Design and Build is non a new phenomenon, this type of procurance method has been with us since medieval times. Harmonizing to Jeffrey L. Beard et Al, when Ictinus and Callicrates built the Parthenon, the maestro builder and maestro Mason provided both a design and build service, to supply one without the other was unknown. Design and Build Contracts have been described as an agreement between a undertaking administration and a client, where the contractor takes full duty for the design and building of a undertaking. The industrial revolution of the eighteenth Century in Europe and the nineteenth Century in the United States of America brought about the separation of these two key elements of a design and construct contract. This led to the debut of what we know today as the traditional design/bid so construct method of procurance. The design/bid so construct attack of building procurance is where the client engages an designer who in concurrence with a structural applied scientist prepares the design, drawings and specification for a undertaking. The design complete with drawings and specification are so issued to several contractors for pricing. By and large the contractor with the lowest monetary value is so selected to construct the undertaking, but sometimes this is non ever the instance.
Harmonizing to the Haskell Company ( No Date ) , “ Cost and clip factors initiated the revival of the maestro builder attack. Since the 1960 ‘s, the per centum of Design-Build undertakings has increased dramatically. Today, non-residential Design-Build volume represents half of all building in the United States of Amercia. The ground for this addition is simple ; the Design-Build procedure provides a alone set of client advantages non available in any other bringing system ” . Harmonizing to a study prepared by Handscomb ( 2004 ) ; “ Design and physique has shown a steady market incursion in some states. In the United States of America and the United Kingdom, it has grown from less than 10 per centum in the early 1980 ‘s to more than 30 per centum today ” .
Prior to coming to the Middle East part in 2007, I was extensively involved in Design and Build type building undertakings, albeit utilizing the assorted different signifiers of the Design and Build Contract that are in circulation today ; for illustration the Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs-Conseils ( normally known as “ FIDIC ” ) and the Joint Council Tribunal ( UK ) ( normally known as “ JCT ” ) have published their ain editions of this type of Contract. The general rule behind all of these contracts is that the Employer has a individual point of contact and that the Design and Build Contractor accepts entire duty for both the design and building of a undertaking. Since geting in the part and holding worked in Oman, Bahrain & A ; the United Arab Emirates, it is apparent that the traditional ( design, command so construct ) type of Construction procurance method is extensively used, with small grounds of the design and construct contract being utltised.
The part is synonymous for mega building undertakings and could profit from other signifiers of procurance schemes such as design and physique. So why are non utilizing this bringing method more? Similarly the employers in this part are ill-famed for puting ambitious clip graduated tables for the bringing of their undertakings. From my experience and initial research, it is by and large accepted that the design/build catching procurance scheme would assist them salvage both clip and cost and full make full their demands for fast path undertakings.
If the industry and professionals within this part is to better understand the benefits of a design and construct procurement method ( either from a client and/or contractors perspective ) ; so they must acquire a better grasp of the different signifiers of design and construct contracts that are presently in being today, and where they are best used. Furthermore, both the contractor and client besides need to acquire a better grasp of the advantages and disadvantages of the different design and construct contracts if we are to utilize this bringing method more within the Middle East.
Therefore, in this thesis, the author will try to reply some of the inquiries raised before in this debut, peculiarly for those in the Middle part that may be interested at looking for options. In add-on to this, the author will try to supply an penetration into the positions and perceptual experience of other building professional within the part sing the design and construct procurement method.
At the terminal of the research it is expected to get at the undermentioned decision:
Design and Build Contracts are non needfully suited for every building undertaking ; each and every undertaking will hold a alone demand. However with instruction ; the industry as a whole in the part could potentially profit from this procurance method.
Peoples in the building industry within the part do non like go forthing their comfort zones and are less likely to advance alteration and advanced thoughts which may include the usage of alternate methods of procurance for Construction undertakings such as design and physique.
There are two chief purposes for this research undertaking. First to place what the benefits of design and construct building procurance method is to us here in the Middle East.
