Contrastive Linguistics, Translation Studies and The Corpus-based Approach

To know about the connection between contrastive
linguistics, translation studies and corpus-based approach, the first thing to
know is the definition about them. Contrastive linguistics is one of a branch
of linguistics that distinguish on similarities and differences in the language
structure of two or more kind of languages and bring out for theoritical or
practical purposes.(Bugarski.1997:77). The focuses at the different levels,
such as phonetics, syntax, and text linguistics. While translation studies,
according to Holmes in his well known paper The
Name and Nature of Translation Studies said that translation studies has
two main subjects: first is to describe the phenomena of translating and
translation and second to established general principles by means of which
these phenomena can be explained and predicted. Theoretical concepts in the field of
pragmatics have been introduced into Translation Studies in the form of speech
act theory, cooperative principles, and relevance theory. So in here,
contrastive linguistics is a part of system to make a text. While translation
studies is a text, a whole text. Means that a text is consist of many elements
and system to make it. A text consists of syntax, semantics, pragmatics and also discourse analysis. Translation is not about the system, it’s about the text
while contrastive linguistics is about system. 
Take one
of the translation machines such as Google Translate or Bing Translator, they
are the examples of system. Those machines can’t analyze what actually the core
of the text is. They just translate from source language to target language
only.

Corpus-based approaches have proved to be
useful in all of these types of translation studies (applied, descriptive, and theoritical).
Corpora can contribute to applied translation studies in the three major ways, the first of which relates to
corpus-assisted translating, secondly, corpora can be used to aid translation teaching and training, thirdly, corpora, especially aligned parallel
corpora, are essential for the development of translation technology. As Bowker (1998: 631) notes, “higher quality
with respect to subject field understanding, correct term choice and idiomatic
expressions can be found with corpus-assisted translations.” Secondly, corpora can be used to support translation teaching and training, because it can help students to
develop their “awareness”, “reflectiveness” and
“resourcefulness”, which are distinguish from those unskilled amateurs translator (Bernardini 1997). Thirdly, corpora,
especially aligned parallel corpora, are essential for the development of
translation technology such as machine translation systems, and computer-supported translation tools, translation memories and
terminology banks

Corpora of different kinds can be used for
different purposes in translation studies. For example, to exploring how an idea in one language is
conveyed in another language, thus providing indirect evidence to the study of
translation processes, pararell corpora will be used. Corpora of this kind are indispensable for
building statistical or example-based machine translation systems, and for the
development of bilingual lexicons and translation memories. Also, parallel corpora is a useful tool for translators. Multilingual comparable corpora are
useful in improving the translator’s subject field understanding and improving
the quality of translation in terms of fluency, correct term choice and
idiomatic expressions in the chosen field. They can also be used to build
terminology banks. Translational corpora provide primary evidence
for product-oriented Translation Studies, and for research of translation
universals. If corpora of this kind are encoded with sociolinguistic and
cultural parameters, they can also be used to study the socio-cultural environment of translations. They can also be used in
combination with a parallel corpus to form  so-called translation evaluation corpus that
help translator trainers or critics to evaluate translations more effectively
and objectively.

Corpora have greatly benefited translation and contrastive studies. Corpus-based translation and contrastive
linguistic studies have also significantly enlarge the scope of corpus linguistic research. Meanwhile contrastive linguistics and translation
studies have traditionally been accepted as two separate disciplines within
applied linguistics, there are many contact points between both of them and with the common corpus-based approach and
the usually shared type of data (e.g. comparable and parallel corpora). Corpus-based translation and contrastive
linguistic studies have become even more closely interconnected (cf. Ramon
Garcia 2002).

 

References
:

Bernardini, Silvia. 1997. A „trainee?
translator?s perspective on corpora. Paper presented at the conference of
Corpus Use and Learning to Translate. Bertinoro, November 1997

Bowker, Lynn. 1998. Using specialized
native-language corpora as a translation resource: A pilot study

Ramon, Noelia.2002. ResearchGate: “Contrastive Linguistics
and Translation Studies Intterconnected: The Corpus-based Approach.” accessed on January
8, 2018