In the universe we are populating, there are a batch of metres to mensurate all kind of affairs. One specific sector which uses a batch of metres is the public-service corporation sector, like gas, H2O or electricity companies. The reading procedure of metres for these companies is really of import.
As these public-service corporations company need to measure their clients and they need to measure for the right sum. That is why accurate reading of metre is really important.There are many techniques that are used for metre reading, and one of them is utilizing Bluetooth. Many devices like nomadic phones and laptops are equipped with Bluetooth as it consumes comparatively low sum of electricity.There is a demand to hold a technique that read metres right and utilizing the less sum of electricity possible. The charge procedure is a long and complicated one therefore ; the undertaking will be limited to merely reading the value from the metre.
Aim and aims
The purpose of this undertaking is to hold a system which read a value from a metre via Bluetooth and shop that value in a database.
The system should supply a nomadic application that will be used to read metres. Merely authorised individual should be able to utilize the nomadic application.The metre reading value is non every bit of import as the information stored in the database. Therefore the database should be protected against unauthorized entree.
A web based application will be used to pull off informations shop in the database.
Scope of undertaking
The undertaking will dwell of three chief constituents ; metre, nomadic application, and the web application.Meter ; it will be accessed via Bluetooth and the metre reading value will be read.Mobile application ; this application will be used to read a value for the metre and send that value to a database where it will be store.Web application ; the application will be used to pull off all informations that are stored on the database.
A good undertaking planning is needed for the successful achievement of the undertaking.
A Gantt chart of the undertaking is show below.& lt ; Gantt Chart & gt ;Background surveyBackground survey
In this chapter we will research more about how meter reading is done, the different type of techniques that exist to read metres, and automatic metre reading ; specially the usage of Bluetooth engineering for automatic metre reading. A universe broad position will be explored before we look to the context of Mauritius.
A metre is a device that can observe and expose the exact measure of an component, substance or any quantifiable affair, may it be negatrons, H2O, gas, glucose and many others.There are many utilizations of metres and in many different sectors of our universe. For illustration, in wellness sector ; metres are used to mensurate the degree of glucose in the blood, to mensurate pulse rate, and many others. The public-service corporation sector, like gas, H2O or electricity companies, uses a really big Numberss of metres. These companies have to supervise the use of the resources used by their clients so that they can be charged for the sum they have used.
There are besides other metres like: gauss metres, geomagnetic metres, microwave metres, and many more.As we have seen, there are many sectors in which metres are being used ; we can non concentrate our attending in all of them. So, we will concentrate our attempt in the public-service corporation sector, more specifically the 1 for electricity companies. Why this pick? Because Energy sector is a driving force in our universe and that many developments and progresss are thanks to electricity.
So from here on we will concentrate our attending on that specific sphere.
Types of metres
There are many types of metres depending on the country of usage. The chief types of electric metres are:Electromechanical Induction Meter ( Standard Meter ) : It is a metre which counts the figure of bends an aluminum phonograph record does. The sum of electricity used is straight relative to the figure of revolutions of the aluminum phonograph record.
The electricity is measured in kilowatt-hours and the rate of charge remains changeless all over the twenty-four hours. These types of metres are normally used on individual stage jumping current supply.Electronic Meters: These metres have an electronic show and do usage of radio engineerings like Bluetooth, GSM and GPRS to reassign information about electrical ingestion. They have inbuilt automatic detectors which helps to observe electrical energy larceny or metre meddling.Postpaid metres: are like the standard metres ; the lone difference is that, alternatively acquiring a measure at the terminal of the month, it is a wage as you use service. I.e.
the consumer wages in progress for the electricity ingestion.Smart metre: These metres record the sum of electricity ingestion for a certain period of clip. The recorded information is so sent to the public-service corporation company for monitoring and charge intents. Smart metres can reassign informations from and to the metre, i.e. it is a two manner communicating.
Electric metres measure electricity largely in kilowatt hr ( kWh ) . One kilowatt hr is equal to the sum of energy used by a burden of one kW over a period of one hr, or 3,600,000 Js.
The metre reading procedure is done sporadically, so that consumers can be billed for that period of clip. There are different methods used by different companies for metering. There are two ways that can be identified. Namely: the traditional manner and new techniques.The traditional manner, which uses the ‘standard metre ‘ , can be described as: The metre reader goes to the consumer ‘s topographic point. There, the metre reader reads the current value on the metre and note it down on the measure for the old electricity ingestion period. The measure is so given to the consumer.
