Feasbility Of Glassbox To Replace The Blackbox Computer Science Essay

When a plane clang occurs the black box is lost and a batch of attempt is required to happen it.Therefore, apart from salvaging the of import informations into a black box and seeking to happen it after an accident, the feasibleness of conveying informations to a land waiter in existent clip and being able to make it without the load and demand to a physical black box is investigated.

List OF FIGURES

List of Abbreviations

FDR Flight Data RecorderDFDR Digital Flight Data RecorderSSFDR Solid State Flight Data RecorderCSMU Crash-Survivable Memory UnitCVR Cockpit Voice RecorderFDAU Flight Data Acquisition UnitFAA Federal Aviation AdministrationUDP User Datagram ProtocolTable of Contentss

List of Figures 2

List of Abbreviations 3

Chapter 1 5

1.1 Introduction 51.2 Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders 61.2.

1 Flight Data Recorder 61.2.2 Cockpit Voice Recorder 71.2.

3 Current Survivability Standards 8

Chapter 2 9

2.1 Glass Box Current Proposal 92.2 Glass Box Main Parts 102.2.1 Main Server 102.2.

1.1 Algorithm for Main Server 102.2.2 Plane 122.2.

2.1 Algorithm for Plane 122.2.2.2 Algorithm for Plane II ( Changing Servers ) 142.2.

3 Small Server 162.2.3.1 Algorithm for Small Servers 162.2.4 Datas 172.

2.4.1 Bandwidth Requirements 18Chapter 3 193.1 Data Transfer 193.1.1 User Datagram Protocol 193.1.2 Datas 203.

1.2.1 Data Header 203.1.2.2 Data ( Excluding Data Header ) 213.

1.2.3 Adding Reliability 223.1.2.3.1 Algorithm for Adding Reliability 223.1.

3 Packet 243.1.3.

1 Packet Types 243.1.3.2 Security 24

Decision 25

Mentions 26

Appendix 27

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

Harmonizing to the Annual Review of U.S. General Aviation Accident Data 2006 by National Transportation Safety Board Report ( adopted on 7/30/2010 ) sum of entire accidents happened in 2006 was 1,523 and the sum of fatal accidents was 308.The importance of cognizing the causes of the accidents is undeniable to forestall the hereafter accidents.

However it is really improbable to think the correct cause when the aircraft was destroyed and/or there is no lasting individual to supply proficient or utile information about the causes of the accident. That ‘s why the particular recording equipments are placed inside the aircraft. Those recording equipments were made of lasting stuff, designed to maintain recordings of several parametric quantities about the flight and aircraft ‘s status and placed at the most unafraid portion of the aircraft to do it every bit secure as possible in a instance of accident.After the accident, recording equipments let out signals or pinging noises which can be heard up to 1.25 stat mis ( 2kms ) off for some clip which is approximately a month to assist to do their location detectable. Often ships and pigboats are used in the hunt of black box signals.

However in some instances such as Air France A330 flight which crashed into the Atlantic, black boxes could non be found even after months of hunt and $ 40m which leaves the cause of the instance wholly unknown.My motive on this undergraduate thesis is to analyze the feasiblenesss of different attacks that could work out the job of lost valuable information caused by damaged or non found recording equipments. For this intent, different ways of hive awaying recorded informations alternatively of materially hive awaying them in a box inside the aircraft will be proposed, studied and argued.

1.2.Flight Data Recorders ( FDR ) and Cockpit Voice Recorders ( CVR )

1.2.1 Flight Data Recorder

A flight informations recording equipment ( FDR ) ( besides ADR as accident informations recording equipment ) is an electronic device used to enter any instructions sent to any electronic systems of an aircraft, it ‘s purpose is to do it possible to recover those valuable information which could assist to look into the cause of the accident, if an accident occurs.

