Discussing the Philippiness national culture Essay

This essay will be discoursing the Philippines ‘s national civilization, critically analyse Hofstede ‘s and Trompenaars theory, direction manner pertinent to Philippine civilization and critically reflect on a direction experience every bit good as associate them to direction theoretical accounts and national civilization. Culture defines as adequate or unbearable, important or undistinguished, right or misidentify, practical or infeasible. It contains of, thoughts, beliefs, imposts, linguistic communication, rites, tabu, codifications, establishments, tools, plants of art, ceremonials, techniques and symbols. It has played a critical function in societal development, allowing human beings to set the state of affairs to their peculiar intent on slightly be contingent simply on natural choice to achieve adaptative success ( Business Dictionary n.d. ) .

Hofstede ( 2001 ) referred civilization to the beliefs, behavior, values, attitudes and symbols, but is an impartial deduction of civilization. It besides links to other issues such as, unifying as a group or a household, linguistic communication, and individuality. Sinha ( 2009 ) besides highlighted civilization as larning thru socialization which is unwilled pattern that contains all of the cognition obtained as the consequence of what is in an environment to be learned.

Dr. Fons Trompenaars highlighted the significance of civilization as shared attack of work outing human jobs in which converts dilemmas in 3 constructions in relation to human existences with five facets, clip and nature ( THT confer withing 2009 ) . Knowing other civilizations surely helps to construct cultural consciousness, influence directors, completion of occupation and apprehension of cultural diverseness in which it affects working dealingss.

The deluxe Philippines heritage is entrenched through the ironss of heroic poem plants. The Filipino heritage has non remained limited into walls of old edifices but even found its manner through the natural ghettoes surrounded by white sandy beaches which besides houses some of the of import traditional landmarks of the state. The Filipino civilization is so really colorful that makes it clearly different from the remainder of the universe by holding diverse in humanistic disciplines, linguistic communication, traditions, cultural heritage, and spoken linguistic communications which found in the bosom of the metropoliss. The Philippines has besides infinite historical and cultural development of its state with different churches, museums and galleries are accessible to hold left their native land for a better chance.

Arcilla ( 2003 ) stated that Philippines patterns and imposts are preponderantly persuaded of its antediluvian colonized influences. The Philippines was under the Spanish business which lasted about 300 decennary and significantly influences the Philippines imposts and traditions ( Halili, 2004 ) . The Filipino colonisation by the Spaniards steered an ingression of foreign expertness. Nevertheless, historic attestations acclaimed that Filipinos ( Arcilla, 2003 ) has been significantly progressive than the Spaniards and was established designers.

Because of the diverse cognition, they have developed their ain specific set of armors that was typical in them and were extensively utilised as combat points. The former civilisation strongly assumed the ethical motives of heroism and courage where they co-existed in a close household ties with definite passionate values deriving the major impact. They consisted of diverse communities and their agencies of life included artistic devising of jewelries, pots, metals and quarrying. They were good shapers of handcrafts and made figurines utilised as house decorations, some other points made of wood were used in the churches for spiritual intents. ( Workman, 2008 ) Tagalog as the chief linguistic communication has assorted similarities to the Spanish linguistic communication ( Castilla, 2008 ) .

Kwintessential ( n.d. ) besides noted that the national linguistic communication of the Filipinos ( before Pilipino ) is Tagalog but despite of their official linguistic communication simply 55 per centum who can talk in Tagalog for there are listed that there ‘s 171 idioms all over the Philippines nevertheless English is normally used in educational, governmental and commercial. Arcilla ( 2003 ) cited that Philippines is one of the taking English talking state following to United States and United Kingdom. Filipinos ( Lewis, 2009 ) are religious ; they have so many spiritual traditions that has been influenced by Christianity, pagan religion and other spiritual patterns. They celebrate the memorialization of this patterns or traditions with colorful pyrotechnics, emanations, dances in the Fieldss, tourneies called fete. These fetes are Spanish influences that have continued until today. Islam religion besides exists in observing their really ain unique imposts and traditions.

Ness ( 2003 ) cited that analyzing loosely the Philippines art and civilization can be imperfect unless the night life in rushed streets and crowded topographic points is showed. It besides features beautiful coral and white beaches, rendezvous for nature lovers and amazing islands for temerarious escapades for aqualung diving and aftermath embarkation.

