The research survey will critically analyse the acquisition of metaphor through teaching civilization to Iraqi scholars of English as a 2nd linguistic communication. Additionally, the research will convey to illume the assorted challenges confronting different Iraqi scholars when analyzing English as a 2nd linguistic communication through metaphors. It will besides seek to supply recommendations that will assist get the better of the challenges every bit good as how best to utilize metaphors in assisting Iraqi scholar learn English. Due to globalization characterized with free motion of people, capital goods and services, it has come to be of paramount significance for all human races to endeavor to larn at least a foreign linguistic communication ( MacArthur & A ; Littlemore, 2008 ) .
As a consequence a figure of states particularly in Middle East have resorted to larn such linguistic communications as English to assist them get by with the bubbling phenomenon of globalisation. However their desire has been marred with a figure of challenges particularly when such mechanisms as utilizing metaphors are used. It is deserving observing that bookmans such as Straub, 1999 suggested that the best manner to learn a foreign linguistic communication to pupil is to utilize their civilization. This can be done successfully when the pupils are made cognizant of their civilization every bit good as supplying them with some sort of meta-language in order to speak about civilization ( Low et al.2008 ) .
The research is of a batch of importance as it closely analyzes acquisition of metaphors by non English speech production Iraqi pupils. The findings will be of importance to assorted stakeholders such as instructors of English as Second Language ( ESL ) , pupils, instruction sectors, other research workers and larning establishment at big every bit good as Non-governmental Organization,
The developed recommendations will be adopted by larning establishments to assist them successfully teach pupils English, a linguistic communication that is non native to them. Not transporting out this research will clearly picture that the assorted ways of integrating metaphors in learning English, the challenges faced will non be brought to visible radiation.
Based on the research subject, three major inquiries were developed to steer the survey. These are
How are metaphors used through teaching civilization to assist Iraqi pupil learn English? ( Littlemore, 2009 )
What are the challenges confronting both instructors and pupil when utilizing metaphors?
What are the major recommendations that will assist control the above said challenges and surrogate English acquisition?
The chief aims of learning civilization to pupil are it assist them to develop a clear comprehension of the fact that all show behaviours that are profoundly rooted from civilization, societal variable/ demographic features do every bit good as topographic point of abode do impact on how persons communicate, stimulate their rational wonder with respects to certain civilization hence promoting empathy towards others, developing ability to advert but a few ( Littlemore, 2003 ) . This therefore was seen as an avenue that can be successfully used to learn English via metaphors.
It is of import to bear in head that legion theories have been brought Forth to assist reply the inquiry, how do scholars get foreign linguistic communication? Traditionally, grammar interlingual rendition methods were used to learn pupils foreign linguistic communications. It entailed memorisation of long list of vocabularies that were translated. Later in the old ages, the focal point shifted to coming up with linguistic communication accomplishments such as authorship, listening, reading and speech production. Whether wittingly or unwittingly the phase of learning foreign linguistic communications actively involved utilizing metaphors ( Littlemore, 2004. One renowned bookman, Light created a metaphor with the purpose of assisting set up the assorted elements of grammar so that it could be used to learn English as 2nd linguistic communication.
Leeboard held that metaphors and associating theories, “ portion the attempt to form thought by puting in gesture an interaction between familiar and or comprehensible on one manus and the thing to be explained on the other. ” Metaphor has the ability of showing significance by mentioning to a different conceptual sphere and has been thought as a vehicle through which cognition is transmitted. Harmonizing to Laoff & A ; Johnson, 1980 metaphors are “ poetic imaginativeness and the rhetorical flourish – a affair of extraordinary instead than ordinary linguistic communication. ”
The major types of conceptual metaphor normally used are structural metaphor, “ the beginning sphere supplies a moderately drawn-out cognition construction for the mark construction ” . They help increase linguistic communication understanding. Ontological metaphors are those that have abstraction and represent something deep for case objects or a individual. Learners are made to visualise experiences via objects. Last, orientation metaphors provide even less conceptual construction for mark constructs than ontological 1s. Their cognitive occupation, alternatively, is to do a set of mark constructs coherent in our conceptual system ( Kovecses, 2002 ) .