It records specific aircraft public presentation parametric quantities excepting the conversations, sounds in the cockpit and conversations between the cockpit crew and others. A FDR which is normally called as “ black box ” is by and large placed at the tail of the plane and designed survive after an accident and allow out signals and pinging noises for approximately one month which could be detected in an country of 1.2 stat mis or 2 kilometer to do themselves noticeable.Flight information recording equipments were foremost introduced in the 1500s.The first coevals of FDRs was merely entering five parametric quantities which were air velocity, acceleration, compass header, clip and height. The information was written on to the metal foil and could enter 400 hours of entering.

After that, the recording must be replaced as the foil could non be rewritten. Get downing in 1965, were required to be painted bright orange or bright xanthous, doing them easier to turn up at a clang site.The 2nd coevals of FDRs named digital FDRs or DFDRs were introduced in 1700s as the demand to enter more informations increased was designed to enter more types of informations.

The job is DFDRs were unable to treat the larger sums of incoming detector informations. The solution was development of the flight informations acquisition unit ( FDAU ) which is a device to treat the information coming from detectors, digitize and arrange them to do ready for DFDRs to hive away. DFDRs used 300 to 500 foots long magnetic recording tape and most of them were capable of hive awaying up to 18 parametric quantities for up to 25 hours.The 3rd coevals of FDRs ( SSFDR ) was introduced in 1990 and used solid-state engineerings for entering informations which are capable of entering up to 256 parametric quantities for up to 25 hours.

Most recent recording equipments utilize solid province engineering. Solid province utilizations stacked arrays of memory french friess, so they do n’t hold traveling parts. With no traveling parts, there are fewer care issues and a reduced opportunity of something interrupting during a clang. Datas from both the cockpit voice recording equipment ( CVR ) and FDR is stored on stacked memory boards inside the crash-survivable memory unit ( CSMU ) .It is now possible to hold 2-hour audio CVRs and DFDRs that can enter up to 256 12-bit informations words per second, or 4 times the capacity of magnetic tape DFDRs.The most modern FDR systems utilize Emergency Locator Transmitter ( ELT ) and some up-to-date recording equipments are equipped with an Underwater Locator Beacon ( ULB ) to help in turn uping in the event of an overwater accident. The device called a “ pinger ” , is activated when the recording equipment is immersed in H2O. It transmits an acoustical signal on 37.

5 KHz that can be detected with a particular receiving system. The beacon can convey from deepnesss down to 14,000 pess.

1.2.2 Cockpit Voice Recorder ( CVR )

A cockpit voice recording equipment ( CVR ) is an electronic device used to enter signals of the earpieces and mikes of the pilots ‘ headsets and an country mike attached to the roof of the cockpit. By FAA demands, a CVR should enter at least 30 proceedingss of voice entering ( in a cringle ) but more than two hours is recommended for efficiency.

The first CVR was developed in 1950s in Australia. After a plane clang in 1960s it was strongly recommended to put in CVRs to all aircrafts after this recommendation Australia was the first state to declare CVRs are compulsory for all aircrafts.Similar to FDRs, CVRs besides have Underwater Locator Beacons ( ULB ) to help in turn uping in the event of an overwater accident. The device called a “ pinger ” , is activated when the recording equipment is immersed in H2O. It transmits an acoustical signal on 37.

5 KHz that can be detected with a particular receiving system. The beacon can convey from deepnesss down to 14,000 pess.hypertext transfer protocol: //upload.

wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Grossi-7.png

Figure 1.1 A CVR and a FDR both with ULBs attached on the forepart

1.2.

3 Current Survivability Standards

TSO C123a ( CVR ) and C124a ( DFDR )Fire ( High Intensity ) – 1100A°C fire covering 100 % of recording equipment for 30 proceedingss. ( 60 proceedingss if ED56 trial protocol is used )Fire ( Low Intensity ) – 260A°C Oven trial for 10 hoursImpact Shock – 3,400 Gs for 6.5 MSInactive Crush – 5,000 lbs for 5 proceedingss on each axisFluid Immersion – Submergence in aircraft fluids ( fuel, oil etc.