The metre reader will so come in the current value in the company ‘s system, so that the consumer can be billed for that current period.The new techniques, which uses, electronic and smart metre are as follows: The metre reader makes usage of new engineerings to read the metre value, and metres have an electronic show. There are many different new techniques used for metre reading, and they will be farther elaborated below.
Automatic metre reading ( AMR )
Automatic metre reading ( AMR ) , is the engineering where informations about ingestion and the position of the metre device is collected automatically. The information is sent to a cardinal database for it to be analysed and charging intent. Meters for H2O, gas, and electricity can utilize the AMR technique.With the utilizations of AMR, there can be one manner or bipartisan communicating.
In the one manner communicating, question is done merely to cognize the reading value from the metre. Whereas in the two manner communicating ; maps can besides be implemented to the metre.
Techniques for automatic metre reading
There are several techniques for automatic metre reading ; some of them are listed below.
In the touch engineering, a metre reader have a device, it may be a hand-held computing machine or specialised informations aggregation device. When the metre reader in close scope to the metre ; the latter imperativeness a button. A signal is sent house the device to the metre and the reading of the metre is saved on the device.
That saved informations is downloaded to a information aggregation computing machine for charging intent. This technique is besides referred as “ on-site ” AMR, as the metre reader needs to travel on site to read the metre reading.
Radio Frequency Network
As its name suggest, the web uses wireless moving ridge to pass on with the metres. There are automatic reading systems which uses the wireless based engineering such Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Bluetooth and many others. Some of them are listed below.Handheld: a metre reader collects meter reading from metres which support AMR system.
The metre reader carries a portable computing machine with a wireless frequence receiving system and transceiver which reads the metre readings value. [ 2 ]Mobile: it is besides referred to as “ drive-by ” is a technique where the metre reading device is installed in a vehicle. The metre reader needs merely to drive the vehicle along the way where the metres are found and the metre reading value is read automatically by the device installed in the vehicle. [ 2 ]Fixed web: it is a method where there is a web which is installed for good to read metre reading. The web consists of many repeaters, aggregators and a batch of other equipments so that values read are transferred to a cardinal database. This method does non necessitate the intercession of any human to read the metering value.Some clip a intercrossed AMR system is implemented so that when the fixed web goes down, the nomadic system come into action.
[ 2 ]
Measuring the traditional metre reading and AMR
The advantage and disadvantage of both traditional metre reading and AMR techniques are listed in the tabular array below.
Traditional Meter Reading
Creation of occupation, as more people are needed to execute metre readingSocial contact with consumersThere can be error when reading the value.Difficult to observe fraud on metres.Some people consider the metre reader as an interloper in their privateness.Security of the individual executing the reading the individual may be attacked by Canis familiarissTable 1aˆ‘1: Traditional Meter Reading
Automatic metre reading
Enable larceny sensing.
More accurate metre reading.Reduce runing cost.There is no demand to come in consumer ‘s belongings ( except for exceeding instances ) .If the system is down, charge will be affected.The usage of wireless moving ridges can be a beginning of concern to a minority of peopleTable 1aˆ‘2: AMR
Existing system utilizing Automatic Meter reading
There are many AMR systems implemented in many in different states and utilizing many of the different techniques listed above. Some of the bing AMR systems are listed:New Mexico Gas Company is utilizing the AMR service.
This has greatly helped to better the working of the company. [ 4 ]“ The Ontario authorities introduced statute law on Nov. 3, 2005 to get down the procedure of acquiring “ smart metres ” into every place and little concern in the state by 2010 ” . [ 5 ]“ Meridian Energy has started replacing traditional electricity metres with new smart electricity metres which will put a new benchmark for electricity retailing in New Zealand ” [ 6 ]
Existing system of Bluetooth enable metre reading
There are some companies which are utilizing Bluetooth enabled metre for the reading of their metres, and there are some supplies of Bluetooth enabled metres. The subject is further developed below.
“ Cambridge Consultants has delivered a paradigm design of a Bluetooth-based wireless faculty to the taking public-service corporation metering company, Actaris.
