Ensuring Data Security In Cloud Computing Computer Science Essay

With increasing engineering demand for the cloud application is besides increasing. Due to this security demands are besides increasing. A user can entree a cloud services from anyplace and at any clip or about immediately. These characteristics make cloud calculating so flexible and prone to hazard. Therefore there are possibilities of missing confidentiality, unity and hallmark among the cloud users. So the cardinal intent of this research is to look into cloud securities and construct a model utilizing encoding algorithms to supply informations confidentiality, unity and hallmark.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Data Security, Symmetric Encryption, Public Key Encryption, SHA.

1. Introduction

Cloud calculating have became really popular in today ‘s universe. Since most of the work is done through clouds these yearss and informations is stored in it. So information security has become one of the of import issues in cloud computer science, because most of the work is done through cybernation and information is transferred over the web. Information security is a procedure of safeguarding information against knowing and malicious onslaughts to guarantee its CIA three [ 1 ] [ 2 ] . The CIA three bases for three major dogmas to information security: confidentiality, unity and handiness.

Confidentiality provides bar from unauthorised use of sensitive information. Integrity provides truth of information by forestalling unauthorised alteration of informations and information.

Availability ensures that information is available whenever it is needed and it besides includes bar from denial of service onslaught.

Therefore CIA three is achieved through encoding. Encoding algorithms are applied to informations which

provides information security. In encoding field text or information is encrypted utilizing algorithms and key, turning it into a cypher text which is merely

clear to authorized user. Authorized user contained cardinal which decrypt a cypher text into apparent text.

Different combination of encoding algorithms can be used to supply information security. A model had been proposed earlier utilizing AES ( barricade cypher ) , but when compared to stream cipher algorithms it is less energy efficient and decelerate [ 8 ] . So a new model is proposed in this paper utilizing RC4 ( stream cypher ) algorithm.

2. Related Work

Sudha, [ 7 ] has proposed a simple security web in this paper. They have used cryptanalytic algorithms to supply informations security in cloud computer science. A symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used to fix a model. The security issues associated in cloud informations storage and have explored many security issues, whenever a information exposure is perceived during the storage procedure a preciseness confirmation across the distributed waiters are ensured by coincident designation of the misbehaving nodes through analysis in term of security malfunctioning, it is proved that their strategy is effectual to manage certain failures, malicious informations alteration onslaught, and even server conspiring onslaughts [ 5 ] . John Harauz et Al. [ 6 ] , escribed the Security Content mechanization protocol ( SCAP ) and benefits it can supply with latest cloud calculating paradigm with mention to the latest study released by NIST, giving penetration as to what SCAP is seeking to make, It states that many tools for system security, such as spot direction and exposure direction package, use proprietary formats, terminologies, measurings, nomenclature, and content.

4. Encoding

Encoding is the procedure of encoding a information in such a manner that it become indecipherable to unauthorised user. Encoding is done by using encoding algorithms to the plaintext, turning it into cypher text. Encryption key is used by the encoding algorithm which specifies the method of encoding message. Any unauthorised user holding a cypher text can non see the original message. An authorised user can merely be able to decrypt the cypher text to original text utilizing decoding algorithm, which requires a decoding key. Generally secret key is generated by utilizing a key-generation algorithm.

There are two basic types of encoding techniques: Symmetric-key and public-key encoding [ 3 ] . In symmetric-key encoding technique, encoding is done through same key. Therefore pass oning parties must portion secret key before communicating. In public-key encoding technique, the encoding is done through combination of public key and private key. Thus the encrypted message and key is published for everyone, but it can merely be used by the having party.

Figure1: Overview of encoding algorithms



RC4 is a watercourse cypher symmetric cardinal encoding algorithm. It uses a variable cardinal length 1-256 bytes to initialise a province tabular array of 256 bytes. State tabular array is initialized in the signifier of array. So the array is used for bring forthing pseudo-random bytes and so pseudo-random watercourse. Thus the pseudo-random watercourse is XORed with the field text to bring forth cypher text.

While initialising the province tabular array there are two 256 bytes array are taken: S-Box and K- box. S-Box contains additive Numberss such as S0=0, S1=1, S2=2, aˆ¦S255=255 and K-Box contained cardinal to be used in repeat to make full the array. The cardinal apparatus and cardinal coevals is performed for every new key to bring forth a alone key.

Figure 2: Block Diagram of RC4 Key coevals Phases

In cardinal set up phase S-Box is modified utilizing pseudo random codifications. It uses two counter I and J.

