A brief account of the differences between short term memory and long term memory considering the extent to which research support distinction between them.
Memory is the ability to keep things in one’s mind and recall them at will. There are three different types of memory. These are sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.
These are called stores. These stores have different capacities, durations and ways of encoding. The memory works in a specific way.The sensory memory is passed on to the short term memory if the person is paying attention to the information being processed and if that person performs elaborative rehearsal then the information is sent to the long term memory. You can receive information from the short term memory but the long term memory is unconscious. Sensory memory is only available for a 10th of a second. It is automatic and is kept in the unconscious part of the mind.
The short term memory (STM) is very different to the long term memory (LTM).The STM is the short term memory’s duration is up to 20 seconds. The capacity is said to be up to 7 letters or words.
According to millers theory of the magic number 7 theory where several people were tested on how many letters or word they could recall after a list being read out to them. The results were a 5-9 words with an average of 7. Encoding the STM is said by Conrad to be done acoustically through sound and visual information. The LTM is semantic and has an unlimited capacity and duration.This is in the unconscious and is seen and re-awakened through dreams.
Information is stored permanently. The LTM holds past memories and childhood events. Even though people normally do not remember these events, they are stored in the LTM and can be pushed to the STM. There are many differences between LTM and STM. Baddeley performed an experiment testing the differences between STM and LTM.
Baddeley suggested that the working model was based on a multi-store model. He said that the STM is a single store to the LTM. They both have characterises.