Expert systems in agriculture domain Essay


The job of H2O direction in agribusiness requires knowledge from many subjects apart from the capableness of an single expert. Computerized tools and systems can give a shoulder to the operation and care of the plantation. The incorporate computing machine systems can unite many countries of homo and system knowledge to present the end product in a functional mode. This may assist a husbandman in foretelling the unprecedented events for direction of the farm, with an appropriate use of cardinal constituents of this efficient system including databases, in writing drama, engagement of adept systems and detectors. The incursion of calculating systems in farms and H2O resource direction section are in a nascent phase in many states, and is frequently done without taking the whole image, therefore the inquiry here is how it can be done with a more holistic attack affecting informations from assorted other farms, rivers, dikes, weather studies etc. along with the farm related informations. To understand the inquiry we have suggested a theoretical account of an expert system in order to convey an effectual H2O direction attack in a husbandman ‘s work, to an extent of doing the cloaked unemployment in farming redundant. We argue that research in planing and executing of such systems of AI has several benefits:

It can open new channels in field of agricultural research demoing new ways of nutrient production like green revolution [ 1 ] as in a fake environment it would be easier to see the impacts of how crossed seeds can work in assorted farms.


An expert system is a computing machine application that can work out complicated jobs, with the engagement of capable affair experts in a specific sphere. These adept systems represent knowledge as set of regulations or informations within a computing machine. Adept systems are more common in many spheres and they are a portion of Artificial Intelligence.

An intelligent computing machine plan that uses cognition and illation processs to work out jobs that was hard plenty to get important human expertness for their solutions ( Feigenbaum ) .

Adept systems have many constituents associated with it ; the cognition base is a part where the cognition from the sphere expert is saved, the intervention engine is the one which manipulates the knowledge in the cognition base and base on ballss to the user interface which would outdo suit the consequence. There are three persons associated with the expert system, the first and the foremost precedence is given to the end-users who use this programmed system for job work outing aid.

The other two functions are in edifice and care of this system and they are the job sphere expert who plays a major function in constructing the cognition base and eventually the cognition applied scientist who assist the capable affair experts in finding their representation of their cognition and puts this kind of knowledge in to an account faculty and so defines the intervention technique required to obtain job work outing activity. In this expert system, cognition is gathered from the human experts who ca n’t be expected to be with us ever. Important instance is that one or two experts is non plenty for countries like agribusiness because so many Fieldss are been covered by one major field and many experts are requires to plan a particular expert system for the agribusiness sphere.

Adept systems are been used in agribusiness since 1980s, several systems have been designed in different states like USA, Egypt and other European states for diagnosing, direction and production facets. The general characteristics of an expert system are ; can help the husbandmans to take a erstwhile determination, and helps them in good be aftering before they start to make anything on their country. Second it should assist him in planing an irrigation system for the plantation usage. The following thing that it should see is that to choose, the most suited harvest assortment for the season or harvest suited for the market outfit. Following is to steer with a set of fiscal histories. And so it should be able to foretell some black events such as electrical storms, hoar and rain. The last and the first thing is to propose a sequence of determination doing throughout the production of a harvest such as harvest protection and nutrition determination, farm animal eating and so on. Therefore from the above mentioned points, we are clear that the outgrowth of adept system can assist a husbandman in a better manner than the traditional method of certification did.A

Need for adept systems in agribusiness sphere

There is a demand for an expert system in the field of agribusiness, because there are few jobs with traditional system of agricultural direction. In this paper we have analyzed few jobs and hold given few suggestions, on how usage of an adept system can get the better of those jobs [ 3 ] .

Inactive Information:A Research on stored and available information in the agribusiness sphere, brought to the visible radiation that the information is inactive and might non be effectual for the agriculturists need. The extension certifications, give a general lineation and recommendation because it is rather impossible for it to hold all the content in it. Wherein, an expert system produces advices based on its cognition instances and its logical thinking mechanism, which is far behind all the developed extension paperss. Furthermore when a user feeds the information of his/her harvest plantation to the system, appropriate feedback is given, and there are no restrictions on the generated recommendations or advices this is how an adept system can pull off the jobs of inactive information.

