Governments worldwide have sought to increase the engagement of the private sector in the bringing of public services. These enterprises have taken many signifiers, such as the straight-out denationalization of antecedently state-owned industries, undertaking out of certain services and the usage of private finance in the proviso of societal substructure ( Nielsen, 1997 ; Dulaimi, Alhashemi, Ling and Kumaraswamy, 2010 ) . Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) offers a long-run, sustainable attack to bettering public service bringing and societal substructure, heightening the value of public assets and doing better usage of taxpayers ‘ money ( Akintoye, Beck and Hardcastle, 2003: a ) .
Such partnerships between the public and private sector are now accepted as an option to the traditional province proviso of public installations and services ( Kent, 1998 ) . Arguably, this joint attack allows the populace sector client and the private sector provider to intermix their particular accomplishments and to accomplish an result that neither party could accomplish entirely ( Akintoye, Hardcastle, Beck, Chinyio and Asenova, 2003: B ) . Therefore, the first subdivision of the literature in PPP examines the construct while concentrating on the development of PPP globally, the drivers of PPP and the critical success factors of PPP. The 2nd subdivision of the literature reviews PPP in instruction, and the last subdivision highlight illustrations of PPP in South Africa.
2.2.2 Definition of Public-Private Partnership
Literature about Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) indicates that PPPs are notoriously hard to specify ( Evans and Bowman, 2005 ; Hodge, 2005 ; Jefferies and McGeorge, 2008 ) . Bettignies and Ross, ( 2004 ) point to the fact that PPP has been defined otherwise by faculty members, public bureaus and international administrations, with the consequence that a cosmopolitan definition to which all would hold is elusive. Weihe ( 2008 ) concludes that an important definition of PPP, one that encompasses all the different fluctuations of the construct presently in usage, is still non logically possible.
Hodge and Greve ( 2005 ) defined PPP as institutional cooperation between the public and private sectors designed to increase the efficiency and effectivity of public service bringing. Hayllar ( 2010 ) defines PPP as a contractual agreement affecting the private sector in the bringing of public services based on a partnership attack where the duty for the bringing of services is shared between the public and private sectors, both of which bring their complimentary accomplishments to the endeavor. Van Ham and Koppenjan ( 2001 ) defined PPP as a cooperation of some kind of the lastingness between public and private histrions in which they jointly develop merchandises and services and portion hazards, costs and resources that are connected with these merchandises.
In the United Kingdom ( UK ) , HM Treasury defines PPP as a authorities desire to decide fiscal restraints in the proviso of public installations and services by naming upon private direction accomplishments to increase the efficiency, effectivity and quality of installations and service bringing ( HM Treasury, 2000 ) . In South Africa, Treasury Regulation 16 of the Public Finance Management Act ( PFMA ) defines PPP as a contract between a populace sector establishment or municipality and a private party, in which the private party assumes significant fiscal, proficient and operational hazard in the design, funding, edifice and operation of a undertaking ( Department of National Treasury, 2004 ) . Therefore, the cardinal elements embodied in these definitions include cooperation ; sharing of duties ; decision-making power and authorization ; sharing of hazards and wagess or common benefit ; prosecuting shared or compatible aims and joint investing.
2.2.3 The construct of Public-Private Partnership
Public-Private Partnership has emerged as an of import theoretical account authoritiess use to shut substructure spreads as it offers several benefits to authoritiess seeking to turn to substructure deficits or better the efficiency of their administrations ( Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ) . The engagement of the private sector in the development and funding of public installations and services has increased well over the past decennary. Approachs to these PPPs continue to be developed in order to pull the public and private sectors together to portion the hazards and wagess ( Li, Akintoye, Edwards and Hardcastle, 2005 ) .
Palatopharyngoplasties are coactions in which public and private sectors each bring their complementary accomplishments to a undertaking, with different degrees of engagement and duty, for the interest of supplying public services more expeditiously ( Chan, Lam, Chan, Cheung and Ke, 2010: a ) . PPP typically consist of voluntary, digesting agreements that involve important degrees of resource-sharing and joint decision-making ( Smith and Wohlstetter, 2006 ) . Achieving value for money, particularly from the taxpayers ‘ position, is reflected as an component of PPP.
The construct of PPP is underpinned by a authorities ‘s desire to decide capacity restraints in the proviso of public installations and services by naming upon private direction accomplishments to increase the efficiency, effectivity and quality of installations, and services bringing ( Li et al. , 2005 ) . The degree of private sector engagement might run from simple service proviso without resort to public installations, through service proviso based on public installations use, up to and including full private ownership of public installations and operation of their associated services ( Li et al. , 2005 ) . These partnerships come in all sizes and types, which makes it hard to group them in a consistent manner ( Akintoye et al. , 2003: a ) .