The cultural dimensions of Hampden Turner will be critically compared and analyse with Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars cultural dimensions. Buchanan and Huczynski ( 2007 ) cited the Hofstede ‘s four Scopess that consisted of power distance, uncertainness turning away, individuality – Bolshevism and maleness – muliebrity every bit good as long-run orientation ( Hofstede Analysis n.d ) . Furthermore Trompenaars has seven dimensions which are universalism against particularism, individuality against communitarianism, specific in contradiction of diffuse, affectivity against neutrality, internally controlled nature contrasted with externally controlled nature, achieved position set against ascribed position, and consecutive clip contrasted with synchronous clip ( THT confer withing 2009 ) .

These celebrated anthropologists who examine questionnaires meant for the directors or executive and staff in the corporate universe with diverse civilizations conducts their ain decision and which they have now their ain cultural dimensions. Resemblance is noted between two dimensions which is individuality – Bolshevism and communitarianism versus individuality, both trades with the groups or persons that are contented to work entirely or in group in accomplishing common ends. Harmonizing to Gooderham and Nordhaug ( 2003 ) both agreed on some states like Japan which is weak in footings of individuality while UK and USA are slightly individualistic, but in contrast with Trompenaars several states seemed to be more individualistic than Hofstede ‘s studied.

Likewise with the accomplishment value orientation described on how position is accorded and how will they execute their maps or what the individual is. Employee ‘s length of service in the company are being promoted base on drawn-out term of office instead than on achievement. This can be seen in states such as Austria and China as attribution civilization. This can be linked to power distance as Hofstede ‘s theory where one accepts the position given to them by nature instead than accomplishment, and replicates an improved readiness in acknowledging distances in power. However, this is in contrast with Hofstede ‘s power distance wherein it is non merely associate on the position rendered to them but every bit good as the acceptable power distance in civilization ( Smothermann and Kooros, 2001 ) .

McSweeney ( 2002 ) disagreed in Hofstede ‘s theoretical account observing that national civilization is improbable as a factor of behavior. He criticized Hofstede dimension it ‘s non any more dependable which the IBM information is already disused. The discrepancies of the two theoretical accounts are the clip frames which signify cultural alterations and civilizations change appear throughout the clip ( Hodgetts and Luthans, 2005 ) .

Hofstede and Trompenaars theories are utile and dependable in the administration even to its leader. Administrations need to understand the diverseness of civilization. The dependability and viability of the Philippine direction manners can be related to the paternalistic dimension of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) and high power distance of Hofstede and Hofstede ( 2005 ) which are strong hierarchal civilizations. Filipinos take advantage of power of those who are insubordinate to them although other directors are acute to handle subsidiaries with regard, to continue their self-respect and protect place ( Waner, 2003 ) .

This consequence to uncertainness turning away that is relaxed in unknown state of affairs and others are comfy in anticipate jobs from go oning. WadaTripp2 ‘s ( 2010 ) cited that Hofstede discovered that other states are dying on what might go on in the hereafter. Filipinos loves protecting their self-respect and value to forestall being the express joying stock of the community ( Halili, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Hechanova and Fraco, ( 2008 ) Filipinos focuses on people and relationships to happen sense of belonginess with interaction to suit in a group, this consequence to Bolshevism or communitarianism and diffuse ( Hofstede 2001 and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 2006 ) .

Filipinos are more on accomplishment position ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 2006 ) regardless of background every bit long as they have done great accomplishments in life. Although Filipinos are inactive and unrecorded in the present that they do non believe or happen solution to the current job as noted in Hofstede findings, short term oriented ( Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005 ) .

In contrast of maleness and muliebrity of Hofstede and Hofstede ( 2005 ) findings in the Philippines, presents male and female have their equal occupations that work forces help in the house and female can now make any occupation, on the other manus before male ‘s tend to make all the work and female ‘s demand to remain in the house taking attention of their kids ( Arcilla, 2003 ) . Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) cited that Filipinos have hapless clip orientation as they can be early or truly late. Morga ( 2006 ) besides cited that some Filipinos can be punctual in their concern traffics.

