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- 1 ) Mountain-The Alps ( chief ) 2 ) Uplands 3 ) Lowlands
- Europe one time forested, now largely Fieldss and grasses
- Temperate Midlatitude Cimate ( NW Europe ) – Warmed, wetted by North Atlantic Drift/Gulf Stream. Mediterranean clime ( Southern Europe ) – Hot, dry summer, with mild, winter rainy season. Europe looks to hold large impacts from clime alteration, North Europe could be cooler and drier ; Mediterranean desiccant.
- No pristine environments. Europe gets most electricity from a jazz band of Russian gas piped long distances and atomic. Increasingly look to weave, and solar where applicable, Iceland does geothermal, which is utilizing steam from resistance to power turbines to bring forth electricity or heat places straight.
- Feudalism- where competitory knights protected helot who cultivated their land
- Humanism- that protected right if single. Renaissance, The Protestant Reformation,
- Age of Exploration- , Started with Spain and Portugal ( constructing on Italians wealth )
- Industrial Revolution-
- Democracy came easy, violently, to all classes- To adult females subsequently than work forces.
- State state- ( 1 people 1 state )
- The two World Wars – which leveled Europe and included the holocaust against Jews, Roma and other groups – shifted power to U.S. and U.S.S.R. In 1980’s, reforms and so democratic revolutions in Eastern Europe
- Predecessor: The European Economic Community ( EEC ) , in 1958, Removed some duties, cooperate alternatively of war. In 1992, a pact enlarged the construct of the EEC to that of the EU, which would be political every bit good as economic.
- The Economic and Social Integration, A Common European Currency, The European Union in the Global Economy, Common ordinance and deliberation, Geopolitical Counterforce to the United States.
- Economic and Social Integration- Create one giant, free fluxing market, Create common human-rights, environmental Torahs, Lessen economic difference between members. Common European Currency- The Euro ( initiated in 1999, widely used in 2002 )
- Has exacting criterions for rank, political stableness, democratically elective authorities, working market economic system, regard for minorities. Original members worry about consequence of new members on economic system. Turkey
- Get downing around 2001, several Icelandic Banks began lending money and accepting abroad sedimentations whose value was many times bigger than the existent economic system of Iceland. This is the antonym of what happened in Greece. Badly run Greece took sedimentations from every bit foolish Bankss and had monolithic debt. It could non deflate currency because it had the Euro, so it decimated societal services as portion of footings for a bailout from Germany which repaid Bankss.
- Deindustrialization-Was one time, with US, greatest industrial country in the universe. Tourism is 1/8 of occupations, b/c of generous province mandated holidaies
- Consumers willing to pay higher monetary values for freshness, little farms and environmental friendliness
- More people in flats, station WWII flat blocks semi-detached ( town-homes ) places, walking friendly
- Because twosomes average less than 2 kids, population is really shriveling in some topographic points. Problems- Need workers to fund public assistance plan, Need workers to make full skill occupations, consume, Need immature workers to care for aged.
- Schengen Agreement removed many boundary line cheques within European Union, Easier for Europeans to travel within in the continent for touristry. Fears that Europeans, who prided themselves on being distinguishable from one another, are homogenising.
- Guest workers- from nearby North Africa and Turkey are invited to make full unfastened occupations. Policies of host states sing guest workers vary dramatically from one state to the following.
- Assimilation- before credence differ U.S. and Canada pattern acculuration theoretical account immigrants merely need to be self-supporting and functional.
- Higher representation of adult females in political relations than anyplace else ( esp. North Europe ) . Double Days-
- Social Welfare System- The elaborate, high revenue enhancement supported systems that serve all citizens. Social democratic ( Scandinavia ) effort to accomplish equality across gender and category lines. Rudimentary ( Southern Europe, Ireland ) provide minimum support and trust on drawn-out household. Post-communist ( East Europe ) free flats, women’s work, free repasts collapsed with bid economic systems.
- Horse Racing, Fox Hunting, Cricket. The half-day off on Saturday gave workers free clip, Playing William claude dukenfields and the urban Parkss statute law turned Parkss and green infinite into centre of leisure clip for workers, Owners- headmasters saw team athleticss as manner to learn teamwork and subject, As professional squads emerge, allows people to pass clip as witnesss. 1960’s Begin to see the turnaround, when former settlements begin exceling colonisers ( Brazil in Soccer, India/West Indies in Cricket, table tennis in China ) .
Russia and Former-Soviet States
- North European field is most dumbly populated. permafrost which keeps H2O on surface, make fens. steppes ( grasslands ) .
- Region dominated by Continental climate- Little moderating H2O effects, land heats and cools to extremes, Siberia has many resources ( including its taiga wood ) , but its size and temperature makes them difficult to take ( although people are seeking, particularly at forestry ) , Small good agricultural land, short turning season. Caucuses grew fruits and veggies, Ukraine is “bread basket”
- Development now taking precedency over environmental controls.
- Many residential countries built next to major industrial composites. “non-point” – non identifiable to a individual beginning.
- Because of big size, small ordinance, clear film editing of woods occurs in Siberia- Likely to acquire worse as economic system picks up. Causes deluging which destroys wont, Besides get thermic pollution where turbine heated H2O causes temperature displacement, kills little animate beings, works.
- Aral Sea is disappearing- Cotton in Central Asia is a really moneymaking harvest, must be irrigated, By 1980’s no H2O making sea, Lost 75 % of volume, 50 % of surface country, Salt, chemicals blown from seabed destructing lungs, B/c so moneymaking, non traveling to halt.
- Much of part one time dominated by Cardinal Asiatic nomads who herded from Black Sea to Lake Baikal. Slavs emerged in Poland/Ukraine/Belarus around 600, Rus ( possibly from Scandinavia ) between 800-1000.
- Began colonial type relationship with conquered lands outside of European Russia. Was improbably unjust: tsar and little nobility owned land and helot who were bound to them.
- Bolsheviks, a little group of rigorous Communists, addition control, to ain and net income from agencies of production. Goal to set up a strictly classless, finally homeless society-goal didn’t happen.
- Under Stalin a bid economic system instituted- ? Led to lift of secret constabulary and gulag archipelago ( Siberian prison system ) .
- Bureaucrats in Moscow decided degrees, types, and locations of production for province companies and farms. Most investing in military and heavy equipment, small for consumers.
- Cold War. Russia dominates after disintegration, despite many new provinces.
- Professionals: Extend influence throughout district, Besides, dispersed, difficult to assail. Cons: Conveyance cost really high, Poor conveyance kept mega industrial parts, with their co-dependent efficiencies, from developing.
- The acronym is BRIC ( Brazil, Russia, India, China ) .