Based on a single-chip Bluetooth device, the faculty provides new chances to drive down the cost of distant metering, leting metres to be wireless-enabled at really low cost and opening the door to high-integrity consumer-activated strategies. Consumers with Bluetooth nomadic phones, laptops or PDAs would hold the option of taking meter readings themselves and pass oning them to the public-service corporation company over the cyberspace or GSM. ” [ 7 ]
Bluetooth enabled metres providers
There are many providers of Bluetooth enabled metres. Some of the providers are listed below.“ Landis+Gyr ( originally known as “ Electrotechnishes Institut Theiler and Co. ” ) have been planing and fabricating high quality, province of the art electricity metres.
Based in Zug, Switzerland, the company had entree to a extremely skilled work force and distribution system throughout Europe. ” Landis+Gry have design a Bluetooth reading system where they can read metres utilizing Bluetooth. [ 8 ]Figure 2aˆ‘1: Bluetooth reader [ 8 ]Metex Corporation limited is a company which is manufacture metre readers, and the company has metres with Bluetooth engineering. [ 9 ]
Current state of affairs in Mauritius
In Mauritius, we have the Central Electricity Board ( CEB ) , Central Water Authority ( CWA ) and Waste Water Authority ( WMA ) as the chief public-service corporations companies.
All these public-service corporations companies are utilizing the traditional manner for their charge intents. .I.e. a metre reader will travel place by place and read their several criterion metre.
The CEB is making research on how to implement automatic metre reading and they have some electronic metres for proving intents. CEB has besides purpose to implement postpaid metres.The AMR system on which CEB is experimenting consist of metre which has a modem. Then a communicating is set with the modem and concerned informations is read. That information is used for the charge intent. As mentioned, the system is still at a proving stage, so a batch are still need to be done.
To be able to implement AMR system all standard metres need to be changed to AMR supported metres, and metre readers need to be trained to be able to utilize the new system.
What isA Bluetooth?
BluetoothA is a wireless engineering for short scope communications which was developed to replace the overseas telegrams linking devices, may it be fixed or portable 1s. Such devices are ; nomadic phones, pressmans, cameras, desktop computing machine, and many others. The BluetoothA engineering is a low power, low cost and maintains high degrees of security.
“ Bluetooth engineering operates in the unaccredited industrial, scientific and medical ( ISM ) set at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, utilizing a spread spectrum, frequence hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. ” [ 10 ]The Bluetooth Special Interest Group ( SIG ) , an organisation of several companies work together to keep and develop the Bluetooth engineering.
[ 10 ]The name “ Bluetooth ” comes from Danish King Harold Bluetooth. He was instrumental in unifying warring cabals in parts of what is now Norway, Sweden and Denmark. [ 11 ]Bluetooth engineering can defy intervention from radio engineerings which uses the 2.
4 GHz spectrum. Adaptive frequence hopping ( AFH ) of Bluetooth engineering detects other devices in the spectrum and avoid the frequence they are utilizing. [ 11 ]Harmonizing to Martin Reynolds, an analyst with Gartner Group ‘s Dataquest, “ The thing about Bluetooth is that it truly will transport in the one million millions of units once it additions momentum. It ‘s truly a multibillion-dollar market. ” [ 12 ]
Figure 2aˆ‘2: Bluetooth logo [ 13 ]
Bluetooth wireless moving ridges use certain sum of energy and can goes up to a upper limit of certain diameter. The tabular array below show Bluetooth category and its bound up to where it can travel.
Power usage ( mW )
Range ( approximate ) in metres
11Table 1aˆ‘3: Bluetooth category scope
There are two type of web:Piconet: is made up of one maestro and one or more slaves but merely up to a upper limit of seven active slaves at a clip. The device originating the connexion automatically becomes the maestro and is the maestro of the piconet. Slaves may non pass on straight with each other ; they can merely pass on with the maestro and transportation informations when they are granted transmittal clip by the latter. Slaves synchronize their frequence skiping with the maestro utilizing the maestro ‘s clock and Bluetooth reference.
