1. Materials for Superstructure
Superstructure made of different sort of stuffs. The apprehension of stuffs, it belongingss and usage will assist in achieve economic system and efficient usage of stuffs. In general 60 % to 70 % of the entire costs of building are gain by stuffs. Material usage depends on local fortunes and standard practise.
Choices of stuffs are changing to the bottleneck. By and large there are some major subjects that consider when select stuffs.
? Functional demands
? Aesthetic visual aspect
? Site location
? Properties of Materials- physical, chemical, mechanical, thermic, electrical and acoustic belongingss
There are five major stuffs that use widely in building and some other stuffs to better the edifice value.
1.1 Reinforced Concrete
Concrete is the lone chief building stuff that can be delivered to the site in a fictile status. This alone quality makes concrete popular as a building stuff since it can be moulded to practically any form or signifier. Concrete usage in by and large building work as reinforced with steel. There are chiefly two types of concrete.
I. In situ reinforced concrete. Which means made in the building site and dramatis personae in to model or formwork till becomes solid.
? big graduated table of pick to design of the constructions
? Less sum of infinite required to hive away
? No demand of skilled labors
? No demand of immense machinery like Cranes
? Traffic will non impact to the building programme
? Necessitate more clip to acquire solid
? More labors required
? Formwork required. Which means acquiring more clip
? Difficult to command the quality
? Difficult to make alteration after projecting
? Hard to build during rainy conditions
two. Precast Concrete. This type manufactured off site harmonizing to demands, conveyance to the site and hole.
Pre cast beams at ICC, Piliyandala
? Increase the Speed of building by salvaging the clip without formwork and hardening clip
? Less labour force required
? Quality is high
? Weather state of affairs do non act upon
? Less infinite required because pre-cast concrete is on site while necessary.
? Costly than in situ concrete
? Skilled labors required
? Connections between points might be complicated
? Few design picks
? Need batch infinite in site to utilize heavy machines like Cranes and it will dearly-won
? Transportation for urban country will hard during traffic
I recommend in situ reinforced concrete instead than precast concrete. In Sri Lanka, few precast workss available and they are far off from Kandy metropolis. Precast points are really immense and need broad and long vehicles to transport. It will really dearly-won to transport them and since Kandy has narrow roads, heavy traffic will bring forth.
When we consider about site program there are curve forms in forepart of the hotel. It will acquire more clip to fabricate such forms in precast. Since client wants complete the concept shortly as possible, it will ticket thought to utilize in situ reinforced concrete for beams, columns and slabs.
Structural steel is the trendiest framing stuff for structural in universe. Steel members, normally referred to columns and beams. Steel signifiers are suited to speedy building plants.
Reinforcement bars are used in concrete. There are two types of support bars available, Tor steel bars and mild steel bars. Tor steel bars with outer surface distortions created by weaving the steel after elongation. Surface of tor steel bars made good bond with concrete. Mild steel non stronger like tor steel because it neither twisted nor difficult Sur
Tor steel Mild steel
? Reinforcement bars gives tensile strength to concrete
? Strong in both compaction and tenseness
? Flexibility enemy designs
? Speedup the building
? Alterations can be done even after raising
? Sustainable stuff ( reuse, reclaimable )
? Safe even in temblors
? Long, heavy and hard to transport to the site in urban countries
? Capable to corrosion
? Low fire opposition
? Thermal enlargement
Hard, tough stuff that forms the short pantss of trees and that has been used for as a building stuff. Timber has provided with a broad scope of edifice material and stuffs for building.
? Reduce energy usage
? High thermic insularity when compared with other building stuffs
? Good sound insularity
? Timbre forms cut down the building clip
? Perfect aesthetic visual aspect
? Availability is high
? Has Low embedded energy
? Skilled labours required
? Storage in site need more infinite and some exceptional methods
? Low fire opposition
? Difficult to transport
? Moisture and temperature alterations will consequence to the lasting
For floor, stairwaies, doors, Windowss and for interior dividers I recommend timber use. Timber will give nice feeling to invitees and for hotel lumber will heighten the comfort. Besides, lumber and skilled labours available in Kandy for low cost.
1.4 Bricks and Blocks
For concept the wall, bricks or blocks are utilizing.
