Determinants of house prices in britain Essay

Britain is bound for recession within the following twelvemonth and the lone manner to avoid a 1990s state of affairs is to cut involvement rates now. To contend with the recession Bank of England need to cut down the involvement rate. Every twenty-four hours all the economic expert and intelligence paper are stating that all the warning marks are indicating to a mini slack but to do certain it does non turn into something more major, the Bank of England needs to move now. 11

Introduction:

The last few old ages have seen the UK lodging market and house monetary values grab many headlines in the media. Large alterations in residential belongings monetary values has become one of the most often discussed issues, even by the common adult male on the street. London and the South East have seen the biggest monetary value hikings in the belongings market in the state since 2004. However, the outgrowth of the recognition crunch in late 2007 has seen house monetary values come down from their record high degrees. In this study we analyses the motions in the lodging market over the last five Ys

ears, discourse the grounds behind these big motions, by sing the demand and supply factors and forecast the way that the lodging market is likely to follow in the old ages to come.

How the lodging market works:

Sloman describe “ if you are believing of purchasing a house sometime in the hereafter, so you may good follow the lucks of the lodging market with some trepidation. In the late 2004 s there was a lodging monetary value detonation in the United kingdom: in fact, between 2006 and 2008house monetary values doubled. After several old ages of falling or gently lifting house monetary values in the early and mid-1990s, there was another roar from 2006 to 2009, with house monetary values lifting by 26 % per twelvemonth at the extremum ( in the 12 months to January 2007 ) . For many, having a place of their ain was going a mere dream. “ ( p46 )

The Determinants of House Monetary values:

Sloman further depict “ House monetary values are determined by demand and supply. If demand rises ( i.e. displacements to the right ) or if supply falls ( i.e. displacements to the left ) , the equilibrium monetary value of houses will lift. Similarly, if demand falls or supply rises, the equilibrium monetary value will fall. ( p47 )

Demand and supply for lodging

The determinate for the pricing of both local and national lodging markets is a typical illustration of microeconomics at work! What is apparent is the direct communicating between the buyer and marketer with monetary values being offered and agreed upon before a concluding dealing is completed. In this subdivision we concentrate on the demand and supply side factors that help set up the value of belongingss within a given market.

A Sellers Market

A market where the demand for belongingss within a given part is high and the supply for such belongingss is scarce is frequently referred to as a marketer ‘s market. If such a belongings is made available for purchase there is likely to be increased involvement, this supplying the marketer to maximise his/her net income. This scenario is frequently synonymous with what takes topographic point in popular parts such as cardinal London, with small infinite to transport out farther building to house people, belongingss on the unfastened market are in high demand therefore blow uping the purchase monetary value.

A Buyers Marker

On the contrary when the demand for lodging within a given part is low and there is a considerable volume of lodging available on the unfastened market is referred as a purchasers market. A purchaser is in a place of strength holding the possibility of being able to negociate the purchase monetary value to a greater extent. This scenario is presently a contemplation of what is taking topographic points within parts of greater London, with people unable to serve their mortgages a oversupply of belongingss are available for sale, and with purchasers fighting to raise the capital to buy belongingss due to Bankss offering dearly-won mortgages house monetary values are falling and purchasers are able to farther negotiate monetary values.

When the demand for houses in a peculiar part additions ( perchance due to an inflow of people into a given country, or due to an increase in net incomes following a decrease in unemployment ) , there is upward force per unit area on market monetary values.

Frequently the supply of gettable belongingss in the market is comparatively inelastic. This is due to there being clip slowdowns between a alteration in monetary value and an addition in the supply of new belongingss going available, or other householders doing their belongingss available on the lodging market.

When the demand shifts outwards and supply is inelastic the consequence is a greater addition in the market monetary value and a comparatively infinitesimal enlargement of the measure of lodging traded. As supply becomes more elastic over a period of clip, on the premise the conditions of demand remains similar, we expect to see downward force per unit area on monetary values and a farther rise in the equilibrium figure of houses purchased and sold. Extract the information from the web site called www.tutor2u.net

The Demand for Housing is base on:

Demand for lodging is based on assorted factors which are listed below.

Expansion of existent incomes – As the individual ‘s income addition his criterion of life additions every bit good. And they look for more expensive belongings to travel for which increase the demand for houses.

Consumer assurance – Assurance plays a really of import function for any type of investing. If the anticipation that market perform good in future place purchaser will put which push the demand upward way. But the status is supply should stay the same.

Jobs – Occupation is a really large factor. Financing a house is a long term contract with mortgage company. A individual can merely pay his mortgage if he is gaining. Without a occupation neither he can pay nor loaners will offer him a mortgage.