Figure 2aˆ‘3: Typical piconet [ 14 ]Scatternet: Multiple piconets with overlapping coverage countries form a scatternet. Each piconet may hold merely one maestro, but slaves may take part in different piconets on a time-division manifold footing. A device may be a maestro in one piconet and a slave in another or a slave in more than one piconet.Figure 2aˆ‘4: Typical scatternet [ 15 ]
Bluetooth protocol tonss
The Bluetooth protocol stack allows Bluetooth devices from different industries to work with one another. Some of Bluetooth protocol tonssA LMP ( Link Management Protocol ) ; configure and control links to other devices.A L2CAP ( Logical Link Control & A ; Adaptation Protocol ) ; links upper bed protocols over the Baseband and the passing on of quality of service information.
RFCOMM ( Cable replacing protocol ) : protocol provides emulation of consecutive ports over the L2CAP protocol.A Service Discovery Protocol ; supply a manner for detecting services provided by or available through a Bluetooth device. It besides allows applications to cognize about the features of the services which are available.A HCI ( Host/Controller Interface ) ; entree the hardware position and control registry. It besides provides a bid interface to the Link Manager and Baseband Link Controller.Bluetooth wireless is a transceiver which transmits and receives modulated Bluetooth wireless moving ridges for the devices.
Figure 2aˆ‘5: Bluetooth protocol tonss [ 15 ]
Bluetooth profiles help two devices which have the same profile to pass on with each other. Each Bluetooth device must back up at least one profile. There are a broad scope of Bluetooth profiles that explain many different types of applications.Generic Access Profile ( GAP ) : Provides the footing Bluetooth functionality for all profiles. Some of the functionalities are like puting up L2CAP links, managing security manners and ascertainable manners.Consecutive Port Profile ( SPP ) : Provides consecutive port ( RS-232 ) emulation based on the RFCOMM portion of the Bluetooth stack.Dial Up Networking Profile ( DUNP ) : Defines how to a Bluetooth device can be used as a Dial Up Networking gatewayFAX Profile: Defines how a Bluetooth device can be used as a FAX gatewayHeadset Profile: Defines what is required to reassign audio e.
g. a wireless Bluetooth headsetLAN Access Point Profile: Defines how a Bluetooth device can be used as a LAN entree pointGeneric Object Exchange Profile ( GOEP ) : Provides support for the OBjext EXchange ( OBEX ) protocol over Bluetooth linksObject Push Profile: Defines how to interchange vCard and vCalendar objects, based on the GOEPFile Transfer Profile: Defines functionality of how to voyage through booklets and copying, canceling or making a file or booklet on a Bluetooth device, based on the GOEP.Figure 2aˆ‘6: Bluetooth Profiles [ 16 ]
THE ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH
Short transmittal scope up to a upper limit of 100 metres with category 1.Low Power: Bluetooth takes comparatively low power, therefore it is suited for devices with restricted battery capacity.Interoperability: as it have standardised protocols.Robustness: capable of operating in an environment strongly where there are many other wireless moving ridges
Technologies for developing the system
There are many stage for the development of a system and there are many tools available for their development.
Two classs can be identified for a system ; hardware and package. The hardware portion is the portion that can be hold by custodies and travel if it is portable. The package portion can be seen as the 1 who make the hardware works right. Without the package, the hardware can non be used to the full.
Programing linguistic communication
There are a series of programming linguistic communications that are available to coders to code systems. Each scheduling linguistic communication has an country of application where it is better. Some of the scheduling linguistic communications are listed below.
Java is transverse platform and GNU General Public LicenseA programming linguistic communication. Java is an object-oriented, class-based, all-purpose, and coincident linguistic communication. It is intended to allow application developers “ write one time, run anyplace ” . Java programming linguistic communications is used in many systems runing from applications package to net applications. Java can be usage for Bluetooth programming. Java Communication Process ( JCP ) developed JSR 82, Java API for Bluetooth, so that Bluetooth enabled devices can be code easy utilizing J2ME.Integrated development environment ( IDE ) aid to code with Java, some illustrations are:
The NetBeans IDE is written in Java and needs JVM tally. It can run on different runing system like Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and Solaris.
A JDK is required for the functionality of Java development. Netbeans besides has a GUI design tool that aid developers to plan GUIs.
Eclipse was largely written in Java and can be used to develop java application.
There are a batch of circuit board which helps to for development.
J2ME is Java platform used to code embedded devices, like nomadic phones. Java ME beginning codification is licensed under the GNU General Public License. J2ME can be use to code systems with wireless connexion.
