In the modern universe. prodigious constructions such as the Sphinx and the pyramids serve as reminders of the being of the Egyptian Civilization. This ancient civilization flourished along the Nile River. which had influenced and sustained the development of Egyptian Civilization. Flowing towards the North from the East Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. the Nile River served as a chief path for trade and had a function in unifying Upper and Lower Egypt. Without the Nile River. Egypt would go nil but a huge desert. ( Crosslands. n. vitamin D )
The Three Periods Although dynasties characterized the Egyptian Civilization. the land maintained its integrity. There are three periods that divided the Ancient Egyptian Civilization viz. the Old Kingdom or Pyramid Age. the Middle Kingdom. and the New Kingdom ( Crosslands. n. vitamin D ) . The Old Kingdom ( 2700 – 2200 BC ) The ancient Egyptian swayers or Pharaoh worked on keeping a stable and centralised province. To the people. Pharaoh were regarded as Gods therefore they were given absolute power every bit good as ownership and regulation over the lands ( Crossland. n. d. ) .
This period is known as the Pyramid Age because at this clip. prodigious constructions known as pyramid were constructed by the Egyptians near Giza. situated at contemporary Cairo. Because of their belief in after-life. the Egyptians kept graves of their dead Pharaoh in these pyramids. The building procedure was so long and boring that one time a Pharaoh assumed the throne. slaves are already tasked to get down constructing the grave of the new Pharaoh. The battle for power. failure of harvests. and the disbursals incurred for building the pyramids. were the major factors that brought
about the prostration of the Old Kingdom ( Crossland. n. d. ) The Middle Kingdom ( 2050 BC – 1800 BC ) This period was marked by turbulency and pandemonium. Corruptness and uprising normally took topographic point. The rise of the Nile River was non every bit regular as it used to be. However. some Pharaoh were still able to set-up an ambitious drainage undertaking. paving the manner for a immense stretch of cultivable lands. Nubia. the southern land proliferating with gold. was occupied by Egyptian ground forcess. Crete was similarly opened to trading chances ( Crossland. n. d. ) .
The Hyksos conquered the delta part and brought along their military engineering. The new encroachers were captivated by the imposts. names. and beliefs of the Egyptians. They occupied the land for over 100 old ages. Finally. the vanquishers were driven out by new swayers which paved the manner for the New Kingdom ( Crossland. n. d. ) . The New Kingdom Ramses II and Queen Hatshepsut were the most noteworthy swayers of this clip. By this clip. the Egyptian civilisation had already extended to the part of the Euphrates River. Contact with Middle Easterners every bit good as other subdivisions of the African continent.
At the decision of the reign of Ramses II. the strength of the Egyptian civilisation began to diminish. Other powers like the Greeks. Romans. Persians. and Assyrians found their manner into the Nile part ( Crossland. n. vitamin D ) . Contribution to Modern Civilization The Egyptians are credited for assorted parts in different Fieldss of involvement. In the field of medical specialty. the Egyptians had good sawboness and physicians. Egypt had an advanced apprehension of the human organic structure ( Crossland. n. vitamin D ) . It was the Egyptians who foremost utilized the 365 yearss a twelvemonth format in the calendar.
It showed more preciseness than the original lunar calendar utilizing the moon’s revolution around the Earth. The Egyptian calendar came into being in 4200 BC. and became the footing for the one being used in modern times ( Crossland. n. vitamin D ) Sumerian Civilization While the Nile River was the locale for the Egyptian civilisation. likewise the Sumerian civilization flourished in the Bankss of the Tigris and Euphrates River around 4000 BC. Unlike other societies. nevertheless. the Sumerians had a alone community comparable to civilisations of their clip every bit good as future societies.