) for 24 hoursWater Immersion – Submergence in sea H2O for 30 yearssPenetration Resistance – 500 pound. Dropped from 10 ft. with a A?-inch-diameter contact pointHydrostatic Pressure – Pressure tantamount to depth of 20,000 foot.

Chapter 2

2.1 Glass Box Current Proposal

To get the better of the trouble and the load of the determination FDRs and CVRs ( will utilize the word black box to mention to both FDRs and CVRs ) after a plane accident to understand the causes of the accident the glass box undertaking has been proposed.

The chief thought of the glass box is alternatively of entering limited sum of informations entering in the black box and seeking to turn up it after an accident, the informations recordings of an aircraft could be sent to the land Stationss in existent clip to be saved and analyzed. This manner there will be no fiscal and attempt load of turn uping the black box, no hazard of holding insufficient records because of the insufficient entering clip to understand the jobs taking to accident and no hazard of non being able to happen the black box or happening it damaged and non being able to obtain the informations interior.The same sum of informations obtained from the aircraft will be transferred to the land based constructions in existent clip to be saved and analyzed.

Besides by utilizing this system a malfunction in a portion of an aircraft could besides be sensed automatically in existent clip by utilizing the variables received if the undertaking is expanded farther.Nowadays Airbus, in France is interested in this thought of the glass box. Although this is a small measure towards the use of the glass box in commercial air hoses, most likely glass box will take black box ‘s topographic point in time.2.2 Glass Box Main PartssA glass box transmittal technique should dwell of three elements:-Main Waiter-Plane-Small Server

2.2.1 Main Server

Main waiter is the waiter that has two duties.

First one is to make a list of little waiters that the plane will be traveling through with regard to its path. This list is sent to the plane and besides the waiters taking topographic point in the list is informed that plane will be coming and they are in the list..Second duty is having messages from the little waiters. Those messages are eliminated and saved in an order based on their message Numberss.

2.2.1.

1.Algorithm for Main Server

Main waiter invariably receives messages from the little waiters and planes. When a message is received it is either a message from a plane or message from a little waiter. If it ‘s an “ I ‘m on-line ‘ message, this means message is coming from a plane. An recognition and a petition for the path is sent back.

Based on the following message if the path is sent, a list of little waiters is created with regard to the path indicated in the message. If it ‘s non a path message, petition for the path is invariably sent. Route list is saved by the chief waiter and besides sent to the plane.If the message received at first is non an “ I ‘m on-line ” message, intending it is coming from a little waiter and consists of flight informations. Packages incorporating the flight informations are pre-numbered.

This feature lets chief waiter to make up one’s mind whether the same information is received earlier or non. Packages transporting the flight informations received for the first clip will be saved, else is discarded.

Figure 2.1 Flow Chart for Main Server

Received a path message?Ask for its path.Send an recognition and look into the package figure.Send an recognition and inquire for its path.StartDiscard the package.

Salvage the package.Any package with the same figure saved before?Make a list of waiters on the path and salvage it.Receive message from a plane or a little waiterIs it an “ I ‘m on-line message?No YesNoNoYesEnd Yes

Send the list to the plane.

2.

2.2 Airplane

Airplane is the portion which invariably sends packages to the little waiters. The information received and saved by the little waiters and the chief waiter is created by the plane portion. It sends either an “ I ‘m on-line ” message, which means the plane is ready for flight and waiting for the route list or regular packages of message incorporating flight related informations such as parametric quantities. Plane invariably saves values of the parametric quantities but some of the parametric quantities values are non often altering because of their nature.

For this sort of informations, timer is used. Timer counts for a specific sum of clip. If the timer expires, the parametric quantity value is sent whether its value is changed or non.Plane ‘s 2nd duty is being able to delegate itself to the little waiters to direct informations and alter the little waiter in usage when needed. As the little waiters are merely capable of having informations in a limited country, plane must alter waiters clip to clip. This map is done by utilizing the server list and timer.

