009, [ p.

3 ] )We believe that amortized cost provides determination utile information about the sums, timing and uncertainness of future hard currency flows:

  • Make the fiscal have basic loan characteristics?
  • Basic loan characteristics are contractual footings that give rise to hard currency flows that are payments of chief and involvement on the chief outstanding.

  • Is the instrument managed on a contractual output footing?Instruments are managed on contractual output footing if the concern theoretical account is to pay and have the contractual hard currency flows that are generated when held or issued.

The impact if utilizing merely just value or individual measuring to fiscal study

We use Rolls Royce Plc fiscal study from 2007 to 2008 as an illustration. Where available market values have been used to find just values, one crucial job for the comptroller is if where market values are non readily available. The comptroller has to make up one’s mind another method to mensurate the value of that instrument. In Rolls Royce Plc fiscal study, one of the fiscal instrument histories called Financial RRSPs ( Principally in regard of derived functions, adoptions and fiscal RRSPs ) .

The just values have been estimated by dismissing expected future hard currency flows utilizing prevalent involvement rate curves. Because in that clip the market value for Financial RRSPs did non available.2008 2007Book value Fair value Book value Fair value Borrowings – Current ( 23.00 ) ( 23.00 ) ( 34.00 ) ( 34.00 ) – Non current ( 1,325.00 ) ( 1,291.

00 ) ( 1,030.00 ) ( 1,058.00 ) Financials RRSPs ( 455.00 ) ( 487.00 ) ( 315.00 ) ( 340.

00 ) ( Beginning: Rolls Royce Plc one-year study 2008 )

As we can see from the illustration above, we can see the difference if we use book value or just value method. The fiscal RRSPs will increase 7.03 % if utilizing book value in 2008 and increase7.

9 % in 2007 ( In their balance sheet Rolls Royce Plc usage Book value method to enter Financial RRSPs history ) . Those alterations will automatically alter the entire current liabilities and besides the current ratio.Current Liabilitiess 2008 2007Book value 8,573.00 4,754.00 Fair value 8,605.00 4,779.00CURRENT RATIO 2008 2007Book Value 1.10 1.

53 Fair Value 1.09 1.52 ( Beginning: Rolls Royce Plc one-year study 2008 )

In this instance the changed in Numberss is non important, but the chief job is.

If the IASB approved Susetyo Putranto missive and agree to alter the criterion into one measuring which just value is the lone one method for mensurating fiscal instrument, and one twenty-four hours the state of affairs like Rolls Royce Plc happened. What the comptroller should make.The other important impact if we merely utilizing one measuring are, when the planetary economic status in downward or in crisis. The just value measuring will give important impact for the income statement particularly the net net income caused by unfulfilled loss history.

History 2008 2007Gross 9,082 7,435 Cost of gross revenues -7,311 -6,003 Gross Net income 1,771 1,432 Other runing income 79 50 Commercial and administrative costs-666 -653 Research and development cost -403 -381 Share of net income of joint ventures 74 66 operating net income 855 514 Profit/loss on sale or expiration of concern 7 -2 Net income before funding 862 512 Financing income 432 718 Financing costs -3,186 -497 Net Financing -2,754 221 Loss.profit before revenue enhancement -1,892 733 Taxation 547 -133 Loss/profit for the twelvemonth -1,345 600 ( Beginning: Rolls Royce Plc one-year study 2008 )

History 2007 2008Financing income ( 718.00 ) ( 432.00 ) Financing cost ( 497.00 ) ( 3,186.00 ) Internet Financing ( 221.00 ) ( 2,754.

00 ) ( Beginning: Rolls Royce Plc one-year study 2008 )

The tabular array shows that the funding cost ( from derivative dealing ) is significantly increased about 1146 % comparison to 2007. During 2008 the groups uses assorted fiscal instruments to pull off its exposure to motions in foreign exchange rate, Interest rate fiscal instrument and trade good fiscal instrument, because during 2008 the planetary economic status was in downward place. If we see carefully the Rolls Royce Plc income statement, The gross net income is does non changed significantly but the bottom line is drop significantly, as we know Rolls Royce chief concern is non fiscal establishment but their fiscal instrument caused the important loss and it will act upon their investor or determination shaper.( Beginning: Rolls Royce Plc one-year study 2008 )As we see from the illustration above 75 % from entire 100 % cost were dominated by Financing cost where the cost semen from unfulfilled loss in relation with company fiscal instrument history. If the company such as Rolls Royce which have assorted fiscal instrument in their fiscal coverage, and crisis happen it will hit their fiscal public presentation. In summarized from the account and our research above we do non hold with the proposal and we suggest to the IASB is made some betterment harmonizing with the categorization and measuring of fiscal instrument which:1 Easy to understand2 Adaptable with current economic status3 Use 2 method, Fair value and amortized cost4 Method that would Increase transparence of fiscal statement


What I have learned after making this assignment is my cognition about how to mensurate fiscal instruments both proficient accomplishment and theory accomplishment is enhance significantly.

This survey helps me to look in different position or position in brand statement and sentiment. Based on this survey I have to look from regulator statement and entities or user statement before make up one’s minding which is the best or suited for all. Since studied this assignment I found positive relation between International Accounting Standard Board as regulator and Entities, they have one aim that is maximising stakeholder wealth. Risk become an of import thing after I have done this survey, hazard is something that we have to see before make up one’s minding something. Covering with accounting cognition, this survey learn me, if I have job covering with accounting jobs that will go on on me in the hereafter, I have to look back or refer the job to the qualitative feature of fiscal statement rule: comprehensibility, relevancy, materiality, dependability, faithful representation, substance over signifier, neutrality, prudence, completeness and comparison. Those qualitative feature of fiscal statement must be considered before do some determination. The restriction to complete this assignment is I used secondary informations such as treatment paper, company study and internet web site, it would be much better if I had primary informations for this survey.


International Banking Federation,2008, ” Accounting for fiscal instrument ” , International banking federation, LondonInternational Accounting Standard Board,2008, ” Discussion paper cut downing complexness in fiscal instruments ” , International Accounting Standard Board, LondonInternational Accounting Standard Board,2009, ” Exposure bill of exchange fiscal instrument: measuring and categorization ” , International Accounting Standard Board, LondonRolls Royce Plc,2008 ” Annual study ” , Rolls Royce Plc, London