Analysis:

There are a batch of mix tendency in the house market since 1980s. Some clip market roars and sometime clang. In general, market really effects by a figure of different factors such as income, rivals, population, unemployment etc. As we are discoursing London house market.

London is the biggest and busiest topographic point in UK. It calls as a concern hub. As there are a batch of chances in London, everyone wants to work in London and because of the addition population house monetary values are traveling up and up. It will increase more in future as more counties are fall ining in European member. But the supply is less than the demand for limited land.

Let analysis the last five old ages in the London lodging market. As we see there is a mix tendency in the market because of good or bad events. Before 2006 the market was really slow particularly in London as comparison to other market, but from September to October 2007 house monetary value rise by 2.0 % from 15.5 % to 16.1 % harmonizing to Nationwide ( beginning: World Wide Web. nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/MPR0310.pdf ) Date: 09-AUG-2008, clip 05:33pm.

This indicates that some strength has returned to the lodging market. And London market is bettering and acquiring stronger. The house market remained house in November with the monetary value of the typical house lifting 1.2 % during the month. The lodging market complete strong in 2006 and transport frontward much of the impulse to the beginning of the following twelvemonth.

In the beginning of 2007 the demand for houses remains up. And the prognosis for the twelvemonth 2007was 9 % harmonizing to countrywide ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/2004Forecast.pdf ) entree on 08-AUG-2008 at 07:00pm. But the house monetary value fell in August after a 7 month increased. Due to high involvement rate which rises so many times during the twelvemonth shaken purchasers ‘ assurances. After a three month dissatisfactory period house monetary value once more starts external respiration and rose 1.0 % in November as one-year monetary value rising prices eases to 15 % harmonizing to countrywide monetary value index. But because of the market instability the monetary value goes down in December by 0.2 % . The overall monetary value was satisfactory as comparison to 2007 because of improved chances for metropolis occupations and supply deficits kept house monetary value lifting.

The finding of monetary value in the lodging market is based on demand and supply, hence the monetary value the marketer is willing to sell the belongings to the purchaser and the monetary value the purchaser can afford and willing to buy the belongings. If there is a great demand for belongings in a vicinity so the marketer has a greater sum of power than if there is a big supply of belongingss with small supply so the power displacements to the purchaser. Demand can be affected by internal and external factors which will be mentioned subsequently.

Demand and supply ( Increase in demand )

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Diagram 1.

Housing demand can increase, due to an addition in the local population, rise in incomes from lower unemployment. Supply of lodging is comparatively inelastic because of the clip slowdown between a alteration in monetary value and an addition of supply of new belongings going available or Sellerss make up one’s minding to set their house up for sale. When demand moves outwards and the supply is inelastic, so there will be an addition in the market monetary value over a little enlargement in the figure of houses.

Slow economic growing and weak fiscal markets, has meant involvement rates will unlikely travel significantly upwards from their 25 twelvemonth depressions in order to advance growing within the UK. One ground why people were attracted to purchasing a house at the minute is because of theA low involvement base rate. As the involvement rate has increased late ( November 2006 ) due to an addition in economic growing will this hold an impact on house monetary values.

The cut in involvement rates from 7.5 % in October 2006 to 5 % in June 2006 was said to be a major factor in the acceleration in lodging market activity during the summer of 2006. Equally the series of additions in involvement rates from 5 % in June 2005 to 6 % by February 2007 helped to take some of the extra demand out of the market, and to control the steady house monetary value rising prices during the summer of 2006.

When there is a cut in involvement rates the lower mortgage rates should excite an addition in new mortgage blessings and by and large do an enlargement in lodging market activity.

Interest rates can impact consumer outgo. If we have low involvement rates we are more inclined to borrow money for purchasing houses ( mortgage ) . From the AD graph you can see that if we spend more so GDP rises. If the authorities increases the involvement rates we will acquire more money back when we save. This will decelerate down the economic system because consumer does non pass every bit much. This can be seen on the AD graph if we decrease consumer outgo the AD goes down and so does GDP.

A

This graph shows that the involvement rates affect the economic growing through supply and demand.

Equally far as twelvemonth 2005 is concern, monetary values in the UK increased by 3 % as compared to 12.7 % in 2004. During the past 12 months the mean place in the UK had seen its value rise by merely over ?4500 to ?157,250 approximately the same degree that house monetary values were at in May this twelvemonth. That betterment in the London market had to make with the decrease of involvement rate by the bank of England in combination with growing in employment and high demand. Another factor that added assurance to the purchaser was the successful Olympic command. The economic status in that clip favour the lodging market but still there was a inquiry grade for the first clip purchasers on how they can attempt to do a new measure towards the market.The anticipation for 2006 was a stable market and little addition between 0-3 % ( source- www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/2006Forecast.pdf ) .