Key Setup stage:


for I from 0 to 255

J = ( j + S [ I ] + K [ I ] ) manner 256

barter ( S [ I ] , S [ j ] )

terminal for

Pseudo Random Key Generation Phase:

I = 0

J = 0

ptlen = length ( plaintext )

while ( ptlen & gt ; 0 )

I = ( i+1 ) mod 256

J = ( j+ S [ I ] ) mod 256

barter ( S [ I ] , S [ j ] )

cardinal = S [ ( S [ I ] + S [ j ] ) mod 256 ]

end product key

ptlen = ptlen-1

terminal while

Once the imposter random key is generated so kick text is XORed with it to bring forth cypher text.

Figure 3: RC4 Working

5.2 SHA

Secure Hash Algorithm uses compaction map to change over a arbitrary size message to a fixed size message. Hash map can be applied to any size message and it produces a fixed size message. As compared to other hashing algorithms, it is more unafraid and easy to calculate.

In our model for the enhanced hallmark the message digest or the hash value of the message is generated utilizing unafraid hash algorithm which is of fixed size. Then the hash value produced is concatenated with the existent encrypted informations and digital signature. Later whole concatenated strings are firmly encrypted utilizing RSA algorithm i.e. public key of the receiving system and so direct to the cloud to the bespeaking receiver. On the receiver side informations unity is checked by the hash value generated by decoding message and transmitter hallmark is verified.

5.3 RSA

RSA stands for Rivest, Shamir & A ; Adleman of MIT, the 1 who introduced RSA. RSA is asymmetric public cardinal encoding technique which is based on involution in a finite field over whole numbers modulo a premier Numberss. In order to code a message M the transmitter should hold a public key of the receiving system, PU= { vitamin E, n } is the public key which is used to calculate the cypher message: C=Me ( mod N ) has to obtain public key of receiver, where 0a‰¤M & lt ; n. At the receiver terminal receiver uses their private key to decode the message, PR= { vitamin D, n } is the private key which is used to calculate the original message: M = Cd ( mod n ) , where M & lt ; Ns.

RSA uses Euler ‘s Theorem: ao ( n ) mod n = 1 where gcd ( a, N ) =1 in RSA we have to ab initio cipher n=p.q such that o ( N ) = ( p-1 ) ( q-1 ) one has to carefully take vitamin E & A ; vitamin D to be opposites mod o ( N ) [ 7 ] .

Figure 4: RSA cardinal coevals


Figure 5: Proposed Hybrid Framework

In this scenario we have considered that interaction of cloud waiter and cloud client is the initial measure. Merely a registered cloud client can avail the services of the cloud. So the user has to be registered cloud client, if the user is registered user so merely login and watchword is verified. If the user is new so he needs to register in the cloud waiter. So the user registries itself and the Certificate Authority generates a certification for the cloud client. After user login hallmark a random twine is generated by the waiter for the client and digital signature is generated by suspiring random threading with client ‘s private key.

The client can bespeak for the information from the cloud information centres after the user is authenticated by the two measure hallmark. Then the proposed secure intercrossed model is executed to guarantee the information security. The model uses a symmetric key algorithm for efficiency, confidentiality and simpleness and along with it a public key algorithm for secure cardinal exchange. So the loanblend is constructed with symmetric and asymmetric encoding algorithm for the enhanced model.

Measure 1: Upon successful hallmark of the client by waiter, the information is encrypted utilizing a symmetric ( RC4 ) algorithm to bring forth cypher text.

Measure 2: Datas hash codification and cardinal hash codification is generated utilizing unafraid hash algorithm. A concatenated twine is generated by uniting informations hash codification, cardinal hash codification, symmetric key to bring forth cypher text and cypher text.

Measure 3: Then the concatenated twine is encrypted with the receiving systems public key by utilizing RSA algorithm.

Measure 4: Use the contrary procedure.i.e. the whole twine is decrypted at receiver terminal by the receiver private key and the needed symmetric key is obtained on decoding.

Measure 5: Original message is decrypted utilizing symmetric encoding algorithm ( RC4 ) key, so the proof and confirmation of the transmitter is done.

Measure 6: Secure Hash Algorithm ( SHA ) is used of bring forthing hash value for look intoing unity of the message sent.

Measure 7: Digital Signature is merely validated when the value of the message matches the hash codification sent and so informations unity accepted.

Measure 8: Once informations is transportation in the secure signifier so the petition is terminated.

Following were the stairss to reassign secure informations over clouds with the aid of intercrossed model.


In this paper a simple intercrossed model is proposed with the aid of encoding algorithms. This intercrossed model produces a secure information which can be transferred over the clouds. The combination of RC4, SHA and RSA is used to heighten informations security and to give more energy efficient and fast working. In Future this unafraid hybride model can be implemented on a platform.