One tierce of the North American Bridgess are structurally lacking or functionally disused and $ 80 billion are needed for the repairing of these Bridgess ( Cusson et al.-1999 ) . In Canada the job of effectual rehabilitation and its support represents a challenge to the full substructure under the legal powers of the federal, provincial, regional and municipal authoritiess and the private sector because merely 17 % of the Bridgess are acceptable and rehabilitation demands for the remainder 83 % are about $ 0.7 billion yearly ( Mirza and Murtaza -2003 ) . A clears image can be imagined by cognizing that Harmonizing to Transportation Association of Canada ( TAC ) the unsmooth estimation of figure Bridgess in Canada is 80000 with the replacing value of $ 35 billion and between 2005 and 2015 a per centum of one-year addition in the replacing cost will take topographic point.
Historically since the gap of Montreal ‘s Metropolitan Boulevard in 1960 which was the first urban freeway in Canada, several important main roads and Bridgess were designed and constructed get downing with Burlington Bay Bridge, the Angus McDonald Bridge and he Murray McKay suspension span in the 50 ‘s ( Straka-2002 ) .
The importance and urgency of the job pushed the applied scientists and the determination shapers towards an intensive survey to specify the proficient significance of care and attach toing footings in order to stipulate the undertakings of those who are involved in the job. A primary rating of the span status is needed to find if it is structurally lacking i.e. holding one or more deteriorated constituents ( deck, girder, wharfs, etc. ) ensuing in limitations on their usage or functionally disused with an deficient load-carrying capacity or unwanted geometrical features.The professional definition of the remedial action is besides needed to make up one’s mind the appropriate response.
Assorted looks can be employed here like the fix which means seting the span into action once more or replacing which refers to the permutation of the damaged constituent.There is besides the rehabilitation which has broad applications but chiefly it can be defined as “ modernisation, change, or betterment to the bing status of the construction or span system that is designed to rectify lacks for a peculiar design life unrecorded burden degree ” as per the definition of the Canadian Standardization Association ( CSA ) . Other related looks include the modernisation i.e. updating by adding new characteristics and the strengthening or retrofitting which is related to the load-carrying capacity or structural munition of the span elements.
Ramcharitar ( 2002 ) stated that, many provinces and states in United States and Canada devote an sum of money for rehabilitate the deteriorated Bridgess. Thesiss Bridgess deteriorated due to the heavy traffic tonss, old age, and weather status, freeze, dissolving and de-icing salt. These Bridgess were built utilizing the ordinary reinforced concrete in the late 1950 ‘s and throughout 1960 ‘s. Harmonizing to Hassanain ( 2003 ) , about 30 % to 40 % of the Bridgess in North America have some signifier of impairment on them. Canada has 80,000 Bridgess, over 50 % of them are over 35 old ages old and the designed service life was 50 old ages ( Lounis 2003 ) . The United States have 42 % of their Bridgess need major rehabilitation ( Ahlskog 1990 ) . Estimated the cost for these rehabilitation The FHWA estimated the cost for rehabilitate the deteriorated Bridgess is $ 92 Billion between the periods of 1987 to 2005.
The span deck is the physical extension of the roadway across the obstructor to be bridged. It is an of import portion of a span that is straight subjected to cyclic burden and rough environmental conditions. Liu et Al ( 1997 ) stated that the span deck is an of import portion of the span that is straight subjected to cyclic burden and rough environmental conditions.
2-Delamination is the separation of concrete beds at or near the top of the outmost bed of the reenforcing steel analogues to the concrete member surface. The corrosion of reenforcing steel is the major cause of delamination.Tensile emphasiss, impact forces and freeze-thaw can besides do delamination of the concrete of decks ( spartlin-2001 ) . Delamination requires pressing fix in order to avoid the growth of the job into Spalling.
3-Spalling is a defect normally occurs at the top of support.It is related to delamination and is accelerated by the addition in the usage of chlorides caused concrete to start out.The rate and badness of Spalling depends on the concrete screen, permeableness of concrete, inclination of span deck to snap and burden strength on the deck. Spalling can be detected in the signifier of horizontal clefts above the corrosion bars.
4-Cracking is an uncomplete separation of concrete because of tensile emphasiss. It can be horizontal, perpendicular, or random. There are many causes for over-tensile emphasiss and hence clefts such as the plastic shrinking, the colony, structural causes, reactive sum and corrosion. The corrosion and checking enhance each other in the cause and consequence.