Brick is a clay structural stuff that is made by pressing clay into blocks and firing them to acquire the needed hardness in a kiln.
? Thermal garnering ability to hive away temperature bricks absorb heat during the daylight and small by small let go ofing it at night-time, guaranting interior temperatures are steady during the twenty-four hours and dark. The result is comfy and healthy environment.
? Sustainable stuff ( reclaimable )
? Low weight
? Resistance to fire is high
? deteriorate with clip
? High initial cost
? Wastage is high. Lot of bricks are blowing during burden, conveyance and droping
Blocks are made with a mix of Portland cement, H2O and sum
? Low cost
? long enduring
? High strength
? Wastage is low
? High fire opposition
? Heavy weight to the foundation
? Poor sound insularity
I recommend bricks for hotel walls. Initial cost might be high. But it has better thermic insularity and it will cut down the energy cost of hotel in future. It gives good comfort and fire opposition if needed. Bricks are available in Kandy at most of the clip for low cost.
Glass is one the most various substance on Earth, used in many consturuction applications and in a big scope of signifiers.
? Better aesthetic visual aspect
? Good heat insularity. Saves energy of HVAC
? Transparent ability helps to acquire natural lightning
? Cost is high
? Security and privateness will be affected
? Care cost is high
? Brittleness is high even in little impact
? Melt under really high temperature.
I recommend toughen glass construction for above 3rd floor to roof entree. It will give all right visual aspect to the hotel.
Other than above major superstructure stuffs there is three more stuffs use in building
1 ) Water proofing stuffs
2 ) Acoustic stuffs
3 ) Heat insularity stuffs
2-Forms of Construction
When beams, columns, girders, trusses, and spandrils joined to one another it called building signifier and it must hold stableness to the construction. Roof panels and floors which non connected to the columns ( secondary members ) are non taken into history of the structural frame. There are assorted types of signifiers utilizing in building.
The Simple Cage Forms
Most common stuff for this type of signifier is steel. Steel signifiers have many advantages and some disadvantages.
? Steel are more strong and lightweight.
? Can accomplish really speedy physique clip. Because the fiction is all done antecedently.
? Steel besides flexible and lightweight stuff which allows designed for untypical types.
? Steel is one of the most durable stuffs presented, and it has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of all building metals. This means that a lesser sum of steel is required to raise a construction which means nest eggs in edifice disbursals.
? It is improbable to deform, break, cleft, crook, or spread out with conditions.
? Steel has sustainability. Which means Steel is 100 % reclaimable.
? Can be complex and dearly-won to screen expeditiously
? Not really fine-looking or predictable for residential usage outgrowth
? Maximum five narratives can be approach because it may be complicated to run into high air current burden demands
? By and large limited to widths 60 ‘ otherwise narrower. wider than 70` broad are hard to put up and would affect heavy equipments
? Difficult to transport in urban countries
? Less fire Protection
The Beam and Slab signifiers ( in situ concrete )
This type is largely use in universe. With strengthened concrete it can acquire more efficient.
? Reinforced concrete can keep more burden and does non have on easy
? Cost effectual for medium size buildings
? Higher fire opposition capableness
? Can acquire any architectural position as client demand
? Easily build even in urban countries because of in situ concrete
? Can bear heavy air current burden when consider high rise edifices
? Slow velocity of building. Because it takes more yearss to bring around the concrete
? Besides, slow building velocity means Higher outgo to labor
? Suitable for little and average type buildings. Because it can t acquire long span in signifier
Wholly Precast Concrete Forms
Precast concrete signifier projecting concrete in a reclaimable mold or “ signifier ” which cured in a controlled background, transported to the building site and tantrum into topographic point.
? Quick physique clip of form hard-on.
? It has design flexibleness. Which means concept any form, size, and texture. Precast signifier allow for irregular lengths and breadths.
? Low cost in building. The fabrication of the major signifier constituents of the construction off-site cut down the site labour factor significantly, which cut down site outgo and clip.
? Higher fire opposition
? Strong and better lastingness.
? Weight and volume of the single constituents are more. Because of that, transit is hard when site in urban country.
