Internet addiction disorder Internet addiction disorder (IAD), or, more broadly, Internet overuse, problematic computer use or pathological computer use, is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. These terms avoid the term addiction and are not limited to any single cause. IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M. D. , in 1995.
He took pathological gambling as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as his model for the description of IAD. It is not, however, included in the current DSM as of 2009. IAD receives coverage in the press, and possible future classification as a psychological disorder continues to be debated and researched. Online activities which, if done in person, would normally be considered troublesome, such as compulsive gambling or shopping, are sometimes called net compulsions Others, such as reading or playing computer games, are troubling only to the extent that these activities interfere with normal life.
Supporters of disorder classification often divide IAD into subtypes by activity, such as excessive, overwhelming, or inappropriate pornography use, gaming, online social networking, blogging, email, or Internet shopping. Opponents note that compulsive behaviors may not themselves be addictive. ————————————————- Disputed disorder Over the past decade, the concept of Internet addiction has grown in terms of acceptance as a legitimate clinical disorder often requiring treatment.
However, known academic authorities take stances in either supporting or opposing the existence of Internet addiction disorder (IAD). In 2006, the American Medical Association declined to recommend to the American Psychiatric Association that they include IAD as a formal diagnosis in DSM-V,and recommended further study of “video game overuse. ” Some members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine opposed identifying Internet overuse and video game overuse as disorders.
Among the research identified as necessary is to find ways to define “overuse” and to differentiate an “Internet addiction” from obsession, self-medicating for depression or other disorders, and compulsion. A debate over whether to include “Internet Addiction” as a diagnosis in DSM-V, may conclude in the May, 2013 edition of the DSM. Some argue that Internet addiction disorder exists and should be included, and some that it is neither an addiction nor aspecific disorder and should not be included in DSM-V.
While the existence of Internet addiction is debated, self-proclaimed sufferers are resorting to the courts for redress. In one American case (Pacenza v. IBM Corp. ), the plaintiff argued he was illegally dismissed from his employment in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Actbecause of Internet addiction triggered by Vietnam War-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The case is pending before the court in the Southern District of New York (case summarized in Glaser & Carroll, 2007). 5% of users fulfill Internet addiction criteria within the first six months of using the Internet. Many individuals initially report feeling intimidated by the computer but gradually feel a sense of “competency and exhilaration from mastering the technology and learning to navigate the applications quickly by visual stimulation” (Beard 374). The feeling of exhilaration can be explained by the way IAD sufferers often describe themselves as: bold, outgoing, open-minded, intellectually prideful, and assertive.
Other research shows that up to 30% of South Koreans under 18, or about 2. 4 million people, are at risk of Internet addiction, said Ahn Dong-hyun, a child psychiatrist at Hanyang University in Seoul who just completed a three-year government-financed survey of the problem. Data from China Internet Network Information Center (CINIC), as of June 30, 2006, showed that 123 million people had gone online, of which 14. 9% were teenagers below 18 years old. Chou and Hsiao reported that the incidence rate of Internet addiction among Taiwan college students was 5. %. Wu and Zhu identified 10. 6% of Chinese college students as Internet addicts. The China Communist Youth League claimed in 2007 that over 17% of Chinese citizens between 13 and 17 were addicted to the Internet. Public concern, interest in, and the study of, internet over use can be attributed to the fact that it has become increasingly difficult to distinguish between the online and offline worlds. The Internet has tremendous potential to affect the emotions of humans and in turn, alter our self-perception and anxiety levels.
The Ottawa Sun reports that a 1996 report in the UK “Advances in Psychiatric Treatment” claimed that a “significant minority” suffer from “Internet addiction”. ————————————————- Causes and effects Dr. Kimberly S. Young says that prior research links Internet Addiction Disorder with existing mental health issues, most commonly depression. This may be due to that virtual engagements do not stimulate the release of neurotransmitters responsible for feelings of satisfaction and relaxation, such as oxytocin and endorphin, the way real interactions do.
Young states that the disorder has significant effects socially, psychologically and occupationally. Addicts were known to use the internet an average of 38 hours a week for nonacademic and non-employment purposes resulting in poor grades among students, discord among couples and reduced work performance. In an article titled Internet Over-Users’ Psychological Profiles: A Behavior Sampling Analysis on Internet Addiction a Korean study into the disorder, pathological use of the internet results in negative life consequences such as job loss, marriage breakdown, financial debt, and academic failure. 0% of internet users in Korea are reported to play online games, 18% of which are diagnosed as game addicts. The authors of the article conducted a study utilising Kimberly Young’s questionnaire, the study showed that the majority of those who met the requirements ofInternet Addiction Disorder suffered from interpersonal difficulties and stress, those addicted to online games specifically responded that they hoped to avoid reality. Dr. Kimberly S. Young states that 52% of the respondents to her own study said that they were following recovery programs for other addictions.
These included alcoholism, chemical dependency, compulsive gambling, or chronic overeating. These participants could see the same excessive behaviour, the need for a crutch to help them relax, in their use of the Internet, that they had exhibited in prior addictions. Though they believed that Internet addiction was not as serious as alcoholism, they still felt disheartened that a new addiction had substituted for the old one. Young also discusses the findings of Dr.