2.2.2.

1 Algorithm for Plane

First message a plane of all time sends is an “ I ‘m on-line ” message. This message is ever replied with an recognition from a chief waiter, inquiring the path of the plane. Plane invariably sends “ I ‘m on-line. ” message if the answer is non a message of recognition and a inquiry for the path. Plane answers with route information and sends back this answer until a server list is received. Server list is the list of waiters on the path to the finish prepared by the chief waiter with regard to the path information sent by the plane earlier. Plane automatically assigns itself to the first waiter in the list.

Plane invariably saves values of the parametric quantities. If the parametric quantity ‘s value is different than the antecedently saved value or the timer is expired for that parametric quantity it is sent in the new package. If non timer continues to number and value is non added to the package. Packet is sent to the waiter the plane is already assigned to.Start Figure 2.2 Flow Chart for PlaneAssign yourself to the first waiter in the list.Send “ I ‘m on-line ” message.YesGot a message back?Send path info to chief waiter.

Got a list of waiters on the path? NoYesSalvaging values of the parametric quantities. NoNoIs the parametric quantities ‘ value different than their old values or timer expired?EndFlight finished? YesFix the packages.Send the new packages to the waiter you are already assigned to.YesNo

2.

2.2.2 Algorithm for Plane II ( Changing Waiters )

Every 10 seconds the plane goes through an algorithm. Pinging message is sent to the current waiter which is plane assigned to represented by ServerC and to the following waiter which is the following waiter in the list of waiters represented by ServerN. If the Ping is lost after 10 efforts, PANIC is declared and algorithm terminals.

If non round trip clip is calculated based on the Ping message.T1 represents the unit of ammunition trip clip for the Server C and the T2 represents the unit of ammunition trip clip for the ServerN. If T1 ‘s value is larger than T2 ‘s value a waiter alteration is made.

ServerN becomes the new ServerC and the waiter coming after the ServerN in the list becomes the new ServerN. If T1 ‘s value is non larger than T2 ‘s value, algorithm terminals and starts once more in 10 seconds.

StartFigure 2.3 Flow Chart For Plane II ( Changing Waiters )

EndServerC=ServerNServerN=ServerN+1Is T1 & gt ; T2?Declare PANICCompute Round Trip Time T1 and T2Pinging lost after 10 efforts?Send ping to ServerC and ServerNYes NoNoYesStarts every 10 secondsServerC: Current Server ServerN: Following Server in the List

2.2.

3 Small Server

Small waiter is the waiter that invariably receives the packages coming from the plane and directs them to the chief waiter. The lone duty of a little waiter is having packages and make up one’s minding on whether to maintain a package or discard.

2.

2.3.1 Algorithm for Small Server

Small waiter receives a message from the plane.

Sends an recognition and checks the package figure. If a package with the same figure is saved before, package is discarded. If it is a alone package, package is saved.

Figure 2.4 Flow Chart for Small Server

StartGet message from a planeSend an recognition and look into the package figure.Any package with the same figure saved before?NoSalvage the package.YesEndDiscard the package.

2.

2.4 Datas

Datas to be sent, received and recorded are the parametric quantities that a regular black box device records. They are ordered to be recorded by Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) .Table of 88 parametric quantities compulsory to enter for conveyance aeroplanes is below.Detailed list of 88 parametric quantities and related information can be found in appendix.

Gram: THESISParams.gif

Figure 2.5 Flight Data Recorders For Transport Airplanes

2.2.4.1 Bandwidth Requirements

Typical velocities presently used in the wireless connexion in aircrafts hovers between 500 and 600 kbits per second ( Kbps ) and upload velocities ranges 250 to 300 Kbps. Based on the elaborate tabular array in Appendix, entire bandwidth is calculated for every parametric quantity listed.

Calculations shows that about 1.80 Kbps is needed. Compared with the typical velocity of wireless connexion used in the commercial aircrafts and maintaining in head that engineering is presently developing.1.80 Kbps is a acceptable value to apportion for the transmittal of the flight data..