Every concern constitution demand to reply skillfully, successfully, aptly and appropriately to assorted hostile fortunes that threaten to disrupt unsafe events. Specific single is required to be nominated for the duty in reacting and continuing concern continuity. As I was on responsibility at the hotel as senior director for the forepart desk, a critical incident in King Karlo Hotel occurred on the 9th of August 2008, a client reported an allegation that the nutrient she has eaten while remaining in the hotel that caused her uncomfortableness such as diarrhea and emesis. She stated that she was admitted in the infirmary and rehydrated as she truly fell ill. She besides filed a formal ailment and threatened to register a case to the company.

We saw an individuality of Hofstede ( 2001 ) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) applied to the ailment that “ I ” is of import than others therefore an apology was made an incident signifier was completed to protect the company ‘s repute and self-respect as cited in Hofstede and Hofstede ( 2005 ) uncertainness turning away and diffuse ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 2006 ) . The client was informed that a formal probe will be commenced and she will be informed of the result. An immediate probe was besides commenced by making a root cause analysis ( RCA ) . RCA is a antiphonal system of job probe and work outing.

Nielsen ( 2009 ) cited that RCA is characteristically related in working events, although there is no feasible alibi for the tool to be effectual in finding the causative factor of the concern job. The RCA technique if right utilized provides the director the capableness to analyze a job that adversely obstructed the running of the concern and eliminate it when it is ab initio detected. It continuously improves the concern public presentation and they can be repeatedly used to eliminate any possible menace to the concern. Department of Health ( 2006 ) defined nutrient safety as the guarantee that nutrient would be the footing for doing no injury to its clients on its readying or ingestion.

The squad were gathered and was given a strong and specific escalation process guaranting that job were treated instantly or else terrible break can go on prior to response, that could jeopardised the administration. The squad was mandated to react to the incidents with a clear and precise organizational process to utilize in order to help in doing determination which paternalistic direction manner ( Mehrotra, 2005 ) was applied that everyone is involve in work outing the job. With no appropriate process, facts and groundss could be mishandled and hapless job resolution could originate due to hapless examination of the incidents.

Health and Safety Executive ( HSE, 2003 ) stated that hazard appraisal is a important stage in supporting the employees and company, and conforming to the regulations. It aids to emphasis on the jeopardies that exist in the company. HSE ( 2006 ) besides cited that bad lucks and sick status can do desolation in lives and hurt in the administration if productiveness is low, cost of insurance can increase or there would be a state of affairs of a tribunal instance.

Mckenna et. Al ( 2006 ) highlighted the importance of holding a distinguishable beginning of best patterns and acquisition, an incorporate information construction that assists companies hasten their action to cover the spreads in their proficient capablenesss, identify and anticipate troubles, and hedge doing new solutions to new multiple undertakings. De Zoysa and Russell ( 2002 ) supported this by saying that patterns that contributes by prehending and set uping hazard direction information for the past undertaking and reutilize for future undertaking, embrace significant potency by developing a widespread but concrete method of pattern in the industry.

During the class of the probe, the staffs were so defensive and discerning in their reaction, so it was deemed to do a group workshop to analyze the incident. Each person was given all the information to be able to bring out to the job prior to the plants. The brainstorming assembly began with a diagram of fishbone on the board. This was started with the organic structure of the fish, line up with the likely causative factors and ended up at the caput holding the statement of the job. The several causes run into the anchor which led to the cause ( Nielsen, 2009 ) . The following process was to categorise the activities that which could get rid of the job beginning. This should run into the basic standards of action wherein it focuses on clear uping the job and the possibility how the squad will implement the solution.

As a consequence of the probe, it was noted that there was hapless pattern on nutrient handling, hapless staff consciousness on the protocol of informing the direction if their illness was due to diarrhoea and purging, no established nutrient monitoring temperature records was in topographic point, absence of records for temperature monitoring of electric refrigerator temperature, and staff has no record of nutrient hygiene preparation. There were deficits in the policies and processs of the company which needed to be resolved.

Universalism of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) must be patterns in the company in following the regulations and ordinances as Lizada ( 2007 ) cited the regulations regulating nutrient safety as Republic Act No. 7394 ( 1992 ) or The Consumer Act of 1992 which provided the protection of consumer involvements and general public assistance, and establishes criterions of behavior for concern and industry. It further mandates the proviso of information and instruction to authorise the consumer to do sound picks and exercising his/her rights, including active engagement in the preparation of relevant societal and economic policies. This ordinance explicitly safeguards the consumer against jeopardies to wellness and safety.