? Sometimes Cranes may utilize for assemble. If site doesn T have adequate site entree and if site is little it may originate some incommodiousness
? In urban countries some safety issues may happen, because of hazard of public safety. When attempt to pull off the safety it become more dearly-won.
Cantilever is an technology look mentioning to a structural signifier method in which burden is passed to a column by tough climb tip. Cantilever building allow for long constructions without external column.
? Architects and applied scientists use cantilever signifier constructions for the overhang designs to supply aesthetic position.
? salvage horizontal infinite
? Effective when the dirt bearing capacity is low. Because there are no demand of land floor
? Can t usage for high rise edifices because it s hard bear the air current burden
Propped Cantilever Forms
This type signifiers can bear weave burden more with the dual stanchions and the terminal of the cantilever is less weigh comparing with above.
? Made for bear air current burden ( Lateral tonss )
? Able to use for high rise edifices
? Because of heavy steel the cost is high
Parallel ( uninterrupted ) Radio beam signifiers
With primary and secondary beams, these types of signifiers are developed.
? Almost several breadth or tallness can be achieve and column location can be different
? Adequate infinite to run overseas telegrams and service canals through slab
? May be usage with other systems together with block, conventional steel.
? Entire edifice tallness will be rise because, the slab thickness is high
? Cost is high because of more steel use
? Less aesthetic visual aspect
When we consider about signifiers with steel, there are some more choices with relate with simple coop signifiers, cantilever signifiers, propped cantilever signifiers and parallel beam signifiers.
Non-composite Upper Floors
Two types of non composite upper floors presented ;
i. Precast Hollow Core Concrete Planks
Besides celebrated as a voided slab or excavate nucleus board is a precast slab of pressurised concrete.
? Hollow nucleus slabs are scratch to lengths to accommodate the construction design before go forthing the works, ensuing in safe and fast building and with less cost
? Hollow nucleus slabs get long span ( 4m to 8m ) , ensuing in flexible infinite with smaller measure of beams, back uping columns and walls.
? Costly formwork and impermanent props are cut downing.
? Have a 1 hr fire opposition.
? Holes are cut downing the weight and it can utilize to accommodates services, like canals, pipes, overseas telegrams
? Skilled labors and Cranes are required to suit the boards and it will dearly-won
? Joints between boards are complicated and more expensive
? Transportation will be hard in urban countries and site must hold adequate infinite to keep Crane
two. In Situ Reinforced Concrete Slabs Built off Permanent Formwork
In this system in situ reinforce concrete put on metal deck and the formwork ( metal deck ) does non take subsequently. Usually deepness of slab between 100mm to 225mm. This attack can cover 4m to 7.5m.
? Temporary formwork non required. It cut down clip waste
? Metal deck act as extra support to the concrete
? Durable and high strength
? The connexions are more complex and the decking is more complicated
Composite Upper Floors
There are four types of methods available
i. Precast Hollow Core Concrete Planks
When steel and Precast Hollow Core Concrete Planks lying together, it becomes composite upper floor. Steel nails are utilizing for combine both. It can cover 12m span.
Advantages and Disadvantages are same as non- composite upper floors. But this type is stronger and more lasting than non-composite. Besides much expensive than non- complex.
two. In Situ Reinforced Concrete Slabs Built off Permanent Formwork
The combination of in situ reinforced concrete and steel beams, by steel nails called as composite upper floor. This type can cover 12m span.
Besides more strong, lasting and high cost, this type has same advantages and disadvantages of non-composite upper floors.
three. Slender floor or Slim deck
The cardinal difference of this assembly is that the back uping beams are incorporating inside the deepness of the concrete slab. This is achieved via back uping the slab off the base rims of the beams.
This type helps to cut down the edifice tallness and really economical than other types. It can cover up to 9m span.
four. Cellular Composite Beam floors and Composite Truss Floors
Commercial edifices and mills are utilizing this type. The beam deepness is high and beams act as truss. Self weights of beams are low because there are holes in beams and it leads the span up to 18m.
The last frame building is slab building. There are six types of slab building methods.