Integration Forte:The extension systems have the capableness of managing specific jobs related to the forte for illustration, bugology, works pathology, diagnosing, nutrition and some other problems.A There are possibilities that the job might hold occurred due to more than one cause, and requires the coaction of knowledge behind the extension papers and books. But an expert system has a cognition acquisition system, facilitates the integrating of capable affair expertness holding experience and cognition in different fortes. For illustration the agribusiness expert system has the knowledge of specializers in nutrition, works pathology, breading and so on. So that we a job arises the system would be really helpful in placing the jobs in a much more efficient manner

Unite THE INFORMATION SOURCES:In traditional system i.e. the extension paperss fiting images, with some factors to make an accurate diagnosing was rather hard. Whereas the, expert system is integrated with other resources such as image bases and textual bases to do the work precise. For ex, images can be utile in placing and depicting few symptoms, which may be confounding for a normal husbandman if it is in words.

UPDATION:There are many alterations in the industry, changes in the chemical, dozes and the environment should be considered and this information should be frequently updated whether it is shops in paperss or audio tapes or pictures which were non available in the traditional system. Somehow the adept systems with knowledge base can be maintained in a better manner than a manual papers. The job of updating versions of plantation or agribusiness relevant things are eliminated if the expert system is been connected to a web. The undocumented experience and knowledge can be acquired and stored in the cognition base of an expert system for a certain forte and/or trade good

Information Lagging:Sometimes the available or gathered information may non be plenty ; that kind of information may be available merely with experient husbandmans and human experts. Since agribusiness is the anchor of many states there is a demand of reassigning the information from certain experts to the general populace of husbandmans utilizing some new engineerings. But the instance is that there are really less experts in new engineerings than their demand.


In this paper we do n’t mean to explicate the inside informations of the assorted methodological analysiss for the execution of expert system, instead we analyze two facets which would be helpful for farming ; they are the methodological facet and the invocation facet. Methodology is farther categorized in to first coevals expert systems and the 2nd coevals expert systems. The first coevals expert system is based on the usage of a commercial system shell, where cognition is acquired through traditional acquisition and so rapid prototyping is done. The 2nd coevals methodological analysis is based on human knowledge, which means developing a theoretical account at the human degree job glade attack and non at computational attack. The sphere of application facet is analyzed by taking agribusiness as sphere and the undertaking type to sort the given application.


Many systems work under the rule of first coevals expert systems. We have merely analyzed one illustration that come under the first coevals expert systems. An agroforestry expert system ( UNU-AES ) was invented in order to back up agriculturists, research, land usage functionaries and other people who benefited utilizing this system [ 5 ] . It was UNU-AES to take a first effort to use adept systems to the Agroforestry, this system is chiefly used for turn toing the option of back street cropping, a strictly agroforestry engineering. Alley cropping is nil but to works the harvests in back streets or interspaces between woody perennials. By including more climatic, geographic and socio-economic informations, UNU-AES can be used to supply consultative recommendation on back street cropping in more diverse geographical and ecological conditions and this expert system uses EXSYS shell and the certification of this methodological analysis is based on modified waterfall theoretical account [ 6 ] .

There are few attacks that follow the 2nd coevals expert system attack ; there are two methodological analysiss viz. the KADS and generic undertaking methodological analysis. The Cucumis sativus and citrous fruit direction adept systems were developed utilizing KADS methodological analysis [ 7 ] [ 8 ] , whereas generic undertaking methodological analysis was used to develop adept system for wheat direction [ 9 ] [ 10 ] . The 2nd coevals expert systems have generic theoretical accounts for different type of undertakings such as diagnosing, planning, design and others. In agribusiness sphere we have two chief theoretical accounts viz. the diagnosing and programming undertakings, the KADS methodological analysis provides a library of expertness theoretical accounts for each of these undertakings [ 7 ] , whereas the generic undertaking methodological analysis, the hierarchical categorization theoretical account is used for the diagnosing and the everyday design theoretical account is used for scheduling [ 11 ]

Application facet

The field of agribusiness can be classified in to many spheres: carnal production, works production, direction of resources such as land and H2O. Here in this paper we concentrate on the sphere works production since many of the adept systems are developed in this subdomain.

There is one more manner to sort agricultural adept systems by sing the sphere specific undertakings such as irrigation, fertilisation, diagnosing of disease and so on.A

May be sick still take half a page more… … and still I have n’t done batch of alterations… u proceed with ur work Proposed Model