Maressa Hecht-Orzack of McLean Hospital who set up a service for computer and Internet addiction in the spring of 1996. Orzack noted that primarily depression and bi-polar disorder in its depressive swing were co-morbid features of pathological Internet use, along with this Orzack indicated that referrals received were from various clinics throughout the hospital rather than direct self-referrals for Internet addiction. ————————————————- Measurement Psychiatric Services study
Psychiatric Services conducted a study  in which visitors to a virtual mental health clinic could discuss their ailments with 100 volunteer mental health professionals. Psychiatric Services hypothesized, internet users who suffered from existing mental health problems, specifically depression and symptoms of social impairment, had a higher risk of developing IAD. The study was conducted between May and October 2000. All visitors to the virtual clinic completed Young’s IAD questionnaire a brief seven-item instrument that adapts DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. otal of 251 clients completed the questionnaire. The mean±SD age of the clients was 25. 04±6. 19 years, with a range of 14 to 44 years. Most were female (67 percent) and single (84 percent). Most had an education beyond the college level (63 percent), and about a third (36 percent) were students. A majority (56 percent) reported that they had never visited a real mental health clinic. Internet Addiction Test The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the first validated instrument to assess Internet addiction.
Studies have found that the IAT is a reliable measure that covers the key characteristics of pathological online use. The test measures the extent of a client’s involvement with the computer and classifies the addictive behavior in terms of mild, moderate, and severe impairment. The IAT can be utilized in outpatient and inpatient settings and adapted accordingly to fit the needs of the clinical setting. Furthermore, beyond validation in English, the IAT has also been validated in Italy (Ferraro, Caci, D’ Amico, & Di Blasi, 2007) and France (Khazaal et al. 2008) making it the first global psychometric measure. The test consists of twenty questions with the responses graded out of 5, which produces a score from 0 to 100. Griffiths criteria Mark D Griffiths’ five criteria of Internet addiction are: 1. Salience: Using the Internet dominates the person’s life, feelings and behaviour. 2. Mood modification: The person experiences changes in mood (e. g. a ‘buzz’) when using the Internet. 3. Tolerance: Increasing amounts of Internet use are needed to achieve the same effects on mood. 4.
Withdrawal symptoms: If the person stops using the Internet, they experience unpleasant feelings or physical effects. 5. Relapse: The addict tends to relapse into earlier patterns of behaviour, even after years of abstinence or control. ————————————————- Prevention and correction In many cases, though not all, Internet overuse corrects itself. Sarah Kershaw wrote for the New York Times in 2005: “It was Professor Kiesler who called Internet addiction a fad illness. In her view, she said, television addiction is worse.
She added that she was completing a study of heavy Internet users, which showed the majority had sharply reduced their time on the computer over the course of a year, indicating that even problematic use was self-corrective. ” Corrective strategies include content-control software, counselling, and cognitive behavioural therapy. One of the major reasons that the Internet is so addicting is the lack of limits and the absence of accountability. Families in the People’s Republic of China have turned to unlicensed training camps that offer to “wean” their children, often in their teens, from overuse of the Internet.
The training camps have been associated with the death of at least one youth. In August 2009, ReSTART, a residential treatment center for “pathological computer use”, opened near Seattle, Washington, United States. It offers a 45-day program intended to help people wean themselves from pathological computer use, and can handle up to six patients at a time. In November 2009, the government of the People’s Republic of China banned physical punishment to “wean” teens from the Internet. Electro-shock therapy had already been banned. Related addictions
Communication addiction disorder Within an article titled ‘Communication Addiction Disorder: Concern over Media, Behavior and Effects’ internet overuse or Internet Addiction (IAD)is linked to Communication Addiction Disorder, a theorized disorder in which users become addicted to the social elements of the internet, such as Facebook and YouTube. Users become addicted to one-on-one/group communication in the form of social support, relationships and entertainment however interference with these activities can result in conflict and guilt.
Communication Addiction Disorder is a behavior disorder related to the necessity of being in constant communication with other people even when there is not a real necessity for that. Online gaming addiction Video game addiction is a known issue around the world, with the advent of broadband technology in the 2000s it has evolved into a different level of addiction which involves the creation of an avatar and living a ‘second life’ through MMORPGs massive multiplayer online role playing games.
World of Warcraft has the largest MMO gaming community on-line and there have been a number of studies about the addictive qualities of the game. Addicts of the game range from children to mature adults such as University professor Ryan van Cleave who almost lost everything as his life became consumed by on-line gaming. B. F. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning claims that the frequency of a given behaviour is directly linked to whether it is rewarded or punished. If a behaviour is rewarded, it is more likely to be repeated. If it is punished, it becomes suppressed.
Orzack says variable ratio reinforcement is the idea that the best way to optimize the desired behaviour in the subject is to hand out rewards for correct behaviour, and then adjust the number of times the subject is required to exhibit that behaviour before a reward is handed out For instance, if a rat must press a bar to receive food, then it will press faster and more often if it doesn’t know how many times it needs to press the bar. An equivalent in World of Warcraft would be purple (epic) loot drops Players in World of Warcraft will often spend weeks hunting for a special item which is based on a chance ystem, sometimes with only a 0. 001% chance of it being dropped by a killed monster. The rarity of the item and difficulty of acquiring the item, gives the player a status amongst their peers once they obtain the item. Orzack, a clinical psychologist at McLean Hospital in Massachusetts claims 40 percent of World of Warcraft (WoW) players are addicted. KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, PURI SCIENCE EXHIBITION ON TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION Presented By:- Subhankar Mohanty Subhajit Mohanty Sanket Puhan Kirti Gourab Panda Teacher in charge:- Mrs. Vandana Perei Madam