C scheduling linguistic communication
C is a all-purpose computing machine programming linguistic communication that can run on many platforms.
C can be usage for developing portable application package.
Python is a multi-paradigm scheduling linguistic communication and it is transverse platform, i.e.
it can work on different operation systems. Python can be usage for Bluetooth scheduling.
Ocular Basic.Net ( VB.Net )
Ocular BASIC is implemented on.Net model.
VB.Net was designed by Microsoft and it is an object oriented linguistic communication.
Relational Database Management System ( RDMS )
Some of RDMS are listed below:
MySQL is a relational database direction system which is released under the GNU General Public License. It offers multi-user entree to databases and it is transverse platform package.
PostgreSQL is an object-relational database direction system ( ORDBMS ) and it is released under PostgreSQL License. Thus it can be modified and distributed in any signifier desired.
A Web waiter is responsible to treat users ‘ petition and answer back. The answers are chiefly HyperText Markup Language ( HTML ) paperss. Web waiters are chiefly used T host Web sites.
Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server is a Web waiter which is licensed under Apache License 2.
0, which means that it is an unfastened beginning HTTP waiter. It is platform independent, extremely secure and efficient.
Internet Information Server ( IIS )
IIS was created and is owned by Microsoft. There is demand to purchase it license to utilize it.
Web Development Tools
There are many server side scripting linguistic communications that are used. Some of them are listed below:
PHP ( Hypertext Preprocessor ) is a all-purpose scripting linguistic communication that was designed for web development so as to hold dynamic web pages.
PHP can work on most waiters and runing system.
ASP.NET allows coders to construct dynamic web pages, web services and web application. It is a web application model developed and marketed by Microsoft.
Some of the hardware that can be used is listed below.
Mobile rivers phones have become a common electronic device. It offers many options than merely do call and send messages.
Nowadays we can entree the Internet via nomadic phones, and there are many applications that where developed on nomadic phone. New coevals Mobile phones are equipped with camera and Bluetooth.
Computer is like the tool that enables coders to work. All most all scheduling linguistic communications, non to state all, can work on computing machines. They are besides equipped with many wireless devices like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
There are embedded devices that are designed specifically to make certain things. Some illustrations are: MP3 participant, rinsing machines, Bluetooth metre reader, and many others.AnalysisAnalysisIn the analysis subdivision, we will analyze the aims of the new system that need to be designed and the different maps that the system will hold.
Different possible solutions will be evaluated and the tools that can be used for the development of the new system.
In this subdivision, the map and non-functional demands of the system will be listed. Functional demands can be defined as what the system is supposed to make. Non-functional demands can be defined as how the system is supposed to be.The system can be broken into two parts ; “ Mobile application ” and “ Server application ” .
The nomadic application will be used to read the metre value and server application to hive away informations. The map and non-functional demands of the both applications are listed below.
The application should inquire the user to login to be able to utilize it.The application should let seeking for available metres.The application should read meter value and direct the information to a database for hive awaying it.
Application should non take more than one proceedingss to lade.
Simple bill of fare should be provided for smooth pilotage across the application.
Application should direct all necessary informations to database.
Application should ever be able to work when of all time needed.
The application graphical user interface should non take excessively much memory.
The application should be able to read accurate value.
The application should be able to run under other low interfering wireless moving ridge.
Merely registered user will be able to utilize the application and execute reading.
The application should work on any device back uping the development linguistic communication
Any personal informations should be kept private
The application should necessitate login before use.The application should let to register user that will utilize the nomadic applicationThe application should let registered nomadic application user to redact username and/or watchword.The application should let to register clientsThe system should let to add new metres
Entree to the application should non take more than five proceedingss.
Searching for record should non take more than five proceedingss.
The application should let multiple users to pull off their history at the same time.
The application must hold an uptime of at least 99 % .
The application should do optimal usage of resources when executing hunt.
The application should have correct informations and do right entry in database.
The application should be able to accept one petition per second.
Merely registered user will be able to modify informations.
The application should work on any device back uping the development linguistic communication
The application should protect private informations against authorized entree.
There are different types of hardware that can be used for the system. The pick for different portion of the system is listed below.