If pharaohs ruled Egyptian society. the Sumerians built their colonies in temples and priests were the swayers ( Watkins. n. vitamin D ) . The Sumerian civilisation was composed of separate city states. Sumer was strategically protected by the Persian Gulf every bit good as by Euphrates River. From the organic structures of H2O. the metropolis was protected by walls. The temples were located in a separate subdivision of the metropolis ( Watkins. n. vitamin D ) . The Sumerian civilisation was erased from the annals of history in 2000 BC as a consequence of military invasions by people from Semitic civilization. The most noteworthy imperium was that of Sargon ( Watkins. N.
vitamin D ) . Contributions to Modern World The Sumerians had a engineering more advanced than any other civilisation of their clip. In fact. they influenced other civilisations peculiarly the Babylonians in the North. They influenced Upper Egypt through the Persian Gulf and Lower Egypt via the eastern Mediterranean seashore. Finally. the civilisation lying along the Indus River Valley may hold some Sumerian influence every bit good ( Watkins. n. vitamin D ) . The Sumerian civilisation contributed cuneiform authorship every bit good as systematic record maintaining. societal and economic organisations. the plough.
Their most important part to modern civilisation is spliting a twenty-four hours into 24 hours and an hr to 60 proceedingss ( Watkins. n. vitamin D ) . The Babylonian Civilization The civilization of the Babylonians became outstanding between the autumn of the 3rd Ur Dynasty which happened in 1950 BC and the decision of the first Babylonian civilisation in 1533 BC. The ancient Babylonian civilization reached its magnificence during the clip of the Amorites until it became the chief metropolis in ancient Iraq ( Iraq UN Mission. n. vitamin D ) . King Hammurabi is the most noteworthy swayer of ancient Babylon.
He laid the basis for the constitution of his dynasty. Hammurabi set his sights on constructing a strong political and military society. He established a legal system based on the Code of Hammurabi. It is believed that this codification was the basic for future legal constructs. In fact. the stating “Eye for an oculus. tooth for a tooth” was established on this codification ( Iraq UN Mission. n. d. The Akkadian Civilization The civilization of Akkadia flourished from 2350 – 2159 BC. Before settling in Mesopotamia. the Akkadians hailed from the Arab peninsula. Its laminitis is Sargon who established Akkas as the capital metropolis.
The Akkadian civilization is located in a part which is now occupied by Baghdad ( Iraq UN Mission. n. d. Although there were hints of Sumerian influences. the Akkadians established new constructs and patterns in the field of political relations. societal life. humanistic disciplines. and the military ( Iraq UN Mission. n. d. The Iranian Civilization Alexander the Great is doubtless the greatest swayer of Persia. During his reign. he strived to unify Persians into a great state. Alexander’s dream. nevertheless. did non happen after he died. His military generals fought against each other in an effort to go swayer of the one time mighty Persian Empire.
One of Alexander’s generals succeeded in suppressing the wholly Iranian part of the imperium ( Ellis & A ; Horne. 1913 ) . Another of the greatest Iranian male monarch was Artexerxes who ruled Persia after the Parthinians conquered the imperium in 250 BC. The Persians are strong and ferocious warriors who will non merely travel off in conflict. This was apparent in the conflict for Petra. one of the most noteworthy wars in historical annals ( Ellis & A ; Horne. 1913 ) . The Greatest Civilization in the World I believe that the greatest civilisation in the universe is the Egyptian civilisation.
Their illustriousness in the field or architecture is still really much evident in the pyramids and the Sphinx. I have ne’er visited the pyramids or seen the sphinx yet but histories by tourers who have seen the colossal construction leave the topographic point in awe. The profusion of the Egyptian civilization is similarly stored underneath these constructions which served as grave of ancient Pharaoh. The Egyptians have likewise stamped their expertness in mathematics and uranology. The old lunar calendar. which is based on the rotary motion of the Moon around the Earth. is a cogent evidence of their excellence in this field.
Ellis. E. S. . & A ; Horne. C. F. . ( 1913 ) . The Story of the Greatest Nations and the World’s Famous Events. Iraq UN Mission ( n. d. ) . Civilizations. Retrieved June 17 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. iraqunmission. org/node/27 Ms. Croft-Crossland’s Standard ( n. vitamin D ) . Ancient Egypt. Retrieved June 17 2008 from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //home. cf1. rr. com/crossland/AncientCivilizations/Ancient_Egpyt/ancient_egypt. hypertext markup language & gt ; Watkins. T ( n. d. ) . Sumer. San Jose State University. Retrieved June 17. 2008 from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sjsu. edu/faculty/watkins/sumer. htm & gt ;