I. Flat Slab
This type dosage non has any beams and uses the in situ reinforced concrete. Table signifiers and winging signifiers are use as formwork. Can acquire cross up to 11m and cut down edifice tallness because slab thickness is low
? Can utilize for fast building
? Easy to concrete when utilizing table signifiers or winging signifiers. Time is non blowing
? Poor in strength. It really unlikely to the punching shear forces because there are no beams
two. Solid Slab With Drops
In this type slab has drops on underside every column. Can acquire span 5m to 10m.
? It can bear pluging shear force more than level slab
? can acquire good aesthetic visual aspect by adorning or modeling the beads
? long span ( 5m to 10m ) cut down the column cost.
? Speed of building is less than level slab because beads require some excess clip.
? Expensive than level slab
three. Ribbed Slab
Band and conventional beams are in this type. This slab system can cover up to8m span.
? Useful for accommodates services, like canals, pipes, overseas telegrams through slab
? Weight of the slab is higher. There for the columns and foundation sizes must run into slab demands
? Construction velocity is low since batch of formwork
four. Troughed Slab With Integral Beams
In this type slab thickness is low and it have span up to 12.5m. table signifier can be use as formwork
? Strength is high
? Gain long span
? Construction will be slow since formwork
v. Waffle Slab
This type is a reinforced-concrete ceiling and roof building using a rectangle grid of deep ribs with caisson in the interstices. This type can cover even 16m span
? No beams required
? all right visual aspect
? No demand of suspended ceiling
six. Tunnel Forms
There are no columns in this type signifiers. Using for hotel, residential buildings. All the burden bear by perpendicular walls alternatively for columns.
? High fire opposition
? Isolation from neighboring room give more privateness
? Fast building because of unsophisticated formwork
? Outgo is high
I recommend the beam and slab signifier and entirely precast concrete signifier. When consider about client demand for above hotel building undertaking he need the edifice every bit shortly as possible. Wholly precast concrete signifier will accommodate for fast building, but because of heavy traffic during twenty-four hours clip, it will be hard to transport precast points and steel frames. Since of those facts the most suited type is beam and slab signifier. Because of in situ concrete, there will be no sing approximately traffic. But building clip will be effected. Constructing cost will be low than precast concrete signifier and saved outgo can be usage for roof building in farther.
3. Flat Roof Construction
Any roof when the pitch less than 5` is called a level roof. A level roof does non hold the betterment of gravitation to acquire rid of H2O from the roof. , therefore it s of import to include a bed that will supply a moist barrier, every bit good as a system to drag the H2O off of the roof after rain.
There are many types of level roof building ;
1 ) Built-up Roofing
A built-up roof is consist of puting down a figure of beds of bitumen and H2O immune stuffs and followed by crushed rock screen. Gravel for fire protection every bit good as guard from foot transition and the Sun. The seting in procedure normally needs use hot bitumen to bond between beds.
Multi-layered system offer excess shield, cut downing the menace for H2O leaks. It besides easier to put in because, it does non hold complex construction. Built-up roof is long last because it include mat of glass fiber support and bitumen make grate combination between beds. This type is really economical and easy to mend and keep though it have high initial cost.
2 ) Mastic Asphalt Flat Roofing
Combination of clay and bitumen is utilizing for this type of level roof. Asphalt in that it form a really thick solid-surface stuff under typical temperature fortunes. This one is chiefly durable level roofing. Mastic asphalt is lasting H2O proofing membrane. It is really flexible as good. Mastic asphalt is non-toxic, reclaimable, and odourless and can bear up inordinate temperature.
Mastic asphalt is proper for many roof buildings merely if the deck does non flex excessively much. It is the perfect stuff for block and beam, concrete, wood fiber slab and decently constructed lumber roofs.
It is by and large laid in two coats on a dividing membrane of black outer bed felt. If there is whichever deficient autumn on the roof, mastic asphalt can be laid to acquire rid of standing H2O. It is all right to guard the asphalt from U.V. debasement and warm build-up by using a solar captive pigment.
3 ) Single-Ply roofing
Single-ply roofing uses a fictile membrane to give sealing for the roof. The membrane can be automatically fixed steadfastly to the roof, to the full adhered with an adhesive, or ballasted. One disadvantage of this type is it requires more labour cost to concept.