220.127.116.11 Public-Private Partnership development globally
Globally, Public-Private Partnership agreements are frequently entered into to speed up the execution of high-priority undertakings through advanced engineerings that are normally non available through standard public procurance procedures ( Beh, 2010 ) . Ideally, direction resources are optimised to guarantee quality, cost control and rigorous attachment to scheduled timelines.
The construct of PPP in the United States and Europe has existed for centuries, but has become more outstanding in recent decennaries in local economic development of states ( Pierre, 1998 ) . Some bookmans note that it was the United Kingdom ‘s ( UK ) Labour authorities that foremost introduced the PPP construct in the 1990s ( Spackman, 2002 ) ; nevertheless, a reappraisal of the literature revealed that the PPP label has been in usage since at least the late seventiess ( Fosler and Berger, 1982 ) , and that it foremost appeared in United States ( US ) urban policy literature. Yet, others province that the UK is taking the manner in the development of PPP ( Ghobadian, Gallear, O’Reagan and Viney, 2004 ) .
The turning usage of the Private Finance Initiative ( PFI ) has inspired authoritiess worldwide to follow PPP agreements, as authoritiess recognised their value ( Yuan, Skibniewski, Li and Zheng, 2010 ) . The Australian authorities has used PPP to present several societal substructure undertakings ( Yuan et al. , 2010 ) . In Malaysia, infrastructures PPPs are used chiefly for undertakings in public conveyance, roads, waste direction installations, and H2O and effluent services ( Beh, 2010 ) . In the Netherlands, most PPP undertakings occur in the countries of conveyance, lodging and urban development ( Klijn, 2009 ) .
The US is a innovator with undertaking out and has started experimenting with other signifiers of PPP ; emerging democracies form Central Europe are following suit ( Yuan et al. , 2010 ) . However, jobs in policy preparation and execution every bit good as with corruptness, supervising and a deficiency of entree to investing capital have affected PPP growing. As in other states, political answerability and hazard direction besides are major issues in PPP enterprises ( Beh, 2010 ) .
18.104.22.168 Drivers of Public-Private Partnerships
The cardinal drivers for affecting the private sector in the provisioning of public services were ( and are still ) to turn to public sector budget shortages and to seek for greater efficiency, creativeness, fulfilling turning demands, and the outlook of new and upgrading of bing ageing substructure ( Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ) . By and large, PPPs can supply a broad assortment of net benefits for a authorities. Chan, Lam, Chan, Cheung and Ke ( 2009 ) identified the drivers for following public-private partnerships.
Figure 6: Drivers of Public-Private Partnerships
Beginning: Chan et Al 2009
22.214.171.124.1 Equitable Hazard Sharing
The private sector is in general more efficient in plus procurance and service bringing than authorities, and, as a consequence, it is to authorities ‘s advantage to portion the associated hazards with the private sector ( Chan et al. , 2009 ) .
126.96.36.199.2 Cost Savings and Value for Money
Cost nest eggs refers to the decrease in monetary value as a consequence of presenting a undertaking by PPP alternatively of traditional methods ( Chan et al. , 2009 ) . The nest eggs could be a consequence of the private sector ‘s invention and efficiency, which the populace sector may non accomplish ( Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ; Akintoye et al. , 2003 ; Li et al. , 2005 ) . The private sector by and large achieves higher operational efficiency in plus procurance and service bringing by using their expertness, experience, advanced thoughts or engineering and uninterrupted betterments. Therefore, the overall cost nest eggs to the undertaking can be achieved by endeavoring for the lowest possible entire life rhythm costs while maximizing net incomes ( Chan, Lam, Chan, Cheung and Ke, 2010 ) .
Value for money, defined by Grimsey and Lewis ( 2004 ) as the optimal combination of whole life rhythm costs, hazards, completion clip and quality in order to run into public demands, is another of import consideration particularly for the populace sector ( Chan et al. , 2009 ; Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ; Li et al. , 2005 ) .
188.8.131.52.3 Enhanced Asset Quality and Service Levels
Invention is another of import construct that the private sector can convey to public services. By and large talking, the public sector may non be every bit advanced as is the private sector. The private sector is continuously seeking for new merchandises and services to increase their competitory border and to salvage costs ( Chan et al. , 2009 ) . The private sector is besides made responsible for guaranting that the plus and service delivered fitting pre-agreed quality benchmarks or criterions throughout the life of the contract ( Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ) .