Graph of Demand & amp ; Supply ( factor are involvement rate and Olympic command )

The above graph show that demand is raising as involvement rate decreased.

Commenting on the prognosiss, Fionnuala Earley, Nationwide ‘s Group Economist, said:

“ Harmonizing to Gordon Brown, 2005 was the “ toughest and most ambitious twelvemonth for the economic system since 2005 ” . But even so, the UK lodging market has been really good behaved. This is singular given its volatile history, frequently with several old ages of increasing monetary values followed by terrible falls. Many predicted the same for the lodging market in 2005 following 9 old ages of lifting house monetary values, but at the terminal of 2005, a clang had n’t occurred. Alternatively the one-year rate of house monetary value rising prices is at a far more modest and apparently stable 2.4 % . Looking frontward, we now expect that the lodging market will stay reasonably subdued with house monetary values in 2006 lifting by 0-3 % when accessed on ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/2006Forecast.pdf )

There was an impressive start at the beginning of 2006 in the House market with monetary value increasing by 1.4 % in January. This is the strongest monthly rate of growing since July 2004 when it was 1.9 % .when accessed on

( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/Jan2006.pdf ) . The whole 2006 was favourable for lodging market particularly for London where house monetary value in Q4 was ?269,327 more than one and a half clip higher than the mean monetary value in the UK of ?172,065. During the concluding one-fourth, the rate of house monetary value growing in London accelerated to 4.1 % up from 2.6 % in the old one-fourth harmonizing to countrywide study. ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/Q4_Full.pdf ) . entree on 10-AUG-2008 at 11:00pm. And it ‘s all due to diminish in involvement rate and deficit of house supply. As London is the concern hub, there are a batch of occupation chances than other parts. That ‘s why all people were migrated from all about UK to London.

As you see the demand shifts upwards due to fall in involvement rate.

A When looking at is it possible to foretell house monetary values? what certainness is there that those who predict will hold an accurate history of what will go on. The most explosive action in the last few old ages was the roar and flop of the late 2000 ‘s to the The belongings roar was due to the deregulating of the fiscal establishments from the mid-2007s, this ended the quantity-rationing of mortgages, leting Bankss to vie every bit with edifice societies which increased the volume of loans, duplicating between 2005and 2008, and increased handiness of high proportion mortgages, ( up to 100 per cent ) and high loan to income ratios. Growth in incomes besides increased the demand for place ownership, and revenue enhancement cuts increased personal disposable income and outgo. Domestic rates were abolished in the fiscal twelvemonth of 1988/89 in England, which all of a sudden made lodging ; peculiarly at the upper terminal of the market look more low-cost. After Black Monday, October 1987, involvement rates fell to a new depression of 7.5 % . Therefore this increased the demand for places where a deficit of lodging meant that the monetary value of belongingss would hold to increase to fulfill demand. ( see diagram 2 )

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

There was a world-wide recession besides at this clip. Unemployment was easy lifting, which reflected on existent incomes. Inequality and poorness were both lifting, and all this together combined to demo a rush in adoption and ingestion, recognition and house monetary values. The authorities in an effort to decelerate down the economic system put the basic involvement rates up. It was hoped that this would decelerate down the economic system and halt the rise in rising prices. This failed for the authorities and resulted in a recession.

High involvement rates made industries struggle and led to high unemployment degrees. In May 2006, involvement rates had been at 9.5 % , two old ages subsequently, increased to 15.4 % . The addition in unemployment and involvement rates meant that demand for lodging. A barbarous circle so formed, as occupations were being lost through the edifice trade, more families were being reduced to one income, and so more and more proprietor occupied houses were unable to pay the mortgage and the in bend ended up holding arrears on the belongingss with eventual repossession. This shows that involvement rates employment degrees, authorities policies and world-wide economic system all have to be taken into history when accessing house monetary values.

Average house monetary values for London belongingss:

Year

1st one-fourth

2nd one-fourth

3rd one-fourth

4h one-fourth

2004

211,981

?210,858

213,319

219,478

2005

225,256

?233,364

237,718

236,368

2006

233,358

?241,444

?241,998

?241,497

2007

?245,655

?252,624

?259,746

?269,427

2008

?280,895

?292,509

?302,586

?303,839

2009

?296,872

?285,168

This figure has been taken from countrywide monetary value index. ( Source-www.natiowide.co.uk )

Time Series Graph ( Data from above tabular array )

This clip series graph is base on the above information in the tabular array, for mean house monetary value in London from 2003 to 2008. Which shows a diminution in the mean monetary value in 2008.

