Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling an organization for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the development and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to manage oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others.
Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management. INTRODUCTION Throughout the years, the role of a manager has changed. Years ago, managers were thought of as people who were “the boss. ” While that might still be true today, many managers view themselves as leaders rather than as people who tell subordinates what to do. The role of a manager is comprehensive and often very complex. Not everyone wants to be a manager, nor should everyone consider being a manager. HISTORY The verb manage comes from the Italian managgiare (to handle-especially tolls), which in turn derives from Latin manus (hand).
The French word mesnagement influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some definitions of management are: * Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker(1909-2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm’s resources to achieve the policy’s objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer. NATURE OF MANAGERIAL WORK
In for-profit, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit, creating valued products at a reasonable cost, and providing rewarding employment opportunities. In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely.
In public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. 21st CENTURY In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories.
Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.
As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike.
Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace and the de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of common-and-control can b e seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off. REFERENCES: Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. ; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: Mcgraw-Hill. pp.