Chapter 3

3.1 Data Transportation

3.1.1 User Datagram Protocol

Because of the its nature, User Datagram Protocol ( UDP ) is preferred.

UDP uses a simple transmittal theoretical account without the demand of handshaking duologues. Although it is lightweight, UDP lacks of dependability, telling or unity. There is no mistake look intoing or rectification. Duplicate or package loss is besides can be experienced. However UDP is the best pick for real-time systems as dropping package is more preferred than waiting for delayed packages.To make a datagram, a UDP heading is added to the informations when sending.

Figure 3.1 UDP Header

Source Port #Destination Port #LengthChecksumA UDP heading consists of 4 parts:Beginning Port Number: This field identifies the transmitter ‘s port figure and should be assumed to be the port figure to direct a answer if needed. If non used, its value should be zero.

Destination Port Number: This field identifies the receiving system ‘s port figure. It is required to direct a message.Length: This field specifies the length of the full datagram, which is header and informations, in bytes. The minimal length is 8 bytes as a UDP heading ‘s length is 8 bytes.Checksum: This field is used for error-checking of the heading and the informations underneath.

If there is no checksum generated by the sender its value is zero.

3.1.

2 Datas

3.1.2.1 Datas Header

To forestall entry duplicates and out of order nest eggs of the information, another heading is placed underneath the UDP heading. This heading is a portion of the informations portion of the datagram and wholly independent of the UDP heading. It is non related to the UDP construction but added merely for package ordination and to supply extra informations to the related application.

Figure 3.

2 Data Part of a Datagram ( Merely Data Header )

Flight #Departure DateBlack Box IDPacket #A information heading consists of 5 parts:Flight Number: This field identifies the separating figure of the flight. Length of 3 byte.Departure Date: This field identifies the day of the month the flight is taken topographic point. Length of 4 byte.

Black Box ID: To field identifies the alone designation number/serial figure of the black box interior. Besides it is the alone figure or the beginning that provides the flight data..

Length of 4 byte.Package No: The figure of the package sent. It is used to forestall the double/triple recording of a package and besides used for telling the packages received. Length of 4 byteA information heading, which is a portion of the information sent, is 15 bytes per heading.

3.1.

2.2 Data ( Excluding Data Header )

Data ( Excluding the informations heading ) is the portion of the informations portion and consists of flight information such as parametric quantity values.

Figure 3.3 Datagram

Source Port #Destination Port #LengthChecksumFlight #Departure DateBlack Box IDDatas

3.1.2.3 Adding Dependability

Because of the nature of UDP, transmittal is non dependable. Therefore to be able to supply a dependable bringing, an attack similar to Selective Repeat/Reject over UDP can be used.

Based on the Selective Repeat attack, a window of pre-determined figure of packages is created and the packages are sent without waiting for the recognitions. If all of the recognitions are received for all of the packages, the window slides frontward and new packages are sent. If a package ‘s recognition is non received, that package is sent once more and once more until an recognition is received.As it is non possible to wait for an recognition of a package everlastingly in this system, a timer is introduced for each package. Deciding whether to direct the package once more or drop the package and skid the window to direct the new packages.

3.1.2.3.1 Algorithm for Adding Reliability

A window of pre-determined figure of packages is created and the packages are sent to the already assigned server. If the recognition for the packages are received, window is slided frontward and new packages are sent. If non, timers for non acknowledged packages are initialized.

Merely the packages which did n’t have recognitions for are sent once more.A cheque for recognitions is made after each sending. If the recognitions are received window slides frontward, if non the packages are sent once more until the timer expires. Packages which are non acknowledged until the termination of the timer is dropped finally and the window is slided frontward to direct new packages.

Figure 3.4 Flow Chart For Adding Reliability

StartMake a window of packages and direct the packages to the waiter you are assigned to.Did you receive recognitions for your packages?Slide the window of packages YesStart timers for the non acknowledged packages. NoSend merely the packages you did n’t acquire recognitions to the assigned waiter.