184.108.40.206.4 Reduced Public Financing
To the authorities, PPP frees up financial financess for other countries of public service and improves hard currency flow direction as high upfront capital outgo is replaced by periodic service payments and provides cost certainty in topographic point of unsure calls for plus care and replacing. Consequently, the public support required for public services can be reduced and redirected to back up sectors of higher precedence, e.g. , instruction, health care, community services, etc. ( Chan et al. , 2009 ) .
220.127.116.11.5 Catalyst for the Economy
To the private sector participants, PPP provides entree to public sector markets. If priced accurately and costs managed efficaciously, the undertakings can supply sensible net incomes and investing returns on a long-run footing. Besides, these undertakings tend to be big and hence expertness from many countries is required ; hence, cooperation among different join forcesing parties is encouraged ( Chan et al. , 2009 ; Grimsey and Lewis, 2004 ) . Business chances are besides created, due to the big range of plants that can profit different sectors ( Chan et al. , 2009 ) .
18.104.22.168 Different attacks of Public-Private Partnership
Four general attacks are identified in the PPP literature harmonizing to Weihe ( 2008 ) :
22.214.171.124.1 The Urban Regeneration Approach
In the urban regeneration approach the focal point is on public-private partnerships in relation to urban economic reclamation and development. This attack seems to hold its roots chiefly in the American urban administration literature. Urban regeneration partnerships are typically initiated by the response of private concerns to urban crises ( Weihe, 2008 ) . Private-to-private cooperation later paves the manner for a formal phase where public, private and non-profit-making spouses work together.
126.96.36.199.2 The Policy Approach
In the policy attack, the PPP term refers loosely to the dealingss between the public and private sector in certain policy countries and policy apparatuss ( Weihe, 2008 ) . The PPP construct here does non needfully embrace specific collaborative undertakings but focal points alternatively on depicting and analyzing public-private configurations within specific policy countries ( Weihe, 2008 ) .
188.8.131.52.3 The Infrastructure Approach
There are wide and narrow uses of the PPP term within the substructure attack. The narrow version includes merely agreements that include private finance and the bundling of design, building, operation and/or care into a individual contract ( Li et al. , 2005 ) . Particularly the presence of private finance, the allotment of hazard to the private sector, and the integrating of building and maintenance/operation are specifying features of the narrow apprehension of the substructure PPP. The wide version of the term nevertheless, covers all of the above-named assortments, including for case joint ventures, renting and direction contracts ( Weihe, 2008 ) .
184.108.40.206.4 The Development Approach
The cardinal focal point in the development attack is the accomplishment of development ends. Here PPPs are means to accomplish such wide terminals as to cut down poorness and societal want, cut down corruptness and better instruction. Although they are typically non straight engaged in partnerships, cardinal histrions in development PPPs are national and international non-governmental assistance administrations. Their function lies chiefly in that of advancing and making environments contributing to PPP in receiver states ( Weihe, 2008 ) .
220.127.116.11 Critical Success Factors of Public-Private Partnership
The term “ critical success factor ” is a concern term for an component which is indispensable for an administration or undertaking to accomplish its mission. A company may utilize the critical success factor method as a agency for placing the of import elements of its success ( Chan et al. , 2010: a ) . Rockart ( 1982 ) defines Critical Success Factors ( CSFs ) as those few cardinal countries of activity in which favorable consequences are perfectly necessary for a director to make his/her ends. The CSF methodological analysis is a process that attempts to do explicit the cardinal countries that are indispensable for direction success ( Li et al. , 2005 ) . One critical measure in the development of CSF is to place, analyse and categorise assorted factors that are critical to the success of PPP in general.
Zhang ( 2005 ) , believes that a PPP undertaking should be based on a public-private win-win rule. It should make a favourable environment and supply necessary support for private sector engagement and set up effectual steps to guarantee that privatised undertakings and services are delivered at public acceptable criterions and quality ; authorities support and private sector inputs should therefore be balanced. Therefore, CSFs are influenced by the context as they try to depict the countries that would enable direction to accomplish success ( Dulaimi et al. , 2010 ) .
18.104.22.168.1 Description of Critical Success Factors
22.214.171.124.1.1 Favorable Investing Environment
The willingness of private sector investors and loaners to develop public substructure undertakings depends greatly on the environment where these undertakings operate ( Hayllar, 2010 ) . For PPP strategies to work at that place should be favorable political, legal, economic and commercial environments for private sector engagement ( Zhang & A ; Kumaraswamy, 2001 ) .The authorities is in a better place than any party in making such environments, which mostly eliminate frights of the private sector refering assorted hazards, particularly political hazards such as expropriation and nationalization ( Zhang, 2005 ) .
