Businesses are
confronted with the critical need to foster high performance in employees
accompanied with efficient performance management processes. There are
important aspects, which every business must consider in its productivity goals
including job design, work conditions, goal setting, motivation and reward
systems. These aspects address both intrinsic and extrinsic incentives that
managers avail to their employees to foster total job motivation leading to
high productive performance. However, the key is for leaders to delegate these
roles to key personnel to promote efficiency and effectiveness. This addresses
the function of business development, which can be undertaken together with the
identified aspects. Therefore, it is important to evaluate how and why the
aforementioned factors contribute to businesses being able to report
significant productivity levels among their employees.


           How a company organizes, its work
environment plays an important role in promoting job satisfaction and
eliminating any form of discrimination against employees. The main idea is to
foster creativity, which minimizes monotony and boredom. Additionally, job
design needs to interlink with employees’ psychological needs in order to
promote employee engagement and productivity (Zareen, Razzaq & Mutjaba
2013). Job design can therefore be implemented through the techniques of job
rotation, job simplification, job enrichment and job enlargement.

             Job rotation entails managers
interchanging employees’ roles in an organized manner in accordance to
organization structure. In this case, an employee in sales department can be
delegated to the marketing department and vice versa. This helps both employees
to gain more skills such customer care, social media marketing and product
development. Job simplification is most beneficial in the manufacturing
businesses where the final product undergoes several value adding processes.
Thus, it serves the business well to breakdown the tasks into simple entities
to save on time and resources. This also ensures that all employees are
involved in the supply chain management system. Job enrichment is almost
similar to job enlargement however it focuses on the personal development of
employees. This is done through giving employees more autonomy, authority and
control over their tasks. This encourages a culture of problem solving,
decision making and creative thinking. Job enlargement involves a manager
expanding the job tasks of employees accompanied with necessary training to
handle the additional responsibility. This helps to breakdown monotony hence
promote skills development of employees. Furthermore, it helps to minimize
cases of high turnover.


            It is the prerogative of every
operating business to provide a safe, healthy and nondiscriminatory environment
for their employees. Better work conditions are enhanced by the policies and
structures put in place in a business, which is integrated into its work
culture. One of the ways to improve work conditions is for businesses to
develop and implement policies, which promote fairness and equality on factors
such as compensation, conflict resolution and discrimination. For instance,
adhering to employment laws such as Fair Labor Standards (FLSA) limits cases of
arising conflicts, which in turn affect the work productivity. Another way of
establishing conducive work conditions is setting moderate work hours, which
allow workers to recuperate or take vacation days as is provided by law. With
the advent of technology, companies can further seek to enhance productivity thorough
telecommuting in which employees can work remotely from any location. This in
turn minimizes overhead costs on equipment and building leases, which is key to
high productive capacities. Furthermore, the company’s productivity is
protected if the business is not involved in violation of any labor laws.

 Amoux- Nicolas et al. (2016, pg. 440)
reiterates that “in addition to 
promoting decent working conditions, organizations should encourage
programs and interventions that help employees to develop positive
psychological resources including meaning of work.”


            Setting of goals is very important
because it acts as a road map for a company’s future success. This extends to
the concept of goal setting theory of motivation developed by Edwin Locke.
Locke asserts that goal setting is correlated to task performance, which
entails setting specific and achievable tasks accompanied by feedback. Ionita
(2013) reiterates that goal setting influences behavior and performances level,
which she applies to the study of both small and medium sized enterprises.
There are several types of goals set by businesses based on their operational
structures; however, it is critical that they align with both the vision and
mission. Business goals can be classified into a few categories including:

a)     Long-term
and short-term goals

Long-term goals focus on
the future path the company needs to take such as expanding operations or
acquiring new assets. Short-term goals tend to be incremental since it aims at
solving a current issue such as hiring equipment to increase production. However,
it imperative for businesses to set both long term and short term goals to
ensure it does not miss out on any opportunities that could enhance its

Quantitative vs qualitative
business goals

Quantitative goals
encompass SMART goals, which stand for specific, measurable, achievable, and
relevant, and time bound.  For instance,
a marketing manager can set the goal to achieve 40 % customer retention in the
next six months. “Regardless of where the concept of SMART goals originated,
businesses have found that it can be a valuable tool” (Lawlor & Hornyak
2012 pg.260).Qualitative goals tend to touch on intrinsic aspects such as
work-life balance, skills acquisition and personnel development.

              The two goals highlighted can be
focused on monetary goals, which serve to minimize overhead costs, and enhance
personnel development such as increased skills and knowledge training. They can
also focus on customers such as fostering open communication, feedback and
better product development to enhance customer satisfaction. It can also target
product quality assurance and sustainability efforts such as producing using
sustainable materials and production processes. Overall, goal setting
highlights and imparts the company’s purpose, vision and mission on employees,
which translates into high productive capacities.

and reward system

              This system encapsulates the
aforementioned aspects since total job motivation is the precursor to
productivity.  Employee motivation is
very critical, as it is a relevant subject in management, psychology,
organizational behavior and human resource management (Munap, Badrillah &
Rahman 2013). Although, employers have been found to decrease wages after they
have provided other benefits such as annual leave after a few years, which
negates the motivation factor (Munap, Badrillah & Rahman 2013).The Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs resonates with the motivation and rewards systems that
organizations develop and implement. Abraham Maslow’s theory encompasses five
basic needs, which must be met in order to attain full satisfaction by
individuals. Thus, a company needs to integrate these needs into its
organizational structure as follows:

Physiological needs: This
entails ensuring that there is a fair salary and benefits compensation
according to delegated work tasks. This also ensures that ten business adheres
to sound business practices, which promote its profitability hence assuring job
security for employees.

Security needs: This entails
promoting both the physical and emotional needs of employees. This involves
providing a safe and healthy work environment such as adhering to OSHA laws and
regulations standards in a manufacturing business. With rising cases of work
place injuries, a company can seek to train employees on how to act during an
emergency caused by fires or adverse weather conditions.

Belongingness needs:
Encouraging employees to work as a team partially if they come from different
cultural backgrounds can enhance this. This also needs to be reflected in the
leadership style such as the collaborative type, which opens communication
channels between employees and the management.

Esteem needs: This touches on
promoting the motivation of employees through rewards such as recognition, job
promotion and improved work environment.

Self-actualization needs: This
touches on job design whereby the manager delegates more responsibility and
autonomy to employees. This enhances leadership qualities such as problem
solving and decision-making.

Companies are not
limited to integrating the above basic needs however, they serve to promote
total job motivation and satisfaction among employees, which is key to reducing
cases of high turnover, or unsound business practices. This in turn promotes
high productivity among employees as the management always acknowledges

            Conclusively, the aspects of job
design, work conditions, goal setting, motivation and rewards systems work in
collaboration to promote productivity in the organization. However, it requires
skilled and holistic leadership to ensure a balanced framework of effective
integration. Furthermore, technology serves to facilitate efforts by managers
however, it is important to ensure that employees are still able to participate
fully in value addition and performance appraisal processes. “The increasing
development of technology-based tools and their adaptation speed with human
requirements has led to a new form of the learning environment and creative,
active and inclusive interaction” (Ajami & Arab-Chadegani 2014). Leaders
also need to collaborate with especially successful organizations that have
successfully implemented the aspect of task performance. This can be done by
inviting other managers to address employees during training sessions, which
gives them an idea of the other company’s culture. It also allows the managers
to be privy of the competition’s strategies giving them leeway in the company’s