Suburbanisation is the movement of people from living in the inner parts of a city to living in the outer edges. It has resulted in the outward growth of urban development that has engulfed surrounding villages and rural areas. There are many factors which help explain why the process of suburbanisation is continuing to take place all around the world today, many of which I will be outlining in this essay.
Firstly, the most crucial factor contributing to suburbanisation would have to be the on-going growth of public transport systems and the increased use of the private car. The presence of railway lines, arterial roads and private cars enable commuters to live reasonably far distances from their place of work, so it’s just not necessary to live in the inner-city when it is so accessible. Not only this, but technology has, and still is, developing at a very fast rate.
This is allowing people to do something they haven’t been able to do in the past; work from home. Working from home means that, providing you have access to the Internet, there’s no need for you to be in the inner-city, which is a good reason to move out to the suburbs. Despite living so close to work in the inner-city, people would rather pay to use transport and live in the outer edges of a city. This is due to several push and pull factors which encourage the process of suburbanisation to take place.
One of the main reasons for wanting to leave the inner-city is the pollution; whether it is air, noise or even radio-activity, pollution is a huge push factor which persuades people to want to migrate elsewhere. Another major factor is the high housing prices. With banks and insurance companies denying mortgage loans and instead offering lower rates in suburban areas, people simply can’t afford to live in the inner-city. Despite this, inner-cities are still very populous areas.
Due to this high population density, traffic congestion and even congestion charging, is becoming a huge issue for residents. For example, within Central London, you’re charged ?10 every day for using most motor vehicles during working hours on Monday-Friday. Although London in particular remains one of the most expensive congestion charges, this clearly is a fee which less wealthy residents will struggle to afford, consequently encouraging them to consider migrating out of the area. Other main push factors include small living space (smaller gardens, less parks tc. ), lack of leisure facilities and just a general perception of lower-quality life in inner-city areas. On the other hand, the outer edges of a city offer a much more pleasant living environment with more open spaces, lower suburban house prices and property taxes, and even the increasing number of job opportunities. The suburbs of a city also tend to be better suited for family living, providing a wider range of services such as schools, hospitals, leisure centres, local shopping centres etc.
Furthermore, the suburbs tend to consist of houses which are generally larger and semi-detached/detached, but at the same time also offering small terraced housing/flats; therefore providing a variety of housing suitable for everyone. Although most inner-cities possess of a fairly similar housing structure, properties are a lot more affordable in the suburbs. In conclusion, there are many different factors to help explain the process of suburbanisation, all of which encourage migrating from an inner-city to the suburbs.
However, suburbanisation wouldn’t be able to take place if it weren’t for the on-going growth of public transport systems. As much as they would like to, people wouldn’t be able to move out to the suburbs if their area of work wasn’t easily accessible. That said, people do still need a good reason to want to move out of the inner-city, but that’s exactly what they have. The reasons for migrating to the suburbs seem to heavily outweigh the reasons for staying in the inner-city, to the point where it would almost seem odd for anyone who is not extremely wealthy to be living in the inner-city.