5- Overloading: Ramcharitar ( 2002 ) said that today ‘s trucks are well heavier, travel much faster, and bring on greater impact forces on span decks and they account for a much larger per centum of traffic flow. Theses burden additions have non merely damaged the decks but besides have contributed to cut downing the fatigue life of deck girders. The most damaging consequence heavy burden on Bridgess is in addition in emphasiss they apply on Bridgess.
6-Chloride taint: Ramcharitar ( 2002 ) said that, because of the conditions status of North America, they use the de-icing salts as a mean of runing snow and bettering route status during rough winters.
7- Honeycombing and air pockets: Xanthakos ( 1996 ) explained that these defects occur at the clip of building. Air pockets consequences when fresh concrete is non decently consolidated. Honeycombing occurs when there is spacing between the harsh sum atoms, besides when the cement howitzer has non filled these infinites, these cause improper consolidation or escape of howitzer between subdivisions of the formwork.
8-Other signifiers of deck impairment including the wear and smoothing which is related to the skid opposition of concrete, the honeycombing and air pockets which appear at the clip of building and impact the stringency of the concrete against the external causes of impairment.
2.4 Different care and fix activities
By and large, the constructions do non execute satisfactorily for a long period of clip. The period of recognized public presentation is called the service life of the constructions. Bridges deteriorate with clip. The determination between rehabilitation and replacing depends chiefly on the economic considerations. The sum of work to be done, the economical life clip of the span after rehabilitation or replacing and the conformity of the rehabilitated span with the old design/ detailing constructs are other facets to be considered besides.
In choosing the rehabilitation system, strength and serviceableness, public presentation and lastingness, easiness for rapid building, minimal intervention with traffic, lower limit care demands, and life rhythm cost are some effecting facets.
Presently, many different fixs are used to keep Bridgess based on stuffs, building techniques, and types of harm.
Liu et Al ( 1997 ) conclude that the conditions of span decks are assessed to be one of the undermentioned five impairment degrees,
Degree I: impairment is serious and is impacting the serviceableness and traffic safety ;
Level II: impairment is obvious, and a elaborate review may be necessary ;
Level III: span deck satisfies the functional and structural demands, but impairment is worsening, and farther probe is necessary ;
Level IV: minor impairment exists and demands to be put on record, but farther probe is unneeded ; and
Level V: the span deck is like new.
The impairment grade is an index to quantify the impairment status of a span deck and has been adopted in much old research.
Research workers and bureaus have given different categorizations and definitions to maintenance methods such as everyday care, fix, and rehabilitation. For simpleness, rehabilitation is assumed to be the lone possible care method in this research. Rehabilitation implies reasonably major Reconstruction of the deck and a big care attempt and sometimes closing of the span to traffic. Rehabilitation can be a step to let clip to develop programs for deck replacing, and its consequence is quantified in the impairment theoretical account in this research by widening the life of the rehabilitated span deck.
Different research workers suggest different categorizations and definitions of care activities. There are four degrees of care activities that are defined by Harper and Liu et Al.
1-Routine care: activities that do non impact span construction and its map ( e.g. , timely cleansing and taking snow and ice ) .
2-Repair: activities that restore a good surface status of span decks and protract the life of them ( e.g. , piecing and sealing ) .
3-Rehabilitation: activities that restore damaged constructions and rehabilitate them to as-new status ( e.g. , attaching extra girder or home bases ) .
4-Major rehabilitation ( Replacement ) : activities that wholly replace constituents of the span decks with new 1s when it is impossible to reconstruct the map of the construction utilizing fix and rehabilitation methods.
2.5 Different techniques of major rehabilitation ( Deck Replacement )
When the volume of traffic on the deteriorated decks are really big with no good detouring paths, the replacing of these decks must be performed on a staged building agenda with minimum traffic impact, i.e. , the work must be accomplished in short clip frames such as at dark or on weekends.
Alampalli, Kunin ( 2002 ) stated that replacing is frequently a cost-efficient option to better the burden transporting capacity. In certain instances, the burden capacity of these Bridgess can be improved by replacing the heavy deteriorated concrete span decks with lighter decks.
Yehia et al 2007 conclude that deck replacing is a intervention option with the highest initial cost and this should ever be treated as a last option. Both protective and non-protective interventions should be used to detain the deck replacing. Deck replacing may be the better option when the impairment of the concrete is deep and greater than half the deepness of the slab.