Second, to estimate what the overall consensus is on whether there is a hereafter for the design and physiques procurement method here in the Middle East.
To compare and contrast the traditional design/bid and so construct type of bringing method with the design and construct method.
To critically analyze the benefits of a design and construct building procurance method.
To place the assorted types of the design and construct building procurance methods and place where they are best used.
To determine the feelings and attitudes of the building professionals in the Middle East part to the design and construct procurement method and to estimate whether there is a hereafter for this procurance method.
What is Research?
The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines research as “ a careful hunt or enquiry ; endeavour to detect new or collate old facts etc. by scientific survey of a topic ; class of critical probe ”
Naoum ( 2007 ) has defined research scheme as “ the manner in which the research aim can be questioned ” .
Research schemes can be loosely classified into two groups ;
Naoum ( 2007 ) suggests that Quantitative research is “ nonsubjective ” in nature and is used to mensurate how people feel, think or act in a peculiar manner. This research focuses on garnering numerical informations across a group of people. Quantitative research can be used for the undermentioned fortunes.
To roll up factual grounds and analyze the relationship between these facts in order to prove a peculiar theory or hypothesis.
To happen facts about a construct, a inquiry or an property.
In the context of research, the aim is to prove or verify a theory instead than develop one.
Naoum ( 2007 ) besides suggests that Qualitative research is “ subjective ” in nature and can be divided into two chief subcategories ;
Exploratory Research – This research method is used when we have a limited sum of cognition about the selected subject. The interview technique is normally selected as a method of informations aggregation.
Attitudinal Research – This research method is used to measure the sentiment, position or the perceptual experience of a individual towards a peculiar topic.
This research method seeks out the ‘why ‘ and non ‘how ‘ . This type of research does n’t merely trust on statistics or Numberss, which are the sphere of quantitative research.
The research informations necessary to finish this thesis will be obtained from primary and secondary beginnings supplying qualitative and quantitative information. The primary informations will be obtained through a questionnaire and the secondary informations through a literature reappraisal.
The cardinal ground for taking this method of research is that it will enable the author to roll up empirical informations that will enable them to compare and contrast the traditional design/bid and so construct type of contract with the design and construct contract. In add-on to this, the empirical information will enable the author to critically analysis the benefits of the design and physique contract, every bit Wellss as the designation of the different discrepancies of the design and physique and where they are best used.
The literature reappraisal will obtain information published by industry diaries, industry web sites and academic text books. Any other relevant and/or pertinent information will be obtained through the cyberspace.
Naoum ( 2007 ) confirms that for a successful literature reappraisal, consideration must be given to the followers: –
Knowing the beginnings of information: Designation of the appropriate literature which possibly from primary beginnings ( academic research diaries, theses, studies, and authorities publications ) , and/or secondary beginnings ( text books, trade diaries, newspapers ) , and/or mention ushers ( lexicons, encyclopedia ) .
Primary literature is acknowledged as being the most accurate beginning of information.
Understanding how the library plants: Bell ( 1996 ) listed three of import points that you need to bear in head while carry oning a literature research ( How to happen relevant published stuff rapidly, avoid acquiring bogged down, entering information derived from reading )
Note-taking: Dunleavy ( 1988 ) remarks that, when set abouting taking a literature reappraisal, one needs to acquire off from concentrating excessively single-mindedly on what the writer is seeking to state, and alternatively concentrate on what you are seeking to acquire out of a beginning.
Systematically administration of the literature: Align the literature gathered and to register harmonizing to the chapters of the thesis for future easiness of mention.
Measuring and composing up the literature reappraisal: Upon reasoning the literature reappraisal, merely so will we be able to critically reexamine the parts of other people work to the capable country.
Both primary and secondary literature beginnings will be reviewed and the appropriate notes and informations will be consistently kept in a literature file. Due to the geographical restraints of life in the Sultanate of Oman and the comparatively high cost of going to the United Kingdom which would be needed to set about a extended literature reappraisal, the bulk of the literature reappraisal will be done via the cyberspace. Here a elaborate hunt of diaries, research studies, newspapers and magazines will be carried out to turn up the established information needed to set about this subdivision of the thesis.
