Direct Manipulation and Multi-touch Interactions Essay

Direct Manipulation:

Principles of direct use:

  • Principle of virtuality –user can bask and able to pull strings some version of world.
  • Principle of transparence –UI disappears allows user to use intellect to task and logical thought.
  • Gulf of executing and gulf of rating –related to psychology literature on problem-solving and tilting research.

Advantages of utilizing direct use:

  • Continuous ocular representation of objects and action of involvement.
  • Physical action alternatively of sentence structure.
  • Rapid incremental and reversible actions whose consequences are seeable instantly.
  • Novitiates learn rapidly.
  • Users gain assurance and command.

Problems in direct use:

  • Blind / vision –impaired: if we develop for a ocular interface, this group might be left out.
  • Screen space-It takes up enough, possible maltreatments, multiple pages can decelerate user down.
  • Typing bids are utilizing shortcut keys with the keyboard can do faster.
  • The users must larn the semantics behind the graphical representation.
  • Design will coerce valuable information off the screen.

  • High degree flow charts and database scheme can go confusing.

MULTI-TOUCH Interaction:

Hardware engineerings:

  • Camera and image processing
  • When the finger is pressed on glass, camera detects the action and registry as input. Then the image processing sequence is processed and it will set the image back land from current camera image.

  • Touch-sensitive electrical capacity detectors
  • The touch screen consists of dielectric such as glass, coated with a crystalline music director. The human organic structure is besides a music director, so while touching the screen consequences in a deformation of organic structure ‘s electrostatic field.

    The location is so passed to package application running in computing machine.

Advantages of multi-touch interaction:

  • It replaces the input devices such as keyboard, mouse and even stylus with an unseeable interface
  • It enables user to pull strings new maps like optical lucidity, lastingness and cost- effectual execution of multi touch characteristics.
  • It allows multiple users interaction with package.
  • It lets to make without necessitating any intermediate device.
  • This interface has possible to change the manner we work with informations and applications, ensuing in more dynamic interactions around content.
  • It enables the user to interact which is straight displayed on screen.

Problems in multi-touch interaction:

  • Some users may experience uncomfortable to follow an wholly new method of utilizing computing machines.
  • It may show a barrier to users with ocular damages or disablements that would restrict physical sleight.

  • These systems are comparatively expensive.
  • Few applications developed for Microsoft surface have been piloted in little figure of AT & A ; T shops.
  • Choosing elaborate object with fingers is hard.
  • It is non suited for inputting big sum of informations.


When multi-touch interaction method is approached direct use is at the same time added to it. The support of direct use with multi- touch interface starts from the experience it offers. When the users slides their fingers along a touch surface, the object act by interpreting, revolving and scaling themselves so that the point of the finger remains same.

Without the demand for any equivocal gesture processing, direct use per se provides governable and an innate function between points in screen infinite and in local infinite.An illustration for this is iPhone. The iPhone is non a ordinary phone instead it is a multi- intent portable touch screen computing machine. The iPhone users appraising study gives really high degree of satisfaction with this merchandise. The most of import consequence of the iPhone is cardinal challenge to mobile phone industry. It is “ candy saloon ” manner device. The forepart screen is dominated by touch- sensitive 320×480 and does n’t hold keypad. It weighs 135gms- heavy compared to simple phone.

It includes a quad- set GSM/edge cellular wireless ( without 3G ) , WiFi ( 802.11 B and g ) , Bluetooth 2.0 and a two megapixel camera.


  • This device has no stylus and designed for finger-driven.

  • It enables user to pull strings the interface via gestures.
  • Apple is one of the first companies to implement in a commercial merchandise.
  • It includes some characteristics which are uncommon in other merchandises.

    One is propinquity detector turns off the touch screen when the device is close to user ‘s face. Another is place detectors to revolve screen image suitably, when the device is turned sideways.

  • The interface is truly elegant and intuitive. The icons are large and bold so want to do “ fat finger ” mistakes.
  • There is assortment and figure of application in App shop is about astonishing.
  • The web browser is existent.
  • The velocity is really good.


  • A physical QWERTY keyboard as in thenar Treo and RIM blackberry devices is losing.
  • Unable to put in 3rd party applications.
  • Unable to read and redact Microsoft office paperss.
  • No user-replaceable battery.


2 megapixel camera –even Nokia N95 have 5 megapixel, apple failed to update the dated pel to the camera.

  • Battery life –lastingness of 5 hours talk clip is really low compared to other Mobiles like Motrola Q.
  • No enlargement slot –memory of 32 GB is high but sometimes cant accommodate new films
  • No 3G.
  • Non removable battery.


  • Contacts –as in phone, exporting contacts from phone to sim is non available.
  • Ca n’t utilize as external storage device, even though it has 32GB storage capacity.
  • Bluetooth –unable to portion mp3, images and picture via Bluetooth.

Alternate design

No demand of alternate design it ‘s already a good design.