Manual efforts had always been a center of study for many people because of the possible risks that the workers are vulnerable to. Considering the fact that arts are machines yet it has only aided workers in transporting materials through wheels but the occupational risks that is present still pertains. In this case, ergonomics which is the science of designing the job to fit a worker and not the other way around (OSHA 31 25), had taken place in order to delineate a safe work environment for a worker.
Together with this come several other fields of sciences that contribute into other aspects of work like physiology, bohemianism, psychology, anthropometry, industrial hygiene, and sinology. Nowadays, industries have needed higher production rates to be nominative and secure the longevity of the business. Like any other profit- based organization, as much as possible, cost from inefficient work hours and accidents or injuries afflicted to its workers.
Pushing/pulling and lifting materials with regard to its size, shape, and weight, together with the distance of the origin to the target location can cause serious physical injuries and disorders to the worker especially when it is coupled with poor machine and tool design, or improper use of the good ones. The most prominent disorders at work are called musculoskeletal disorders or Mess which are injuries and crosiers that relates to the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilages, and spinal discs (Twain, 2009).
As determined by Fernando (2005), there are basically two (2) main types of Mess: injury associated with manual material handling (MM) and cumulative trauma disorders or CT Ads. Written in the Guidelines of Material Handling by ONIONS (2006), material handling is one of the most important activities inside a manufacturing or production business but it is also the majority contributor to the largest percentage of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MS) due to manual practice in the workplace. Likewise, C Ads come by in most activities done inside the company.
Workers are prone to having unnoticed risks that cumulatively stacks up the effect which leads into a more serious condition costing the companies productivity in terms of its people. Many companies in the world has been diverting into automated machineries or equipment in order to aid workers in handling materials to reduce this prominent risks of injury in the workplace. Even though countermeasures have been starting to be implemented and practiced in many industries, yet only some of it is considered correct.
In this duty, the researchers aim to study the stress induced to the workers and the associated risk of Mess regarding the use of the current cart design and other work environment factors at Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co. Located at Calm, Laguna. With these, researchers intend to recommend a cart design equipped with ergonomic principles to aid workers in their work and promote a safe working environment. The push cart pertained to the study is used in industries on transporting boxes on near proximity within the area operated manually.
Toyota Industry and History One of the world’s most important economic sector by revenue is automotive sectors. Automotive industry is a inclusive range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. The largest automobile manufacturer by production in 2012 is Toyota Motor Corporation and recently as of January 2014 it is the fourteenth-largest company in world by revenue.
In the Philippines automotive manufacturing industry is one of the eight sectors that have competitiveness characteristics for development for success in the world market according to Philippine National Competitiveness Council (2014). This sector is important to the development of economic of any country that is why it is Often referred to as a pillar of economic growth and one of the few industries, being capital-intensive and large-scale in nature, which has the ability to expand an economy in many tangible and intangible ways.
That is why it contributes important role in economy and give socio-economic benefits. According to a special study of the Philippine Automotive Manufacturing Industry in late 2009 by the APACE commissioned Dolomite (Australia) was fully explain and shows the socio-economic benefits hat a globally competitive auto industry could bring to the Philippines. Toyota Motor Philippines as one of largest manufacturer in the Philippines contributes big part in socio-economic benefits of the country.
Toyota Motor Philippines gaining larger production is required and need of logistic support, trading companies as well as warehousing-racking. Toyota Outshoot Philippines Corporation are the one who accomplished these categorize. Toyota was founded by Chicory Toyota in 1 937 as a spiff from his father’s company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while till a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1 936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AAA.
Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under 5 brands, including the Toyota brand, Hind, Lexus, Ran, and Scion. It also holds a 512% stake in Dadaists, a 16. 66% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, a 5. 9% stake in Issue, and a 0. 27% stake in Tests, as well as joint-ventures with two in China (GAG Toyota and Chuan FAA Toyota Motor), one in India (Toyota Karakas), one in the Czech Republic (TOPCA), along with several “unmotivated” companies.  TM is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. 1. 2 Present System Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co. Operates with the Kanata System on the refilling pick racks. The present equipment the company uses in the transportation of boxes is the manually operated cart with no special characteristics. Below is an image of the current design of the push/pull cart. Figure 1. Present design of the push cart Source: Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co. Currently, the operation starts when an operator assigned at locating inspects locations on the pick rack that needs restocking. If location needs restocking, he operator then collects the Kanata card of locations that is in need of restocking.