Even when a company have the greatest policies and processs, direction of hazard would non boom if it does n’t embrace at an cultural degree. Persons should exercise attempt in developing and continuing the extreme phases of consciousness of hazard. Management of hazard is critical in the thought procedure to infiltrates in all degrees of the administration.

Concentrating in front, the primary challenge is bring forthing an ethos in which direction of hazard is the occupation of every person and duty. Persons employed within the company are inclined to befog functional troubles till they lose control. Typically, the prostration usually happens when a system in the allocated direction of hazard to precise individuals or to managerial board that looks or comprehend the simple undertakings as difficult and hard.

Acceptable recording and skip from leading is non adequate to be an alibi. Corporation has the indispensable demand to make a civilization in the whole company that includes all employees, each function in all degree have the ability and responsibility for hazard direction. It is critical to do preemptive steps and consciousness after the incident to forestall perennial state of affairs in the long-term as stated in Hofstede ( 2001 ) long term orientation and consecutive clip of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) .

In a universe of assorted orientated civilization of western and eastern influence ( Drucken, 2007 ) with hierarchal signifier of direction manner is being followed in conformity to Hofstede and Hofstede ( 2005 ) power distance and achievement attribution by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) is a different set of persons with different motivations and involvement in life is really of import facet to see each one of them in a concern operation.

A simple incident could hold been disclosed and speak about in a humane mode but the impulse to utilize tribunal to intercede struggle as one indicant in the universalism of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) and strong individualistic traits of “ I ” am more of import than them whose social bond is loose as stated in individuality of both dimensions by Hofstede ( 2001 ) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner ( 2006 ) is somehow damaging to the concern entity if non taken into consideration and acted upon. But because Bolshevism ( Hofstede, 2001 ) and particularism ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Tuner, 2006 ) is dominant to the concern pattern the lone thing to keep its self-respect and concern repute to the populace and non lose face as pointed in uncertainness turning away ( Hofstede,2001 ) and diffuse ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 2006 ) is to apologize and follow with due procedure to relieve the state of affairs.

All the more, there is so much to larn in different angles of life, to people in peculiar particularly to the different values, attitude and moralss of each person in different state which brings significance because of this survey in cultural dimensions. ( Rodell, 2002 ) It is unconditioned to Filipinos to be hospitable, respectful, obedient and hardworking etc. but behind those admirable traits and aspiration lies a clump of unneeded behaviors in appropriate to the concern and in the eyes of everyone.

ARCILLA, J. , 2003. An Introduction to Philippine History. 4th erectile dysfunction. Manila: s.n.

BUCHANAN, D. and HUCZYNSKI, A. , 2007. Organizational Behaviour. 6th erectile dysfunction. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall UK.

BUSINESS DICTIONARY, n.d. Cultures. [ Online ] Business Dictionary. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessdictionary.com/definition/culture.html # ixzz15sEYoFB9. [ Accessed 15/11/10 ] .

CASTILLA, G. , 2008. In His Own Wordss: The Educational Thoughts of Carlos Bulosan. Naga City: Ateneo De Naga University Press.

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, 2006. Food Safety. [ Online ] Department of Health Available at. hypertext transfer protocol: //portal.doh.gov.ph/healthadvisories/food_safety. [ Accessed: 20/11/10 ] .

DE ZOYSA, S. and RUSSELL, A.D. 2002. Knowledge-Based Management of Economic Risks in Large Infrastructure Projects. Washington D.C. : s.n.

DRUCKEN, P. , 2007. The Practice of Management. Burlington: Elsevier Ltd.

GEERT HOFSTEDE ANALYSIS, n.d. Geert Hofstede Analysis. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cyborlink.com/besite/hofstede.htm. [ Accessed 19/11/10 ] .

GOODERHAM, P. and NORDHAUG, O. , 2003. International Management Cross-Boundary Challenges. Cronwall: Blackwall Publishing. p.144.

HALILI, M. , 2004. Filipino History. Manila: Rex Printing Company.