One of the chief grounds for set abouting a questionnaire is they are suited to the assemblage of mass information and sentiments at a minimum cost ( Naoum – 2007 ) . Another ground for choosing a questionnaire is that it is an ideal method for roll uping both Qualitative and Quantitative information from respondents.
A bill of exchange questionnaire will be produced and piloted in order to look into that it will work successfully. The concluding questionnaire will chiefly utilize closed inquiries in order to obtain both qualitative and qualitative informations. The questionnaire will be targeted at the white collar building professionals with within the Middle East. These persons should be from Employers, Developers, Consultants and Main Contractors administrations in order to obtain a wide and balance positions from the bulk of the stakeholders in a undertaking.
Which one of these building procurance methods do you believe is the most extensively used in the Middle East?
Traditional ( Design/Bid/Construct )
Design & A ; Build
Specification & A ; Pulling
Which one of these building procurance methods do you prefer?
Traditional ( Design/Bid/Construct )
Design & A ; Build
Specification & A ; Pulling
A questionnaire will let the author to estimate the general position of the building professionals in the Middle East part as to the hereafter of the design and construct procurement method in this part.
The information provided by respondents in the context of this thesis will be considered to be dependable because it will be from a diverse array of building forces and will be from different geographical countries within the Middle East.
In the event that the responses to the questionnaire autumn below 40 % after 4 hebdomads of publishing the questionnaire, so the eventuality program will be to supplement the questionnaire with interviews, albeit these interviews will be structured around the questionnaire.
As stated above, in the event that the response rate to the questionnaire is below 40 % , a series of face to confront interviews will be held with a figure of cardinal people within the industry albeit within the Sultanate of Oman, sooner from a diverse scope of subjects i.e. Contractors, Developers and Consultants. The interviews will be structured around the questionnaire to assist supplement the informations gathered from the emailed questionnaire. If necessary, telephone interviews will be arranged with co-workers in order to supplement the informations collect from the emailed questionnaire. Interviews are considered a great technique for garnering factual information every bit good as sentiments.
The informations received from the respondents and/or if interviewee ‘s will be collated and analysed utilizing the descriptive statistic method. Where appropriate saloon charts and/or histograms will be used to show the informations gathered from the questionnaire and/or interviews. Each inquiry and/or where necessary a group of inquiries will be accompanied with the appropriate narrative and analysis.
Dependability of Datas
Walliman ( 2005 ) wrote that informations can be deceptive because it is elusive and passing, In other words, the informations collected from a respondent at any point in clip may merely be representative of a respondents head set on a peculiar twenty-four hours, and at a peculiar minute in clip. If the respondent is once more asked the same inquiry one month subsequently, you may happen their reply different to the reply obtained earlier.
To assist get the better of the pattern of “ selective prejudice ” ( Torgerson & A ; Torgerson 2003 ) , the questionnaire will be sent to a figure of nationalities ( Italian, Gallic, India, Sri Lankan, Bahraini, Omani, Filipino ) . To a big extent, this will hopefully eliminate the potency for “ selective prejudice ” .
Restrictions of Survey
Due to the comparatively little Numberss of participants in the proposed study, the consequences of the concluding study may non be a true and accurate contemplation of the building professionals in the Middle East part as a whole. This may be farther compounded if the responses to the questionnaire are comparatively low. However, for the intent of reasoning this thesis, the consequences of this study will be deemed to be a true representation of the ideas and perceptual experiences of a diverse array of professionals who live in different geographical countries within the Middle East.