126.96.36.199.1.2 Appropriate Risk Allocation via Reliable Contractual Agreements
The contractual agreement is a CSF for building undertakings ( Hayllar, 2010 ) . The designation and allotment of hazards are an of import issue in contractual agreement which dictates both the type and content of the contract. Other of import issues include the clear statement of the aims of the contract and the duties and rights of the catching parties, adequateness and lucidity of programs and proficient specifications, a formal difference declaration procedure, and motive and inducements to the catching parties ( Zhang, 2005 ) .
188.8.131.52.1.3 Economic Viability
Economic viability is critical to the success of any sort of undertaking ( Dulaimi et al. , 2010 ) . PPP undertakings are characterised by high capital spending, long lead clip and long operation period with a wide scope of hazards and uncertainnesss. The uncertainnesss bring hazard into capital investing rating determinations and, accordingly, new methods have been developed ( Dulaimi et al. , 2010 ) . Therefore, for undertakings that are non financially feasible but of important economic value and political and environmental aims, the authorities should supply necessary flexible project-specific support and/or warrants to do them financially feasible ( Zhang, 2005 ) .
184.108.40.206.1.4 Reliable Concessionaire Consortium with Strong Technical Strength
While the authorities is in a better place to make a favorable environment for private sector engagement in public substructure development in general, private sector participants play a paramount function in the successful execution of peculiar PPP undertakings ( Zhang, 2005 ) . Significant realignment of hazards among multiple undertaking participants is a dramatic characteristic of the PPP strategy, in which the concessioner undertakes many more committednesss and assumes much broader and deeper hazards than a mere contractor ( Zhang, 2005 ) ; hence, choice of the right concessioner which can be realised through a competitory tendering procedure ( Chan et al. , 2010: a ) is critical to the success of the undertaking.
220.127.116.11.1.5 Sound Financial Package
The PPP in substructure undertakings are frequently financed on a non-recourse or limited recourse footing ( Zhang, 2005 ) . A figure of fiscal instruments may be used in undertaking finance such as debt, equity, first balcony finance, contractor, provider and buyer recognition, or sureties. A sound gross watercourse of the undertaking is the footing of undertaking finance as loaners and investors have recourse to no financess other than this gross watercourse, and assets of the undertaking may or may non hold any residuary value ( Zhang, 2005 ) .
Therefore, the fiscal bundle normally has a greater impact on the viability of a PPP undertaking than the physical design or building costs. Significant fiscal technology attempts should be made to pitch the great capital spending of an substructure undertaking to engage with advanced fiscal instruments compatible with its jutting hard currency flow ( Chan et al. , 2010: a ) .
18.104.22.168.2 Identification of Critical Success Factors
The designation of the CSFs will enable efficient allotment of limited resources. The CSFs can be identified based either on quantitative steps or on adept sentiments ( Zhang, 2005 ) .
22.214.171.124.2.1 Critical Success Factors for PPP identified in old surveies
Research in and treatments about CSFs for PPPs have been antecedently conducted ( Zhang, 2005 ) . Tiong ( 1996 ) has identified six CSFs in winning Build-Operate-Transfer ( BOT ) contracts: ( 1 ) entrepreneurship and leading ; ( 2 ) right undertaking designation ; ( 3 ) strength of the pool ; ( 4 ) proficient solution advantage ; ( 5 ) fiscal bundle distinction ; and ( 6 ) distinction in warrants. Tiong and Alum ( 1997 ) have further identified typical elements of winning proposals in competitory BOT tendering from the sub-factors of the CSFs of proficient solution advantage, fiscal bundle distinction and distinction in warrants. Gupta and Narasimham ( 1998 ) in Zhang ( 2005 ) provide extra CSFs for boosters to win BOT contracts: ability to supply a suited transportation bundle ; constitutional flexibleness for future growing and alterations ; supportive and understanding community ; and short building period.
126.96.36.199.2.2 Critical Success Factors for PPP under Win-Win Principle
PPPs involve assorted sorts of hazards that may emerge at different phases in the life rhythm of a undertaking ( Zhang, 2005 ) . PPPs are non simply a vehicle for authoritiess to develop substructure undertakings by reassigning all the hazards to the private sector and therefore casting of all their duties ; instead, they require appropriate allotment and direction of hazards ( Zhang, 2005 ) . Therefore, a PPP undertaking procurance protocol should be based on a public-private win-win rule. It should make a favorable environment and supply necessary support for private sector engagement, and set up effectual steps to guarantee that privatised undertakings and services are delivered at public acceptable criterions and quality. Governmental supports and private sector inputs should be balanced ( Zhang, 2005 ) .