4 ) Liquid Coatings
Liquid coatings are largely used for commercial and big roofs or where a normal single-ply roof will non be equal. The liquid roof coatings can be applied to assorted stuffs including felt, concrete, asbestos, metal and more. The Liquid roof coating will show a long lasting screening consequence. This type is easy to use, even for the H2O countries and economical. The lasting is high and it cut down the maintain cost. But impossible to obtain uniformed thickness.
5 ) Green roof
A green roof is a roof of a construction that is to some extent or wholly roofed with flora and dirt, planted above a waterproofing membrane. It may besides incorporate extra beds such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems. It supplies aesthetic benefits, better air quality and protection from UV. The initial cost and maintain cost is really high.
Green roof has two types ;
I. Intensive ( active ) green roof
Intensive ( active ) green roofs include deep turning heavy trees that support a mixture of landscape expression and growing. It accessible and used as entertaining infinite
two. Extensive ( inactive ) green roof
Extensive green roof have a thin growth workss and the landscape gardening is designed to be more economically, necessitating less maintain than an intensive green roof system. Extensive green roof is are non as much of expensive like intensive system, because they are lighter and need less structural sustain and demand less regular care.
I recommend extended type green roof system for above hotel undertaking. Chiefly because it will increase aesthetic visual aspect of the hotel and invitees will more like the latest type. Green roof will follow fresh expression to the hotel because in Kandy, otherwise in Sri Lank green roof is uncommon type. Initial cost may be high but, care cost will be less because raining and smooth Sun visible radiation is common clime in Kandy. Harmonizing to the edifice program, green roof can build the top of the suites 10 to 18. It will give fresh air to mentioned suites and above 3rd floor response country can covered with glass construction for natural lightning and entree for the roof.
4. Sustainability while building
The look sustainable ( stating the thought of stable, permanent or uninterrupted ) is translated to some linguistic communication as lasting. So, sustainable construction can be identified as a lasting building. Sustainable building has particular attack and different precedences in different states. Some of them acknowledge cost-efficient and societal, cultural facets as portion of their sustainable building lineation, hence, sustainable building besides is illustrate as a division of sustainable development, which includes program, tendering, site agreement, and organisation, material choice, recycling, and waste minimisation.
There are some rules for sustainable building,
Minimization of resource ingestion
Maximization of resource reuse
Use renewable and reclaimable resources
Protect the natural environment
Make a healthy and non-toxic environment
Pursue quality in making the built environment.
When get downing hotel building in urban country like Kandy, there are many things to see. The cardinal country where the sustainable building can be enhanced by judgement carefully about the incorporate program of the full undertaking. Every portion of a building undertaking has an consequence on each undertaking. The sustainable design of a undertaking ought to see all the related elements that interested in the orientation, construction, location, building.
Making sustainable building start with suited site choice. Evaluation of the orientation of the construction, involves how the building will associate to endure conditions. It s all right if the builder can go forth most of the flora, specially big trees which can be use for hotel attraction. It is more environments friendly if addition usage of labors, without ever utilizing vehicles to transport in site. It reduces the air pollution.
Waste direction is a cardinal factor for sustainable design. If contaminated chemical or solid affairs mix with the H2O it will take to environmental jeopardy of the country. The chief of import factor should be the minimal impact to the environment.
The energy utilizing when concept the hotel, an energy efficient methods can minimise energy costs and cut down harmful impact to the environment. Besides utilizing less corporal energy beginnings for the building, and utilizing alternate energy beginnings alternatively of fuel or other energy beginnings which pollute environment.
When taking the stuffs for the hotel building, usage of less corporal stuffs can take the building to the sustainable during pre edifice stage. Using reuse stuffs, less wastage of stuffs, and proper storage of stuff can derive the high stuff efficiency. By advanced methods and modern building methods, the hotel will derive better sustainability.
5. Safety of the Construction Site
The building industry identified out from other employments as holding one of the maximal worker hurt and casualty rates. Construction consists of a really small proportion of the overall labour force. So far, the rate for non-fatal hurts and unwellnesss exceed that of several other industries. Some surveies have revealed that a instead big proportion of building accidents can be stop, reduced, or avoided by assembly better picks in the design and puting up phases of a undertaking. When trade with building safety in the design and programming stage, as a consequence, can hold a big impact on cut downing hurts and the cost related with safety.