HECHANOVA, M. and FRACO, E. , 2008. Leading Filipino Organizations in a Changing World. Manila: Ateneo De Manila University Press.

HSE, 2003. An Introduction to Health and Safety. [ Online ] Health and Safety Executive. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg259.pdf. [ Accessed 21/11/10 ] .

HSE, 2006. Necessities of Health and Safety at Work. 4th erectile dysfunction. s.l: HSE Books

HOFSTEDE, G. – HOFSTEDE, G. J. , 2005. Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind. 2nd erectile dysfunction. New York: McGraw-Hill.

HOFSTEDE, G. , 2001. Cultures Consequences: Comparing Valuess, Behaviours, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd erectile dysfunction. London: Sage Publication Ltd.

HODGETTS, R. , and LUTHANS, F. , 2005. International Management Culture Strategy and Behaviour. 6th erectile dysfunction. s.l. : Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

KWINTESSENTIAL, n.d. Philippine-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/philippines-country-profile.html. [ Accessed 13/11/10 ] .

LEWIS, P. , 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 16th erectile dysfunction. Dallas: SIL International.

LIZADA, M. , 2007. Food Safety in the Philippines: Problems, Issues and Opportunities for the Small Farmers and Procedures. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/4938633/Food-Safety-in-the-Philippines-Problems-Issues-and-Opportunities-for-the-Small-Farmers-and-Produ [ Accessed: 20/11/10 ] .

Mckenna, M. , Wilczynski, H. and Vanderschee, D. , 2006. Capital Project Execution In The Oil And Gas Industry. [ Online ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www.boozallen.com/capabilities/Industries/industries_article/1924810? lpid=658044 [ Accessed 20/11/10 ] .

MCSWEENEY, B. , 2002. Hofstede Model of National Culture Differences and Their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith – A Failure of Analysis. [ Online ] Human Relation 55 ( 1 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.geert-hofstede.com/dimBSGH.pdf [ Accessed 16/11/10 ] .

MEHROTA, A. , 2005. Leadership Styles of Principals. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.

MORGA, A. , 2006. History of the Philippine Islands vol. 1 & A ; 2. Buckeye state: s.n.

NESS, S. , 2003. Where Asia Smiles: An Ethnography of Philippine Tourism. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.

NIELSEN, D. , 2009. Root Cause Analysis in Project Management. [ Online ] The Project.Management.Hut. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pmhut.com/root-cause-analysis-in-project-managementl [ Accessed 21/11/10 ] .

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7394, 1992. The Consumer Act of the Philippines. [ Online ] The Lawphil Project. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1992/ra_7394_1992.html [ Accessed: 22/11/10 ] .

RODELL, P. , 2002. Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Westport: Greenwood Press.

SINHA, R. , 2009. How to Understand Cross-cultural Analysis. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //ezinearticles.com/ ? How-To-Understand-Cross-Cultural-Analysis & A ; id=403111 [ Accessed: 20/11/10 ] .

SMOTHERMANN, R. and KOOROS, S. , 2001. Measuring Cultural Differences: Comparing Hofstede ‘s and Trompenaars ‘ Dimensions. [ e-journal ] Journal of Business Disciplines. Proceedings of the Conference of the Academy of Business Disciplines. [ Accessed 18/11/10 ]

THTCONSULTING. 2009. Summary of Culture. [ Video Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=9CIcchUyUNc & A ; feature=related [ Accessed: 11/11/10 ] .

THTCONSULTING. 2009. Dr. Fons Trompenaars on Culture. [ Video Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=JqNI8le1bF4 & A ; playnext=1 & A ; list=PL40421D748A1E3E02 & A ; index=13 [ Accessed: 11/11/10 ] .

WADATRIPP2 ‘S, 2010. Hofstede – Future Orientation and Uncertainty Avoidance. [ Video Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/user/WadaTripp2 # p/u/26/Rr9ugZ6wa50 [ Accessed: 17/11/10 ] .

WARNER, M. , 2003. Culture and Management in Asia. Wiltshire: Cronwall Press.

WORKMAN, D. , 2008. Trade Culture Dimensions Distinct Cultural Values, Attitudes and Trade Behaviour. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.suite101.com/content/trade-culture-dimensions-a42575 [ Accessed 20/11/10 ] .