Have you ever felt the urge to eat food even though you are not hungry but you are nervous and anxious about something? For some people anxiety means biting your nails or eating food or for others it means the excessive thought about your desires because of how you are feeling. Freud’s description on types of personality describes anxiety as an unbalance of your ID personality. His theory of defense mechanism has to do with his knowledge of the types of personality each individual have. The Id represents the urges and desires your body wants to have immediately.
Ought to matter how you get it, the ID just asks for the desire in an unconscious level with not thinking about the consequences. However the Id lets the Ego know what it wants from you. The Ego is the part of your personality that makes you think before you act with a logical sense of the situation. The ego prevents from doing something dangerous cause it makes you see the danger in the situations. It prevents you from being unreasonable on your decisions to satisfy your needs. However, even though the ego can make you think reasonably, the super ego helps the ego think what is right and wrong in a situation.
The ego makes us think about ourselves and how we can get what we want no matter if it’s unjust to other people. The Super Ego is based on how each person has been raised and what they think it’s right and wrong. Religion can be a big influence in this part of personality. And since the ID wants to please your desires no matter if your causing harm, damage, or evil things, the Super ego helps you to control yourself and not do the wrong action by achieving on getting what you want. Freud’s theory started when he began to question what would happen If the system wouldn’t be balance?
What if the ID would be stronger than the Ego in a person’s personality? And that’s why according to him, he thinks that “the reason most people do not behave in antisocial or deviant ways is because of this system of checks and balances among the three parts of the personality” (Forty studies that changed psychology, page 237 last paragraph) The balance that the ID, Ego, and Super Ego have in your personality help you take good decisions and if you do have that balance, you can avoid many of your emotions and how you feel. Nervousness, stress, fear and many other hings are caused by the lack of balance in these three parts of your personality. Feeling those emotions causes anxiety, and whenever you have anxiety each human being feels the need to use the ego defense mechanism. Which means that you want to prevent your ID to enter your conscience give to the reason that an individual doesn’t like to act impulsively and wrong. The self-mechanism makes a person disorient his perception of reality in order to make the ID not being able to understand and have knowledge of what it really going on in other for the id not to act.
Even though this discovery was by Sigmund Freud, His daughter Ana Freud elaborated the theory and the results of what Freud had discovered. She published a book after his father died but she was aware about what he father knew of this theory. Methods Throughout his years of Clinical psychology, Sigmund Freud was able to see the different types of self-mechanism in his patients. His discoveries where based on case studies, which were not harmful to anyone given the fact that the patients would talk to him about their life. There was no experiment involve.
He had the knowledge of the different types, however her daughter wrote ten defense mechanism that she remembered her father teaching her. Of those ten different mechanisms five are commonly used and more recognized in modern days. Results The most common self-defense mechanisms are Repression, regression, projection, reaction formation, and sublimation. Repression is when humans hide their emotions and feeling about something in their unconscious in order for them to not deal with either the suffering or anxiety of not being able to please that desire.
Humans unconsciously keep those forbidden thoughts in their subconscious knowing that it would be an unacceptable desire based on society. These thoughts are not entirely gone, they are just hidden or repressed in your subconscious in order to protect us and avoid anxiety. This type of self-defense supports the theory given the fact that some of each individuals unconscious thought are clear in an individual’s dreams or it might slip out not knowing it was true.
An example would be that some girls keep in their unconscious the thought about having feelings for his dad, however since it is in the unconscious and they never realize it is true, then they still look in their relationships certain similarities in the guy they are dating with the personality of her dad. Regression is when an individual is in denial of a change in reality giving them the reason to behave based on how reality was before. It’s a stage of denial and helps each individual avoid the facts about what they are dealing with.
For example, The middle age crisis, men start acting like teenagers because they don’t want to deal with the facts that they are getting old and they don’t want to deal with the fact that getting old is just part of life, and that sooner or later they have to deal with it. Acting like a child, making irresponsible decisions, experiencing adrenaline and all those things men do when they are young, keeps them from dealing with the truth and the anxiety that fear causes. Projection is how individuals manage anxiety by “Projecting” their problems in someone else.
And making them feel guilty or convincing them of something that they are not doing wrong. When this self-defense mechanism happens, the individual truly believes that the other person is doing what he is thinking. He does this in order for him to not feel about thinking what he is experiencing or doing. They don’t lie about what they think the other person is doing. They truly believe the other person has the fault for what this individual is doing and thinking, giving them the reason to not feel anxious or think about the problems he/she is having.
For example, teenage girls who think they are fat, say to other girls that they are getting fat in order for the girl who’s trying to protect herself feel better, and avoid the anxiety. Reaction formatting is the defense mechanism when an individual is experiencing evil impulses that society doesn’t except. And they act the opposite to what they truly are experiencing, because it helps them to avoid the feeling of anxiety and stress.
For example gay guys usually act very masculine and aggressive by bullying gay people in order to make society and himself think that he is not gay at all. Individuals that develop this type of self-defense mechanism usually become extreme and excessive in their behavior in order for them to stop thinking what they truly are thinking. Sublimation is how each individual finds a way to maintain their ID thoughts and behavior and converting them in something acceptable to society.
For example a pervert converts his promiscuity to art and paints nude people. Discussion Even though Freud’s theories have been criticized by many people, Freud built the basic of psychology and helped many new researched be discovered because of his way of thinking. Freud’s theory can’t be scientifically proven because most of his thinking was based on sub consciousness His theory of self-defense is very important in the psychology world, with ought to know about Freud’s theories of psychology, as if you are missing very important information.
The book 40 studies that changed psychology clearly states that with ought Freud’s theories the book wouldn’t be complete. This theory of the types of self-defense each person is used by everyone at least once in their life because of the fact that it relaxes you from something that is causing you stress. However as good as this mechanism can help you, if you use them too often it can be a negative action in your life because of the fact that you are not dealing with reality and avoiding the solution instead of dealing with your problems.
In some cases this mechanisms can be taken to the extreme and become obsessed with not facing the truth. An experiment based on Freud’s theory with self-defense was made. It was proven that homophobia for gay people is causes extreme anxiety to homophobic guys. But in general, Freud’s discovery of people’s self-defense mechanism has helped psychology in many ways. The subfields that find more helpful to know this information was cognitive psychology, developmental, and social psychology. Knowing this theory expands the knowledge of why people sometimes behave the way they do.
Knowing this kind of information can be very dangerous and powerful because you might know what people are actually doing and what they are hiding. It is better if people who are using it don’t know they are using a defense mechanism because they are trying to get away from anxiety. However if any person sees another individual use this self-defense mechanism in a way that is being harmful to someone else including themselves then they should be warned and helped to face what reality and life wants this person to learn.