An embedded device will be excessively dearly-won to implement the nomadic application, where as a laptop will turn out to be excessively heavy to transport all the manner to read metres. Mobile phone is the best option to be used for the nomadic application as it is easy to transport, largely nomadic phone have inbuilt Bluetooth and back up little applications. So, the nomadic application will be nomadic application package.
This application can be on a web waiter, where it can be accessed remotely by multiple individuals at the same clip and can utilize a database to hive away all information.
Therefore the waiter application will be web base application package.
Although there are Bluetooth enabled metres, there is a existent job in obtaining a Bluetooth enabled metre. So, a laptop with in-built Bluetooth or a Bluetooth dongle can be used to imitate a metre.
Possible solution for the job
The different possible solutions for the job are listed below.
Figure 1aˆ‘7: Solution 1The architectural overview of this solution is shown in the figure above. In this solution, an application will be running on the nomadic phone, and it will entree the metre via Bluetooth to read the informations. After that the information is read it will be stored on the Mobile, and that informations, will be sent to the computing machine via Bluetooth or USB overseas telegram.
A desktop application which will be running on the computing machine will read the informations which was transferred by the phone and will utilize it to make entries on the local database. The information which have been entered into the local database will so be used to direct to a waiter, where it will be stored in the cardinal database.
Figure 1aˆ‘8: Solution 2The figure above shows the architectural position of the solution.
In this given solution, the nomadic phone will be running an application which will be used to read informations from the metre via Bluetooth. After that the information is read, it will be sent via Internet to the cardinal database. There, the read value will be store in the cardinal database.The nomadic application will utilize RFCOMM to pass on with metre as it is dependable. The communicating between the Mobile and the waiter will be via the Internet through the web operator.
The proposed solution is Solution 2. This solution offers more advantage than the others ; the grounds are given below.When the information is read, it is sent instantly to the cardinal database, therefore charging procedure can be done faster.Sensitive informations will be at hazard in instance of doomed of nomadic phone.Operating cost decreased compared to solution 1, as there is merely demand for one cardinal database.
Evaluation of Tools
Programing linguistic communication
The scheduling linguistic communication is what will assist to do the package. Each scheduling linguistic communication has positive and negative points depending on the type of package that need to be developed. The pros and cons of certain scheduling linguistic communications are listed below.
ProfessionalsConsOffer better networking capablenessAvailable on assorted platformsJ2ME applications are portableRich user interfaceRobust security characteristics.There is a broad scope of Mobiles which support Java, therefore holding broad scope of nomadic phone that can be used.Midlet can non entree all native resources without mandate.Application need to accommodate for phones which have different CLDC, MIDP, JSR and Bluetooth.
ProfessionalsConsJava codification can work on many different platforms.Java is unafraid, robust and dependable.Java provides usage of multithreading.
Java is object oriented and allows creative activity of modular plans and reclaimable codification.Java have an API for Bluetooth programmingJava is slower and consumes more memory when compared to linguistic communications such as C or C++ .
Web waiters are what will enable the informations to be entree over a web in a convenient manner. There are a batch of web waiters, some of them are described below.
Apache is unfastened and therefore can be customised easy harmonizing to demandsMulti-platform. It runs on a broad assortment of runing systems, including all discrepancies of UNIX, Windows 9x/NT, and Mac OSApache is non on a regular basis updatedRequires more proficient cognition to put in and configure
Iraqi intelligence service
GUI manner installing.Plants with a broad scope of runing systems and browsers.Beginning codification is proprietary.
Can merely work within Windows environment.
Web Development Languages
Web development linguistic communication will be used to code for application at server side. There is a broad pool of linguistic communication that is available.
Some of them are listed below with their some of their pros and cons.
PHP is free and easy to utilize.PHP aid to interact with database easy.Can back up many runing systems, like Windows, Linux and Mac OS.PHP engine demand to be installed on waiter to utilize PHP.Debuging can be drawn-out for complex plan.
ASP.NET codification is compiled at waiter before being sent to the browser ; therefore faster.ASP.NET pages are simple to compose and can get by with heavy traffic without impacting public presentation adverselyASP.NET runs on merely windows platform.ActiveX objects are platform specific, therefore it will non work easy on many Web waiters.
Relational Database Management System ( RDMS ) will be used to hive away all informations.
It is really of import as all sensitive informations will be at that place and informations will be used to make charging aim.