Making policies, good forming, Planning and put into operation, public presentation measurement and reviewing is cardinal factors which lead to successful in wellness and safety direction.
As harmonizing to the CDM ordinance 2007, there are some indispensable stairss to do hazard assignment which help to cut down jeopardies in hotel building site.
1 ) Detecting the jeopardies
Identifying what are the jeopardies in site. When ;
? Slips, trips and falls
? Fall when working at tallness
? Mobile works and vehicles
? Low or high temperature
? Machines runing
? Noise and Vibration
? Manual handling
2 ) Who will be affect and how?
Every individual has some hazard when they working in site. Workers during working hours, contactors and office staff during site visit and supervising. Etc.
3 ) Hazard Evaluation
After identified the hazard, there must hold some action to forestall them. It may be an action of wholly extinguish the jeopardy or control of jeopardy.
? Extinguish the jeopardy
For illustration, alternatively of utilizing acids to unblock drains, usage drain rods. It prevent chemical jeopardy.
? Control the jeopardy
Example is utilizing H2O suppression to command dust.
Provide personal protective equipments
Such as goggles ( oculus defenders ) , ear defenders, safety helmets, baseball mitts, face vizors, boots
Working at tallness
Sign boards and notice
Most jeopardies can command by supplying developing to workers. Training should include right ways of raising and utilizing stagings, ladders, equipments, etc.
4 ) Recording the findings
By entering jeopardies which already happen, it will assist to forestall or command it in further.
5 ) Reviewing of records and revising them if demand
If hazard occur once more or when conveying new equipments, machinery, stuffs, people or new method to site, reappraisal of early 1s will assist to forestall or command hazarders.
Alternative Energy Sources for the building work
There is some chief alternate energy beginnings use now yearss,
? Solar power
? Wind power
? Geothermal power
? Tidal power
? Hydro electric power
As an energy beginning, fuel enhance pollution and some clip it is hazardous to workers when fire. Above hotel building in Kandy solar power is an alternate energy beginnings alternatively of fuel.
? Solar power
In Kandy country Sun visible radiation is frequently most of the clip. Solar electricity can be usage for work some little electrical machines
Mobile solar panels
6. Alteration of Buildings
When new edifice connects to an old one there are some basic factors which should see.
? Forms of building.
The new portion of the edifice should link with same stuff which has old edifice. In current capable old construction built with beam and slab signifier, and new construction besides should be that method to success alteration.
The new portion of the edifice should non upset old 1s ocular. Outdoor gaps should keep
? Weather stringency
New portion must hold conditions and H2O proofing every bit same as old one.
? Variation in floor degree
It is a better to follow same floor degrees in new portion with old portion. If non there will some excess outgos for seting stepss or mounting an lifts, escalators.
? Compatibility of stuffs
If any stuff fails to be in good status, that mutual exclusiveness stuff should be take and replace new stuff. Otherwise it is necessary to present separation beds
? Mode of linkage
For best functional consequence, old edifice and new edifice should unite together. That may be direct connexion between two edifices like portion extension or indirect connexion like utilizing corridor or block
? Operating factors
This consideration sing environment and safety. It includes noise/dust/fume control, welding control, forestalling collateral amendss, protection, testing, security, maintains natural and unreal lighting
When we consider about perpendicular alteration, it is straight impacting to the foundation. Underpining work will see for above hotel undertaking.
Underpinning is the seting in topographic point of impermanent or lasting clasp to an bing foundation to give either farther deepness or enhance in bearing capacity.
First, the dirt beneath the pile cap is unearthing in a measure plenty to allow the seting in a new heap. Then, brace of hydraulic knuckleboness is mounted to the underneath of the pile cap. After positioning the earliest portion, the hydraulic knuckleboness are extended and the portion pushed into the earth faraway plenty to allow seting in of the following portion. The connexion rod is so threaded into the terminal of the installed portion ; rosin was placed around the saloon and the top face of the pile portion, and the following portion was threaded onto the connexion rod analytical from the installed portion. The heap parts are tightened utilizing a concatenation twist to a torsion. After proving, knuckleboness will take