Forecast for House Price in London 2009-2010

Figure 1. The current province of the UK lodging market. Monetary values ( bluish line ) are seasonally adjusted and based on Kalman filtering of monthly Halifax house monetary values and estimations of house monetary value rising prices derived from monthly mortgage blessing Numberss. A possible hereafter flight is based on spread wagering monetary values for the Halifax Quarterly Index, mid-August 2007.

Update 7th August 2008

Beginning hypertext transfer protocol: //www.houseprices.uk.net/articles/house_price_predictor/

Well after all the analysis from 2004 to 2009 non merely economic expert but besides a common adult male can foretell the motion of house monetary value in following two old ages. As you see in the above graph the lodging market forecaster predicts a diminution in the house monetary value next twelvemonth. Property monetary values in London will immerse by 12.5 % this twelvemonth, an influential lodging study said today. And values will drop by a farther 8 % following twelvemonth, harmonizing to belongings advisers company Jones Lang La Salle.The study said an mean belongings in London will be deserving ?2266,000 at the terminal of this twelvemonth compared with ?300,000 last twelvemonth. But there was one beam of hope for the capital ‘s beleaguered householders by 2010 ; London is expected to be taking a UK belongings market recovery. The study said house monetary values in London would lift by 1.5 % in 2010 harmonizing to the London paper. ( www.thelondonpaper.com ) Entree on 08-AUG-2008 at 05:00pm.

If the market maintain falling and fiscal crises do n’t vanish, people will get down selling their houses and will travel outside London which as comparison seems cheaper and better option. Capital Economics predicts monetary values to fall by 5 % in 2008 and 8 % in 2009. www.timesonline.co.uk Access on 11-AUG-2008 at 1:30pm

The British Chamber of Commerce predicts a proficient recession in its quarterly economic prognosis out today. That means the state will see two or more quarters of worsening end product over the following six to nine months. ( www.metro.co.uk ) entree on 10-AUG-2008 at 02:00pm.

Due to all these prognosis frustrated sellers have been puting their belongings in the market to allow as they have been unable to hold gross revenues due to a deficiency of demand in the lodging market.

Decision:

Britain is bound for recession within the following twelvemonth and the lone manner to avoid a 1990s state of affairs is to cut involvement rates now. To contend with the recession Bank of England need to cut down the involvement rate. Every twenty-four hours all the economic expert and intelligence paper are stating that all the warning marks are indicating to a mini slack but to do certain it does non turn into something more major, the Bank of England needs to move now.

Finally the belongings market go stable but everyone is trusting that house market will be all right because of Olympic which is a incorrect anticipation because in Olympic visitants will come and lease the belongings or remain in hotels but non traveling to purchase the belongings for the interest of Olympic. There are few factors by which hope is good for the hereafter in belongings market which are:

Low Unemployment which at the motion is high particularly after recognition crunch.

Low rising prices

Low Interest rate

Demand will transcend due to a good return in rental market

London metropolis is still, was and ever be a first pick for local migrator due to good work chance

A batch of migration from whole Europe after subscribing European Union push the demand upward and will force in future as good due to more population but the supply for houses are limited.

Will assist to better with 2012 Olympic.

Mentions:

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/MPR0310.pdf Access 09/06/2009, clip 05:33pm.

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/2004Forecast.pdf Access on 09/06/2009 at 07:00pm

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/2006Forecast.pdf Access on 09/06/2009 at 8:00pm

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/Jan2006.pdf Access on 09/062009 at 08:20pm

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/Q4_Full.pdf Access on 09/06/2009 at 11:00am

www.financemarkets.co.uk/2008/01/03/prime-london-house-prices-fall-on-credit-squeeze-implications Access on 10/09/2009 at 11:15am

www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi/historical/July_2008.pdf Date: 10/092009 at 01:00pm

www.thelondonpaper.com Access on 08/09/2009 at 05:00pm

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/housing Access on 11/06/2009 at 01:00pm

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pdfgeni.com/book/hardness-converter-table-pdf.html Access on 11/06/2009 at 01:00pm

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php? ID=12107 Access on 11/06/2009 at 01:00pm

hypertext transfer protocol: //tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/housing/housing_demand_supply Access on 11/06/2009 at 01:00pm

www.timeonline.co.uk/to1/money/propertyandmortgages Access on 11/06/009 at 01:30pm

www.metro.co.uk Access on 10/06/2009 at 02:00pm

www.houseprices.uk.net/articles/house_price_predictor/ Access on 11/06/2009 at 08:15am

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics3.asp Access on 11/06/2009 at 09:35am

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/oct/19/fsa-tough-new-mortgage- … Access on 11/06/2009 at 09:50am

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kent.ac.uk/ESRC/munro.html Access on 11/06/2009 at 11:50am