## DEPARTMENT pressure control. The density of a

DEPARTMENT
OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

COVENANT
UNIVERSITY,CANNANLAND OTA,OGUN STATE,NIGERIA.

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PET327

PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING LABORATORY

DENSITY
EXPERIMENT

GROUP
F

OJO
FAITH OGHENEMUZAKPEME

15CN03279

DATE
PERFORMED : 19-01-2018

DATE
SUBMITTED :21-01-2018

ABSTARCT

The density
of the drilling fluid is important to maintaining well control. The essence of
this experiment is to determine the density of a prepared volume of mud sample,
expressed in various units which are subjected to different field uses. The
starting point of pressure control is the control of the mud density. The
weight of a column of the mud in the whole necessary to balance formation
pressure is the reference point from which all pressure control calculations
are based. The required weight of the mud column establishes the density of the
mud for any specific case.

TABLE
OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………2

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………4

EXPERIMENTAL
APPARTUS…………………………………………………………..5

SAMPLE USED FOR THE
EXPERIMENT……………………………………………6

PROCEDURES………………………………………………………………………………..7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS…………………………..…………………………….8

PRECAUTIONS……………………………………………………………………………..9

CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………………10

REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………………..11

INTRODUCTION

Density is
the weight per unit volume of a substance. The density of any mud sample needs
to be determined before any drilling operation because the pressure exerted by
any static mud column depends on this density value and the drilling depth. The
important of mud density during drilling operations cannot e over emphasized:
it forms the starting point of pressure control.

The density
of a volume of mud is determined by using a mud balance. The experiment
consists essentially of filling the cup of the mud balance with mud sample and
determining the rider position required for balance.

The mud
balance consists of a base and balance arm with cup, lid, knife edge, rider
level glass and counter weight. The cup is attached to one end of the balance
arm and the counter weight is at the opposite end. A level bubble shows when
the system is balance.

EXPERIMENTAL
APPARATUS

1)    4 scale mud balance

2)    Measuring Cyclinder

3)    Weighing balance

4)    Electric mixer

5)    Spatula

6)    Beaker

SAMPLE
USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT (PROCEDURES)

SAMPLE
1

1)    Weigh 35g of bentonite on the weigh
balance and measure 350ml of water in the measuring cylinder

2)    Mix evenly using the electric mixer
to prepare the mud sample until you get an homogenous mixture.

3)    Place the mud balance base in the
carry case on aflat level surface.

4)    Place the lid on the cup and set it
with a gentle twisting motion.

5)    Read the mud weight at the edge of
the reider towards the mud cup.

6)    Pour the mixture into the 4-scale mud
balance till it is full.

7)    Cover the cup with the lid.

8)    Adjust the rider until it balances.

9)    Take readings in ppg, S.G, lb/ft3,
Psi/1000ft.

SAMPLE
2

1)    Weigh 10g of barite using the
weighing balance.

2)    Add the 10g of barite to the prepared
sample 1.

3)    Use the electric mixer to mix evenly
to get a homogenous mixture.

4)    Pour the mixture into the 4-scale mud
balance cup until it is full.

5)    Cover the cup with the lid.

6)    Adjust the rider until it balances.

7)    Take readings in ppg, S.G, lb/ft3,
Psi/1000ft.

RESULTS
AND DISCUSSIONS

SAMPLE 1

PPG

SG

lb/ft3

Psi/1000ft

8.7

1.45

66

445

SAMPLE 2

PPG

SG

lb/ft3

Psi/1000ft

8.8

1.6

66.5

455

The table
above shows the weight of the mud and it differs in sample 1 from sample 2. And
this occurs due to the addition of barite to sample 1 and therefore increases
the weight of the mud.

PRECAUTIONS

1)    I ensured that my 4-scale mud balance
was well calibrated before my measuring my mud.

2)    I ensured that the cup of the mud of
the mud balace was wiped dry before balanced it on the knife edge.