Easy to utilize.Free and Open beginning system.Runs on a scope of different platforms.Can manage big sets of informations.It is unafraid.
Passwords are encryptedRecovery of database is non guaranteed in instance of a power cut.Operates over known IP ports which facilitate the undertaking of interlopers
It is a free and Open beginning packagePostgreSQL can work on different platformPostgreSQL is really scalable and extensileIt is slow compared to MySQLLacks binary distribution for all the supported platforms.
Choice of Final Tools
Java is appropriate for the desktop application as it can work on many different platforms and have an API for Bluetooth.J2ME is used for the nomadic application development as many nomadic phones can back up Java and have an API for Bluetooth.Bluecove API for Bluetooth programming as it is unfastened beginning and support Java.PHP will be used for the web application as it is free and easy to interact with database.
MySQL is more suited for database system as it is free and work good with Web waiters.
Use instance aid to hold a graphical overview of the “ histrions ” and “ usage instance ” that form the system. Actors can be described as a function played by a individual or external device and usage instance can be described as a sequence of action that a system performs.The Use Case diagrams of the proposed system are shown below.The Mobile application procedure is described below.
Meter reader User
User logging into to mobile application
Have a metre reader history
User enters username and watchword.User presses the “ Login ” button.
User hunt for metresSearch metre
Meter reader User
Search for available metres
Search for available metresSend informations to server
Entry is made in the database.Meter Reader interaction with Server application.
Meter reader User
Change username or watchword upon successful login
Have a metre reader history
Enter user and watchwordClick loginChange username or watchword
Database is updatedAdministrator interact with Server applicationlogin
Login to net site
Have an decision maker history
Enter user and watchwordClick login
Manage information on waiterManage content
User manages information.
User login successfully
User can make operations like ; add, edit, delete or position informations
Database is updatedAdd
Attention deficit disorder records
User login successfully
User can add on new record to related information
New record is saved to databaseDelete
Delete saved records
User login successfully
User can cancel records
Selected record is deleted from databaseEdit
Edit saved records
User login successfully
User can redact record which are being viewed
Database is updatedPosition
User login successfully
User can see records that are saved in the database
Records are shown on the web pageDesignDesignThe design subdivision gives an overview of the construction of the package and architecture of the system. It besides includes the informations involved, the interfaces between system constituents, algorithm and protocol to be used for the system execution.
System Design Issues
Several system design issues like public presentation, quality of service, mistake tolerance, and security, which are of import in the design of a system, are discussed below.
The public presentation issues are concerned with the restriction of computing machines in term of treating power and communicating capacities. These issues can be described in the followerss ways:Responsiveness: It is how fast the system processes given input to give an end product. The usage of weaving allows multiple undertakings to treat at the same time. Togss can be used for processor intensive procedure. Togss can be implemented in Java Environment.Applications running on webs depend greatly on the burden and public presentation of waiters and besides the web burden itself.
Server and web burden reconciliation can be used to forestall them from being overloaded. Such technique is beyond the range of this undertaking. When utilizing the Internet, there is a chance of communicating holds and informations being corrupted, this beyond of one ‘s control.
Throughput: It is of the system corresponds to the sum of informations transmitted between the client and waiter in a given clip interval.On a radio web is takes a long clip to set up connexion between the waiter and the client and the latency clip of HTTP is significantly high. So, the figure of HTTP unit of ammunition trips in the application must be kept to the rigorous lower limit.
Robustness is the ability of the system to run in the presence of wrong input or header with mistakes when the system is running.Validations check like length cheque and informations type look into can be used to forestall incorrect input and gimmick mistakes where shared resources are being accessed.
Interaction with the system can be in many different ways. Data or bid input to the system will do it bring forth certain consequence. Some of the ways that can interact with the system are listed below.The usage of graphical user interface ( GUI ) to ease user to pass on with the system.Supplying options and bill of fares where possible alternatively of typing informations.Users utilizing the nomadic application demand to come in informations via phone computer keyboard.Use of meaningful icons, so that user can interact rapidly with the system.
The web application can back up multiple users at a clip and can have and treat multiple petitions a clip.
The system must be able to get by if there is important addition in the figure of users and extra resources can be added if needed to.
The nomadic application can be run on Java enabled Mobiles phones which support MIDP 2.0. The web application can run on multiples types of waiters.
