Religion Religious Skepticism Before the 1800s in the United States, much of the population was not religious. Religious skepticism de-emphasized the role of god in daily life and encouraged rational thought. Some Americans, including the founding fathers believed in deism, believing not in the bible, but in science and reason. Authors like Thomas Paine wrote in favor of Deism in works like “The Age of Reason.
” Other groups affiliated with Unitarianism, believing that Jesus only a religious leader not the son of god. They pictured God as a loving father instead of a stern creator.Others believed that god created the world, but no longer controls it. The Second Great Awakening Similar the first great awakening, the second great awakening’s goal was to increase religious piety in the American population.
Several different religious denominations participated in the revival. Presbyterians tended to convert more in the west, with “camp meetings” where several thousand people would gather and share about Christianity. In only a few years a large population of the American people was involved in this movement.The basic message of the second great awakening was that individuals have to include God and Christ into their everyday lives and must reject sectional rationalism. Affect on Minorities Young women were drawn to the revival because in many regions, they outnumbered males and as a result, instead of marrying, they turned to religion and the church.
Women tended to drift towards religion because many of them were working in factories and were out of their homes. African Americans also played a role in the second great awakening.Religion spread quickly throughout the African American population. Missionaries of the second great awakening also reached the Native American population. They influenced the Native Americans to turn to agriculture instead of hunting. This change in a way of life forced Native American women to take on more domestic roles.
The Mormons Mormonism first began in the northern part of New York, by Joseph Smith, who in 1830 published a document-the Book of Mormon. In 1831, Smith began the long process of gathering Mormons and finding a permanent place for them to live.However, in 1844, he was arrested & charged with treason but a mob attacked his cell, shot, and killed him. The Mormons were led by Smith’s successor, Brigham Young, traveled with 12,000 people and established a permanent settlement in Salt Lake City, Utah. Mormonism reflected a belief in human perfectibility. Patterns of Education Importance of a Knowledgeable Citizen Jefferson thought that in order to have a vision of Republican America there was the need of a concept of educated and intellectual citizens.Therefore, Republicans and Jeffersonians believed that for an educated republic required the creation of a national system of public education. Since male citizens were the only people who could vote, they believed that they needed to receive free education.
Private Schooling in the Nation In the North, schooling fell to the job of private institutions; while the South and Mid-Atlantic States, it was the duty of religious groups ran most of the schools. Most schools in the northeast followed the example of the Phillips family in Andover, Mass. in 1798. There were 37 kinds of these schools in Massachusetts by 1815 and 37 more private secondary schools in New York. Throughout the nation, private secondary schools thought education mainly to male students. New Educational Opportunities for Women While American placed public education primarily in the hands of male citizens, but did come up with the emphasis of the “republican mother. ” Since women were ones who raised the children, a Republican vision of American was required to training the new generation of well-informed citizens.
In 1789, Massachusetts became the first to require their public schools to serve females as well. For most men they believed that better female education was only needed to make women serve as better wives and mothers. Indian Education Some whites and reformers had a growing interest toward the interest of Indian education. Jeffersonians thought that Native Americans were considered “noble savages” because if they were educated it was possible to control the Indian population and containing their spirits. The job of promoting Indian education fell to the duty of missionaries and mission schools.African-American Education Throughout the US, almost every white believed there was truly a need to educate African Americans, since most were slaves.
In the North, some free black children were lucky enough to attend segregated schools. Although the literacy rate for slaves was relatively small, some African Americans managed to acquire some education, with that knowledge they taught themselves and teaching their children. Need for Higher Education By 1800, there were twenty-two colleges and universities throughout the nation.Even though colleges and universities were able to establish state legislatures but they still relied on private contributions and tuition fees. The statistics were very bad because only wealthy and prosperous families could have members of the family to receive higher education.
The education of colleges and universities was fairly limited and clergy was the only profession that was considered an exclusive career. Only a handful of institutions were able to provide students with advanced education and training for certain fields.