Equal inclusion in the classroom is very important in education today; the teachers have to follow the laws in their classrooms. I will explain how certain laws and court cases affect the classroom for equality. Brown vs.
Board of Education (1954) This case was about equal education for blacks as in the whites, for the blacks to be able to attend any school whether it was a white or black school instead of being confined to one particular school because they are black. The case was in favor of Brown. The effect this case had on equality in the classroom is that integration was in the classroom of more than one color or race.
PARC vs. The Commonwealth of PA (1971) Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children filed a lawsuit against Pennsylvania because the public education failed to provide public supported education with mental retardation. Educators have to give the students with mental retardation an equal education as the other students. The effect on the educators is FAPE, Free Appropriate Public Education, for students with disabilities. Mills vs. The Board of Education (1972) The case was brought up because there were 18,000 students not enrolled in a school because of behavior problems as in ADHD and other behavior problems.
The reason being this is because the schools did not have the funding to have support staff to help assist the students with these issues. The effect is that Education must provide services no matter if the district has an inability to pay. Section 504 P. L 94-112 (1973) This is the vocational rehabilitation act. Students no MATTER the handicap or disability will be turned down to attend any programs, sports, activities, and other public events because of their disability, if that program is receiving federal funds. The effect is integrating students with disabilities into programs and sports with the other students.
P. L 94-142 Students are to be able to be involved with other students who do not have a disability. Students must receive a free and appropriate education. This is ranging from ages 3-12. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) There needs to have IEP involved, parental involvement is encouraged to make educational decisions. Effect: Responsibilities and jobs are addressed.
IEP plans and resources are needed for students with disabilities. American with Disabilities Act (1990) This act was a very important act for people with disabilities it ended discrimination on people/children with disabilities.Buses, restaurants, hotels, telecommunication services for the deaf were now offered, and public accommodation services. The effect in the classroom: Classrooms need to have equal access for people with disabilities.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1990) This amends the law P. L 94-142 which now includes students with autism and traumatic brain injury. Also includes that a transition IEP is effective before the student turns 16 years old for high school goals, and now it is not “he has autism” it is now “a student with autism. ”ReferencesGollnick, D., & Chinn, P. (2006).
Multicultural education in a pluralistic society. Upper State River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.