The researcher only focused on transporting the box with the use of push cart in the pick rack. For further description of the process below is the process flow chart. Figure 2. Process flow chart The existing process to restock the pick racks starts in getting boxes at the unpacking area, transfer the boxes to the pick rack location, check label, put boxes on the pick rack and lastly, return push cart from its original parking place. For elaboration of the process below is the explicit detail of each recess. Further definition of each step in the process is provided below. . Getting boxes from unpacking area During unpacking, segregate boxes with indication of pick location on a separate push cart designated for locating at pick rack location. Forklift operators will bring down the needed pallets at the High rack to the roller and place its Kanata card on top of the boxes to each push cart and restock needed locations at the pick rack. After unpacking, lead the push cart to the pick rack location. Figure 3 shows the transferring of boxes from unpack area to the push cart. Figure 3. Operator transferring boxes 2.
Transferring the boxes to pick rack location By the use of the push cart, the operator transfers the boxes to the other pick rack where FIFO takes place. And then, bring the push cart right in front of item location in the pick rack. The figure 4 shows the image of an operator pushing the cart to the pick rack location Figure 4. Operator pushing the cart to pick rack location 3. Checking label The operator checks the label of boxes to be located versus the location in order to check the records in the pick racks. 4. Putting box on the pick rack
Carefully, the operator puts the box in the location by following the FIFO stacking guide. The figure shows an operator restocking a location at the pick rack. Figure 5. Operator restocking the pick rack 5. Return push cart When the restocking is completed and all the boxes had been transferred from the cart into the pick racks, the push cart will be returned into its original parking area. 1. 3 Initial Needs Analysis Needs analysis is the formal process defined by Smith (2012) that sits alongside requirements analysis and focuses on the human elements of the requirements.
It is also is the process of identifying and evaluating needs in a community or other defined population of people. In simplest term of its objective is it focuses on the future, or what should be done, rather than on what was done as is the focus of most program evaluations. In this study, the researchers’ target to assess the risk Of Musculoskeletal Disorders due to work-induced stress to workers at Toyota Outshoot Philippines Corporation. Workers at Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co. The target population of this study is the workers at Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co.
These researchers emphasize that the focus of the need analysis should be on the workers on replenishing area. The workers on this area are the one who lift the boxes and transfer to the pushcart and bring it to the replenishing area from the packing area. In manual handling task there are activities that have risk factors on workers specifically the lifting and pushing task. On the current design of pushcart of the company, the researcher assesses the workers on what they feel in the equipment they are using.
The total respondents of this study are 1 5 workers who are rotationally using push cart and assign to replenishing area. To better assess a job for ergonomic hazards, the researchers break the job into its basis tasks and assess each task based on the objectives of the study. Figure 6. Flow chart for selection an ergonomic assessment tool Source: IHA Ergonomic Committee The flow chart shows how the researcher comes up with the ergonomic method to use that is appropriately for the study and in the problem. The study focuses on manual material handling task both pushing and lifting task.
Based on the analysis using the ergonomic assessment tool the method pertinent to this study are the REHAB and REAL. This ergonomic assessment tool uses a systematic process to evaluate whole body postural MS and risks associated with job tasks. This ergonomic assessment tool of IHA provides a variety of ergonomic assessment tools and information on ergonomic analysis for the general public. The IHA Tool Kit was created so that users with a range of experience in ergonomic analysis would be able to employ it to analyze task in a workplace.
The Tool Kit comprised of 20 ergonomic assessment tools that can be used to analyze jobs for a variety of ergonomic risk factors. The IHA Ergonomic Tool Kit revises information for each assessment tool including purpose of the tool, the body regions and ergonomic risk factors considered by the tool, types of jobs the tool is appropriate for, the inputs needed for the tool, the expected output of the tool, limitations of the tool, and location of electronic version of the tool.