In the covering electronic mail and/or missive that will attach to the questionnaire, each of the participants will be advised of the nature and/or the intent of my research. Furthermore, the author will inquire each participant to obtain the consent of their director to take part in the study if they have any uncertainness whatsoever. The author will besides corroborate in the covering electronic mail that the information provided by the respondents will stay confidential. For the intent of this thesis, “ confidentiality ” is taken to intend that the participant will non be identifiable in any manner by a reader of the concluding study or thesis. Furthermore, it will be made clear to the participants that they can with draw from the study ant any clip and their response will be destroyed consequently.
One of the chief intents of the literature reappraisal is to compare and contrast the traditional signifier of contracts with the design and construct contract. In add-on to this, the literature reappraisal will besides seek to critically analyze the design and build signifier of contract every bit good as determine where best the design and build signifier of contract should be used and each of these points are briefly discussed below: –
Compare and Contrast the Traditional Vs. Design and Build
Shapiro Hankinson & A ; Knutson Law Corporation ( no day of the month ) describes a traditional contract as an agreement that involves three parties i.e. the client, the interior decorator and the contractor. The client appoints the interior decorator to fix drawings and specifications. These contract paperss inclusive of the drawings and specification when complete are issued to assorted contractors for pricing. Normally the lowest priced contractor is appointed to build the undertaking harmonizing to the design programs and specifications.
Shapiro Hankinson & A ; Knutson Law Corporation ( no day of the month ) besides describes a design and construct contract as an agreement where the client enters in to a individual understanding with the design and build contractor. The design/build contractor performs both the design and building of the undertaking. The client sets out their demands in a papers called the employers demands. This papers must clearly put out any public presentation criterions, aesthetic and functional demands for the proposed undertaking. Furthermore, this papers must besides place any specific demands in relation to the undertaking.
Critical Analysis of the Design and Build Contract.
The statements for Design and Build Contract are ( Pro ‘s ) : –
Ndekugri and Turner ( 1994 ) suggests that the usage of design and physique is on the addition with many clients comprehending it as supplying better value for money and giving rise to less differences than other procurement methods.
Saxon ( 2000 ) argues that integrating of design and building offers better public presentation in clip and cost and consequences in less defects.
Adams ( 1999 ) confirms that the bulk of clients regard design and physique as the optimal path to obtain value for money.
Smit ( 1995 ) suggests that the popularity of design and build arises from its perceived ability to convey design and building processes closer together culturally.
Hughes ( 1992 ) argues that Design & A ; Build offers a high grade of cost certainty, encourages economical solutions, and enables value to be considered every bit good as monetary value.
Similarly the statement against the Design and Build Contract are ( Con ‘s ) : –
Appelbaum et Al ( 2012 ) argues that “ the chief disadvantage of traditional design-build is that the proprietor loses control of the design procedure, since the design professional ‘s primary legal and practical commitment is to the design-builder instead than the proprietor. This can make terrible struggles of involvement during both the design stage and building disposal ” .
Hanscomb ( 2004 ) confirms that one of the disadvantages of a design and construct agreement is that differences frequently occur when the employer demands are non specific plenty and left unfastened to the reading of the parties
SchiffHardin LLP ( n.d ) , states that due to the specialized nature of the design and construct agreement, the client may happen it hard to obtain competitory citations.
The different types of the Design and Build Contract.
The signifiers of design and physique that will be discussed in this survey will be a combination of the loanblends identified by Rowlinson ( 1987 ) and Akintoye ( 1994 ) .
Akintoye ( 1994 ) identifies the undermentioned six signifiers of design and physique ;
traditional design and construct
develop and concept.
design and manage
design, manage and concept
novation design and construct
bundle trade ( including prison guard )
Rowlinson ( 1987 ) identifies three broader types therefore ;
pure design and construct
integrated design and construct
fragmented design and physique.
The whole intent of this thesis is excessively: –
To supply an penetration into the design and physique contract, and how this signifier of contract procurance may profit the Middle East in the hereafter
To estimate the attitudes, perceptual experience and positions of the building professionals in the Middle East to the design and construct contract.
To estimate whether Construction Professionals in the Middle East are unfastened to alter.