The proposed theoretical account is based on the construct of 2nd coevals expert systems and is based on the generic undertaking attack with focal point on diagnosing and programming constructs. It besides makes usage of the library of experts defined in the KADS attack. The model is being created maintaining in a more holistic position of being flexible to be unfastened for continual betterment and more significantly to be capable of coaction with cardinal stakeholders, future adept systems of spheres outside the field of agribusiness. To achieve this, the suggestion is to do usage of service oriented architecture ( SOA ) [ 12 ] and cloud calculating [ 13 ] constructs that can do it available over the web with the benefits of independent codification development and reuse chances. The enterprise is to do usage of smart image ‘sensor array ‘ [ 14 ] to acquire the information of the dirt to be used for scheduling irrigation. The husbandman in this portion will hold a user interface that will be designed with a system, duologue and tool position [ 15 ] . By system position it is to be understood that both husbandman and the expert system will organize with each other to achieve the concluding stated end of irrigation. The duologue position has ever been associated with about all adept systems to day of the month. This will include factors like one to one inquiries that will be prompted to the husbandman for the generic undertaking analysis & A ; executing. On finishing the analysis the husbandman will acquire indicants of the unfinished undertaking that need human intercession. The expert system shall be connected with H2O pipes across the field and on reading the informations provided by the detectors about the current damp of dirt will direct an information qui vive to the user bespeaking critical state of affairss about different subdivisions of the farm. The procedure of watering the farm so could be automated by utilizing the H2O pipes. Similar indicants based on unrecorded informations could be ‘scheduled ‘ and sent to the user about other generic undertakings need like cultivation, plowing etc. Unlike irrigation such undertakings needs a human intercession of the SME, and this is where the expert system is seen as tool position for the husbandman.

The 2nd portion of the expert system will affect an embodiment semen bet oning model.A Based on the informations received from the images of the detectors, a graphical theoretical account of the farm both inside the land and outside the land will be reconstructed by utilizing image Reconstruction algorithms. Such algorithms are soon kept out of range of this paper. Once the graphical image is reconstructed the husbandman will so be provided with an embodiment of himself to play inside the farm. The user provided with a toolbar [ 15 ] so will hold options of virtually making all their activities in this gambling environment to visualise the impacts and analysis of assorted actions that the user might desire to take. All this information would be of position quo to supply a existent impact. The user than anticipating the effects of assorted undertakings could so take proactive steps and program consequently for the clip in front. The bet oning theoretical account described here is in a nascent independent phase, nevertheless traveling forward it will decidedly co-ordinating with applications outside its sphere, will necessitate unrecorded informations provenders, and therefore it must be integrated over the web utilizing SOA attacks.

[ 2 ] Mackinson, S. 2000. An adaptative fuzzy expert system for foretelling construction, kineticss and distribution of herring shoals. Ecological Modelling, 126, 155-178.

[ 3 ] Ahmed Rafea, Central Laboratory for Agricultural Expert Systems “ Expert System Applications: Agribusiness ”

[ 4 ] Fikret Berkes, Robin Mahon, Patrick McConney, Richard Pollnac, and Robert Pomeroy “ Pull offing Small-scale Fisheries ”

[ 5 ] Warkentin, M. , Nair, P. , Ruth, S. and Sprague, K. ( 1990 ) . “ A Knowledge-Based Expert System for Planning and Design of Agroforestry Systems ” . Agroforestry Systems 11 ( 1 ) : 71-83.

[ 6 ] Rafea, A. , El-Dessouki A. , Hassan H. , Mohammed, S. ( 1993 ) . Development and Implementation of a Knowledge Acquisition Methodology for CropManagement Expert Systems. Computers & A ; Electronicss in Agriculture. 8 ( 2 ) : 129-146

[ 7 ] Rafea, A. , Edrees, S. , El-Azhari, S. , Mahmoud M. ( 1994 ) . A Development Methodologyfor Agricultural Expert Systems Based on KADS. Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Expert Systems.

[ 8 ] Rafea, A. , El-Azhari, S. , Hassan, E. ( 1995 ) . Integrating Multimedia With Expert Systems For Crop Production Management. Proceedings of the Second International IFAC Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

[ 9 ] Schroeder, K. , Kamel, A. , Sticklen, J. , Ward, R. , Ritchie, J. , Schulthess, U. , Rafea, A. , Salah, A. ( 1994 ) . Steering Object-Oriented Design via the Knowledge Level Architecture: The Irrigated Wheat Testbed. Mathl.Comput. Modeling, 20 ( 8 ) :1-16.

[ 10 ] Schulthess, U. ( 1996 ) . NEPER-Weed: A Picture-Based Expert System for Weed Identification. Agron. J. 88: 423-427.

[ 11 ] Kamel, A. , Schroeder, K. , Sticklen, J. , Rafea, A. , Salah, A. , Schulthess, U. , Ward, R. and Ritchie, J. ( 1994 ) . Integrated Wheat Crop Management System Based on Generic Task Knowledge Based Systems and CERES Numerical Simulation. AI Applications 9 ( 1 ) :17- 27.