Besides, the non-protective fixs were identified by the litreature that it does non supply any H2O proofing mechanism. Therefore, span decks have the inclination to deteriorate even after the fix. Protective fixs provide a H2O proofing mechanism that halt or detain the entire span deck replacing. This sort of fix stopping points longer than non-protective fixs and is ever preferred if the financess are available.
By and large when replacing a span deck, three different techniques can be considered. These techniques are Precast, Exodermic and FRP. In the undermentioned subdivisions different techniques are discussed.
There are different techniques of major rehabilitation such as the conventional ( traditional ) dramatis personae in situ concrete panels, precast prestressed concrete panels and utilize the new prefabricated polymers complexs ( FRP ) .
Jacobs ( 1984 ) stated that the replacing and rehabilitation costs were estimated based on the entire surface country of each span deck and a nominal unit cost for finishing the work.
2.5.1. Project unmoved concrete panels
Using traditional attack, an old deck would be removed and a new model of support put in topographic point, with the concrete being cast onsite. The waiting clip for bring arounding is usually 4 hebdomads. In the traditional technique, after the bing decks are taken off, a new model of support is tied into topographic point and the concrete is cast on-site. Topographic point reenforcing steel, and so pour the concrete in. After that, you have to wait for the concrete to bring around and derive strength before you can set traffic on. At a lower limit, it takes about 28 yearss.
220.127.116.11. Project unmoved versus prefabricated span elements
Ralls et Al ( 2002 ) acknowledged that the prefabricated span elements and systems can be constructed off-site and brought to the undertaking location ready to raise. They can besides be constructed next to the undertaking site but out of the manner of traffic and so moved into place when they are needed. Their usage provides span proprietors, interior decorators, and contractors with options and advantages in footings of building clip, work-zone safety, environmental impact, constructability, quality and cost. The going populace has lost forbearance with the extended main road building that is necessary today as the interstate main road system approaches its service life at the same clip as urban congestion is increasing. Delaies for bringing trucks and other commercial vehicles every bit good as for drivers going to and from their workplaces negatively impact commercialism. Bridge building can be a constriction because of its consecutive nature, with foundations required before columns, and columns required before beams and deck. Advanced span design and building that focuses on minimising traffic break is needed.
Interior designers who choose prefabricated span elements and systems can efficaciously travel a important part of the building, i.e. , the fiction of constituents, off from the span site and the traffic that must steer through the building zone. With the usage of prefabricated elements and systems, time-consuming undertakings such as formwork hard-on and remotion, steel support and concrete arrangement, and concrete hardening no longer necessitate to be accomplished in the work zone. Conventional consecutive procedures can now happen at the same time as constituents are fabricated off-site at the same time with on-site building. Prefabricated constituents can be transported to the span site and rapidly erected in topographic point. The building undertaking timeline is thereby compressed and the going public experiences the break for a significantly decreased period of clip.
Construction sites frequently require workers to run near to traveling traffic, over H2O, at high lifts, close power lines, or in other unsafe state of affairss. Prefabrication allows span building, whether concrete arrangement and hardening or steel fiction, to happen in safer milieus, greatly cut downing the sum of clip that workers must run in potentially unsafe scenes.
Conventional span building requires important entree underneath the span for building forces and equipment to execute the activities necessary to build the span. Erection of formwork and arrangement of steel support and concrete necessitate entree to specific locations. Using prefabricated span elements and systems gives the contractor more options and can cut down the entree demands underneath the span, thereby cut downing the impact to the next landscape. On-site building clip is besides reduced. This flexibleness facilitates bridge building and can be particularly good in environmentally sensitive countries.
Many occupation sites impose hard restraints on the constructability of span designs. Examples include heavy traffic on an interstate main road that runs under a vicinity span, high lifts, and long stretches over H2O, and restricted work zones due to next development. Using prefabricated span elements and systems allows much of the work to be done off-site, alleviating constructability force per unit areas.
Carter et Al, ( 2007 ) stated that main road bureaus normally use cast-in-place concrete for constructing new span decks or replacing deteriorated 1s. Cast-in- topographic point decks have a few drawbacks, nevertheless, chiefly as a consequence of the building clip and cost associated with forming, puting support, and projecting the new deck. All of these on-site building activities can interpret into long route closing times and traffic break. An alternate to cast-in-place decks is prefabricated, full-depth precast concrete deck panels. These high-quality precast concrete panels are constructed off-site under controlled conditions and are brought to the site ready to be placed and connected. Using precast concrete deck panels requires significantly less on-site building activity and ensures minimal traffic intervention. In many state of affairss, a span can merely be repaired utilizing dark or weekend closings or staged building ( some lanes remain unfastened to traffic while others are under building ) to keep traffic flow in both waies.