( Assigned Server may hold changed at this clip. )Did you receive recognitions?YesDid timer expired? NoDrop the expired package No

3.1.3 Packages

3.

1.3.1 Packet Frequency

Different types of informations have different frequence of measurement, therefore it would be best to bring forth two different package types.Package A: Could be besides named as “ Fast Packet ” . This type of package is used to hive away informations with low frequence of measuring. In the tabular array of parametric quantities in Appendix, information with frequence of 2 and lower takes topographic point in this package.

Therefore a new Packet A will be created every second, nevertheless the information with the frequence of 2, is added to every other package. Datas with the frequence of measuring lower than 1 will hold more than one value in a Packet A. For illustration conceptually, informations with a frequence value of 0.25 will hold four different values in a package. However, if the value is non altering, based on the algorithm for the plane, same values of a parametric quantity may non be sent to cut back the unneeded load of conveying the same values once more and once more.Package Bacillus: It could besides be named as “ Slow Package ” .

This type of packed is used to hive away informations with high frequence of measuring. In the tabular array of parametric quantities in Appendix, all informations with frequence higher than 2 takes topographic point in this package.Therefore a new Packet B will be created every 4 seconds. Datas with the frequence higher than 4, which is merely one parametric quantity with the frequence of 8, will be added to every other Packet B.

3.

1.3.2 Packet Security

Security can be easy added to a package by a shared key between the plane & A ; chief waiter and little waiters. Based on the algorithms of plane and chief waiter and figure 1.1 and figure 1.3, chief waiter can easy make a random key every bit shortly as it receives an “ I ‘m On-line ” message from a plane and direct back the random key to the plane attaching to a list of little waiters. The key is besides shared with the little waiters by the chief waiter while it informs the little waiters in the list.

Any safe cardinal distribution protocol could be used to accomplish such security.

Decision

To get the better of the job of recovering the black box from a clang site in by and large hazardous, hard-to-find or unsafe conditions in instance of an accident, flight information informations from the black boxes of aircrafts, glass box is proposed. Originally informations from CVR with the informations from FDR is besides saved to a black box, nevertheless we analyzed the feasibleness and the demands of a FDR information transmittal.Parameters of informations to be sent and saved, the manner of directing them and guaranting the safety of them, the function of the plane, chief waiter and the little waiters are analyzed. Therefore the glass box is found more efficient than a black box to supply a faster, riskless and easier range to the valuable enlightening informationsHowever, although holding a glass box job and an accident in the same clip is an highly little possibility, maintaining black boxes in an aircraft to supply extra storage of informations in instance of a malfunction in a glass box system would be a good thought.

Mentions

ICAO Annex 6, Part I: Parameters to enterhypertext transfer protocol: //www.pcmag.

com/article2/0,2817,2328722,00.asp Last Accessed: 05.06.2011hypertext transfer protocol: //wlanbook.com/airplane-wifi-wireless-internet/ Last Accessed: 05.06.2011IP Based Aviation NetworksV.

Ragothaman, M.S. Ali, R. Bhagavathula, and R.

PendseBeyond The Black Box August 2010 aˆ? IEEE SpectrumKrishna M. KaviGlass-Box: An intelligent flight informations recording equipment and real-time monitoring systemKrishna M. Kavi and Mohamed AborizkaBEA Flight Data Recorder Read-Out Technical and Regulatory AspectsMA±nA±stere Des Transports, De L’equA±pement, Du TourA±sme Et De La Mer – Bureau D’enquetes Et D’analyses Pour La SecurA±te De L’avA±atA±on CA±vA±le

Appendix

ParametersScopeAccuracy ( Sensor Input )Seconds Per Sampling IntervalResolutionRemarksTypesBandwidthFrequency1. Time or RelativeTimessCounts.

24 Hrs, 0 to4095.+/- 0.125 % PerHour.4.

.. ..