Limit size of JAR file
The nomadic application has limited resources to utilize. So the application is obfuscated to cut down its size.
The bewilderment procedure helps to take fresh categories and libraries.
Mistake, Exception Handling and Fault Tolerance
The application should go on to work right in presence of package, hardware and web mistakes. Mistakes will be caught in try-catch blocks to alarm user of the mistake.
Security is one of the focal point of a system. There is no system on Earth which can be tagged as impenetrable. What can be done is, to do the system less vulnerable to onslaughts.
The system needs to protect informations from unauthorised users. The ways to protect the system is listed below.Users need a username and watchword to be able to entree the system. User will be identified and authenticated before they can utilize the system.The database will be protected with watchword.
In this subdivision, the different constituents of the system are illustrated and how they interact between them.
The system is made up of three chief constituents: the metre, the nomadic application and the waiter application. The nomadic application will be used to read a value via Bluetooth from the metre and will direct that value via nomadic web operator to the waiter. The connexion between the Mobile and the waiter is done via wireless connexion such as GPRS, WAP, EDGE or Wi-Fi.The metre will be a fake metre on a laptop that will be accessed via Bluetooth by a nomadic application.The waiter will be used to host the web site and connect to the database. That database will be used to hive away all information needed.
The figure below shows the overall architecture.
Meter Reader SystemWeb ServerMeter ReaderWeb portalGraphical user interfaceSend ReadingCustomer ManagementMeter Reader ManagementReading ManagementMeters ManagementDatabase
The communicating design is based on issues when client application and the waiter communicate to interchange information and the protocol used for the information transmittal.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ) will be used as communicating protocol between the client and the waiter. The HTTP protocol is a request-response protocol.
Client send petition with some parametric quantities to the waiter and the latter will answer to that petition.The Bluetooth protocol, wireless frequence communicating ( RFCOMM ) will be used to pass on between the metre and the nomadic application. RFCOMM is a simple conveyance protocol which offers dependable informations watercourse
Class diagram& lt ; Class diagram & gt ;
Activity diagramActivity diagram show a graphical representation of the way activities can take and any loop or determinations along the way.Read a metre value
The database will be used to hive away really sensitive information. Special attention demand to be taken so that the information stored in it is accessed merely by authorized users.
CustomersField nameTypeConstraintDescriptionCriminal investigation commandautonumberPK, Not voidCustomer ‘s IDSurnamevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLFirst namevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLAddress1varchar ( 255 )NOT NULLAddress2varchar ( 255 )Cityvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLTelvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLactivevarchar ( 255 )Meter ReaderField nameTypeConstraintDescriptionMRIDautonumberPK, Not voidMeter reader ‘s IDSurnamevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLFirst namevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLAddress1varchar ( 255 )NOT NULLAddress2varchar ( 255 )Cityvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLTelvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLactivevarchar ( 255 )ReadingField nameTypeConstraintDescriptionRidautonumberPK, Not voidIdahoMRIDvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLMIDvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLValuevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLDatevarchar ( 255 )NOT NULLMetersField nameTypeConstraintDescriptionMIDautonumberPK, Not voidIdahoCriminal investigation commandvarchar ( 255 )NOT NULL
User interface design
Interfaces need to be user friendly as it through interfaces that the user will interact with the system. Norman ‘s 7 Principles or Shneiderman ‘s 8 Golden Rules can be used to accomplish good interface design.
Mobile application interface design
The metre reader will hold to come in his/her username and watchword to be able to utilize the nomadic application. The login screen design is shown below.Username:Password:ExitLogin
After that the metre reader has entered successfully his/her username and watchword, a screen is show. This screen has an option to seek for available metres.
After that the option hunt metre is selected, the application will seek for available metres and the selected metre value will be read and sent to server.Search metreExit
Web application interface design
Meter readers or the decision maker will be presented with a login signifier as show below. The users need to input right username and watchword to be able to acquire entree to the system.
The decision maker will be presented with options after successful login. After taking which information the decision maker wants to see, a screen as shown below will be presented. All different information stored in the database will be presented in the screen templet shown below, so as to continue a consistent manner of exposing information.Page map rubricRecord No | Record Information | Edit | Delete& lt ; & lt ; Back