The ergonomic assessment tools were categorized into eight groups namely: whole body screening tools, whole body assessment tools, upper limb assessment tool the semi-quantitative and quantitative, physiological based assessment tools, lifting assessment (Qualitative, Semi Quantitative ND Quantitative. Each categories have different tools that can be used and applicable in different situation and task, to determine if there is risk in workers while doing their job. The overviews of ergonomic principles were shown under different categories.
The specific method that the researchers will used are RACIAL and REHAB. ROLL is under upper limb assessment tool (semi-quantitative) and it is stands for Rapid Upper Body Assessment (RURAL). While REHAB is under the category of whole body assessment tool (semi-quantitative) and it is Rapid Entire Body Assessment. Ra paid upper Body Assessment (RACIAL) Rapid Upper Body Assessment or RURAL is a postural targeting method for estimating the risks of work-related upper limb disorders. A RACIAL assessment gives a quick and systematic assessment of the postural risks to a worker.
The analysis can be conducted before and after an intervention to demonstrate that the intervention has worked to lower the risk of injury. (Cornell University Ergonomics Web. 2014) The purpose of this tool is to investigate the exposure to risk factors for upper limb disorders and provide a method of screening work population quickly so the results that could go into a wider, more erectile ergonomic assessment, while eliminating the need for assessment equipment. The person who develop this method is L. Mycenae, E. N. Correct in 1992.
It is applicable in Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors considered the following repetition, awkward/static postures, force, time worked without break and thebe’s regions. The body regions to be considered are the upper arms, lower arms, wrists, trunk, neck and legs. But these tool have limitations which is the s matter to what degree they exist (e. G. Assisting or off twisting) The manual material handling task have different jobs that the roger should performed. The type of jobs appropriate this tool are the jobs with a range of frequencies, involving multiple body regions, standing or sitting recombination.
This is suitable for all industries. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REHAB) REHAB is used to develop a postural analysis system sensitive to musculoskeletal risk in variety of jobs that is based on body segment specific ratings within specific movement planes, using a scoring system for muscle activity including static, dynamic, rapidly changing or unstable postures, and provide a benchmark for urgency of action. It is easy to use because it was signed for easy use without need for an advanced degree in ergonomics or expensive equipment.
It also can be used in Musculoskeletal Disorder risk factor in the consideration of awkward postures, load/force, coupling and activity level. The body regions to be considered are the trunk, neck, legs, knees, upper and lower arms and wrists. Since the scope of the study is pushing task it is appropriate to be used because it is suited for the types of jobs with a range of frequencies, involving multiple body regions, standing or sitting or combination. But it also has limitation which is some factors (e. Twisting, lateral bending abduction) are weighted equally no matter oath degree they exist. This tool is reliable to use because based on the studies that provide evidence of validation of the tool in inter-observer reliability was found to be 62-85% for 14 users. (S. Highest and L. McCauley) Need Identification Based on survey results gathered, it was identified the parts of the body which is affected and induced-stress when using the current design of push cart. Several parts of the body have been included in the determination of the effect of the fatigue to the body of the worker.
As shown in Figure 7, the free diagram of the parts affected parts of the body is mark with a pie graph for its level of severity which is based on the analysis of the survey conducted. Figure 7. Free Body Diagram Some parts have been identified as experiencing severe discomfort that substantially affects the workers ability to work and causes further more problems like not able to perform the job correctly. Seven out of fifteen workers involved in pushing and lifting activities with regards to the use of current design of push cart experienced discomfort in the neck, shoulders, upper arm, and upper back.
On average, the severity of the experience ranges between 25% and 40% which is classified as extreme discomfort. In addition, out of the 15 workers it has been identified that they experienced severe lower back, lower leg and ankle discomfort. This simply implies that the current design of the system contributes to the negative effect delivered into the body of the workers. In Toyota Outshoot Philippines Co, the usage of the current push cart design has been identified to be the major contributor of the accumulation of fatigue because it is the tool used to conduct all tasks in the work area.
Workers experience different excessive exertions and repetitive motions in the kind of work that is assigned to them relative to the usage of the push cart. In this case, experienced fatigue may lead to the root cause which points to the current design of the cart. There are some incidents that the workers experience includes difficulties in maneuvering the cart and also gripping the handle which causes them to be slowed down in doing work. In some other cases, the worker needs to bend his back in order to reach the handle and push the cart because of his height.