2.5.2. Pre-cast pre-stressed concrete panels
The advanced precast deck panels consisted of a fabricated steel grid ( the underside part ) and a strengthened concrete slab ( the upper part ) . The top part of the chief bearing bars of the steel grid extend upward into the strengthened concrete constituent and act as shear connections, guaranting internal composite behaviour. Advantages of this design include light weight, rapid building, and efficiency of overall structural design.Precast concrete Bridgess have legion advantages in footings of lower initial cost, lower care cost, lastingness, fire opposition, and first-class siting features. With the usage of precast elements that same deck may take merely a few yearss or hours for arrangement, and be ready for vehicle usage instantly. Using prefabricated infrastructure elements reduces the heavy equipment required and the clip that the equipment is onsite. The consequence is less possible harm to sensitive environments compared with conventional building. Prefabricated elements and systems make span edifice less riotous to the going public. ( Minimized traffic break by easing replacing of the span superstructure without of all time shuting the main road to hotfoot hr traffic ) , safer to construct, less riotous to the environment and do span designs more constructible.
Hearn et Al ( 2006 ) stated that to rehabilitate and replace the decks of to a great extent traveled Bridgess, precast-prestressed concrete panels frequently are placed transversally on the back uping girders and posttensioned longitudinally. Parts of a deteriorated deck can be removed during dark operations and the panels installed in clip to open the construction to forenoon traffic. Other deck systems offer likewise rapid building with the advantages of reduced dead burden and enhanced lastingness.
Used of lightweight precast deck panels. Minimized traffic break by cut downing building clip, and minimized equipment needed and dead burden on the bing construction. This technique enables the span deck to be cast off-site in subdivisions or panels. The panels so are transported to the site every bit shortly as they are ready to be inserted. The fact that the casting is done off-site inside an enclosed edifice allows for better quality control. Use of the precasting technique allowed the undertaking squad the flexibleness to transport out the work during thin traffic hours and non affect traffic during extremum hours. The initial building costs associated with precast, full-depth concrete deck panels are about surely greater than those associated with traditional cast-in-place decks. The added costs stem from the fiction procedure every bit good as from transporting and puting the precast elements. On norm, recent beginnings ( Balakrishna 2006 ; Hayes, Seay, Mattern, and Mattern, 2007 ; Wenzlick. 2005 ) have reported extra premium costs for the precast deck panels on the order of $ 26/ft2 ( $ 280/m2 ) . The full-depth, precast lightweight concrete panels appeared to hold performed good, with few care issues observed. Reports of similar, more recent, undertakings have noted extra direct costs associated with precast deck systems on the order of $ 26 to $ 30 per square pes. However, unelaborated information from those undertakings, every bit good as an analysis of the building options presented herein, demonstrates that usage of precast deck systems for deck replacing of bing Bridgess can shorten building clip by several hebdomads or months and bring on far less break to go than the conventional cast-in-place option, ensuing in a dramatic decrease in user costs. When entire life-cycle costs, including those associated with route user costs, building clip, building safety, and care, are taken into history full-depth precast concrete deck panels are the more economical option.
The difference in route user costs can be compared between two building scenarios: the factual instance ( precast scenario ) , in which precast concrete panels were used to replace the deck of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge ; and a contrary to fact instance ( cast-in-place scenario ) , in which the new deck would hold been conventionally formed and cast in topographic point. The route user costs accrue because of decreases in the mean velocity of the vehicles tracking the work zone and/or the waiting line that forms when the traffic flow exceeds the throughput capacity of the work zone. In the precast scenario, two lanes of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge were closed every dark for about 8 months ( Lutz and Scalia, 1984 ) . In the cast-in-place scenario, Lutz and Scalia estimated that one-half of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge would hold been closed more or less continuously for 12 months. For the intents of this analysis, it is assumed that two 10-ft-wide ( 0.93 m ) lanes in each way would hold been maintained through the work zone. As I-95 is a bypass instead than a radial path, the directional split is near to 50:50 and a three-lane traffic care program would hold been inappropriate.