The research will use a assorted research design method. It is of import to observe that theoretical survey calls for deeper excavation of assorted literatures runing from diaries, publications, books, other signifiers of literature and from the cyberspace ( Boers & A ; Littlemore, 2000 ; ) . Qualitative research will besides be employed in the survey ; the attack seeks to contextualize the research by plunging the research worker into the survey scenario every bit good as with the survey topics. Hypothesiss are developed and informations is collected and the consequences tend to be subjective. A instance survey as a sub type of qualitative research is used to guarantee that the survey is flexible plenty to give the research worker room to look into issues that were non antecedently thought of and could be deserving being brought to visible radiation ( Tabachnick & A ; Fidell, 2000 ; Littlemore, 2004 ) . Anterior to existent aggregation of informations, a pilot survey will be carried out in order to assist set the questionnaires whenever deemed necessary.
Questionnaires will be used to roll up relevant information ; I will administer them to respondent situated in the targeted establishment of higher acquisition and would be collected subsequently at an in agreement day of the month. Harmonizing to Beiske, ( 2002 ) questionnaire covers a big population at a clip as they would be distributed to different participants at a clip and be collected subsequently or at the same twenty-four hours depending on the willingness of the responded in turn toing the inquiries, due to it being standardized they are more nonsubjective, informations collected from questionnaire are easy to analyse, due to acquaintance with the tool, responded will non be discerning, it is besides really cost effectual as compared to confront to confront interviews, the tool besides reduces prejudice.
The questionnaires will be issued to who are in a place to Iraqi pupils in higher instruction as they are in a better place to supply the needed set of informations. Additionally, instructors will besides be sought after to give more penetration. Harmonizing to Littlemore, 2001 the major job with questionnaires as a tool of informations aggregation is that there is inclination of respondent to bury critical information, they may reply the inquiries superficially when it is a long one, to counter this I developed a short but really inclusive questionnaire, due to standardisation, there is no room for account incase respondents misinterpret or make non understand the inquiries ( Littlemore, 2005 ) .
The information will be collected from Iraqi pupils in higher instruction and will be done over a span of one month. As indicated by Littlemore, 1995 ; Littlemore & A ; Chevalier, 1997 some of the ethical consideration includes the followers ; the targeted sample populations that will be involved in the survey to supply relevant information are to be informed about the same in progress. The grounds for transporting out the study every bit good as how they stand to derive from the survey will besides be brought out clearly.
As good, research moralss demands that the information be sought after by the research worker will be provided in good religion, and voluntarily without any influence be it pecuniary or otherwise for case giving of inducements, wagess, and gifts. It is of import to observe here that the rights and public assistance of the participants involved in the survey must be protected and guaranteed. To make this, their individualities will be kept confidential. Furthermore, the information collected while beging for informations is to be kept confidential and opt non to be used in any other purpose apart from what was ab initio intended for ( Low & A ; Littlemore, 2009 ; Littlemore, 1995. ) .
Methods of analysis
After informations aggregation, coding will be done. SPSS statistical package will be used in analysing informations. To set up which point airs as being the greatest challenge in utilizing metaphor in learning English, a cross tabular matter analysis will be done. Similarly, correlativity and arrested development analysis will be done to prove the relationship between the challenges and acquisition of metaphor through civilization instruction. Descriptive statistic will be used to picture demographic features every bit good as other variables. This will be in signifier of tabular arraies, graphs and charts ( Chambers et al. , 2004 ) .
The paper will make full the spread in literature sing major challenges confronting metaphor acquisition through teaching civilization. More significantly, the recommendations to control these challenges will be a encouragement to the literature in linguistics. The research subject has non been tackled and presented for an award of any grade in any establishment of higher acquisition hence it is my ain piece of work. It will put land to further understand the whole issues with respects to challenges and what can be done in future to control such jobs in linguistic communication acquisition particularly English to non native talkers ( Boers & A ; Littlemore, 2000 ; Littlemore & A ; MacArthur, 2006 ) .