. …

… …

… ..

.1 sec… .

.. ..

. … .

.. ..

UTC clip preferred whenavailable. Count increaseseach 4 second ofsystem operation.Unsigned Short30 byte0,252. Pressure Altitude.

-1000 foot to maxcertificated heightof aircraft.+5000 foot.+/- 100 to +/-700 foot ( seetabular array, TSOC124a or TSOC51a ) .1.

.. … .

.. .

.. … ..

. … …

5aˆ? to 35aˆ? … ..

. … …

.Datas should be obtainedfrom the air informations computing machinewhen operable.Short30 byte13. Indicated airspeedor Calibratedairspeed.50 KIAS or lower limitvalue toMax Vso to 1.2V.

D.+/-5 % and +/-3 % .1.

.. ..

. …

… ..

. … … .

..1 karat…

… … .

.. … ..

. ..

Datas should be obtainedfrom the air informations computing machinewhen operable.Short30 byte14. Heading ( Primaryflight crewmention ) .

0-360A° and Discrete”true ” or”mag ” .+/-2A° … ..

. … … .

.. .1… ..

. … … … … … …0.5A° … … … … … … ..When true or magnetic headercan be selected as theprimary heading mention,a distinct indicating choicemust be recorded.Unsigned Short & A ; Bool30 byte + 60bit15. Normal Acceleration( Vertical ) .-3g to +6g… … .+/-1 % of soapscope exceptingdata pointmistake of +/-5 % .0.125… … … … … ..0.004g… … … … …Short960 byte86. Flip Attitude..+/-75A° … … … … ..+/-2A° … … … … … .1 or 0.25 for aeroplanesoperatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.5A° … … … … … … ..A trying rate of 0.25 isrecommended.Short480 byte17. Roll attitude+/-180A° … … … …+/-2A° … … … … … .1 or 0.5 for aeroplanesoperatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.5… … … … … … …A trying rate of 0.5 is recommended.Short240 byte18. Manual RadioSenderIdentifying or CVR/DFDR synchronismmentionOn-Off ( Discrete )

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … ..

Preferably each crew memberbut one discrete acceptablefor all transmittalprovided the CVR/FDR system complies withTSO C124a CVR synchronismdemands( paragraph 4.2.1 ED-55 ) .Bool60bit19. Thrust/Poweron Each Engine-primaryflight crew mention.Full Range Forward.+/-2 % … … … … ..1 ( per engine ) …0.2 % of fullscopeSufficient parametric quantities ( e.g.EPR, NI or Torque, NP ) asappropriate to the peculiarengine be recordedto find power in forwardand change by reversal push,including possible overspeedstatus.Byte60bit1 ( per engine )10. Autopilot Engagement.Discrete ”on ” or”off ” .

… … … … … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Bool60bit111. LongitudinalAcceleration.+/-1g… … … … … .+/-1.5 % soap.scope exceptingdata pointmistake of +/-5 % .0.25… … … … … … .0.004g… … … … …Short480 byte412a. Flip Control (s ) place( non-fly-by-wiresystems.Full Range… … …+/-2 % UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.For aeroplanes that have aflight control interrupt awaycapableness that allows eitherpilot to run the controlsindependently, record bothcontrol inputs. The controlinputs may be sampled alternatelyone time per secondto bring forth the sampling intervalof 0.5 or 0.25, as applicable.Short480 byte212b. Flip Control (s ) place( fly-by-wire systems )Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired..0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) ..0.2 % of fullscope.Short480 byte213a. Lateral Controlplace ( s )( non-fly-by-wire ) .Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.For aeroplanes that have aflight control interrupt awaycapableness that allows eitherpilot to run the controlsindependently, record bothcontrol inputs. The controlinputs may be sampled alternatelyone time per secondto bring forth the sampling intervalof 0.5 or 0.25, as applicableShort480 byte213b. Lateral Controlplace ( s )( fly-by-wire ) .Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.Short480 byte214a. Gape Controlplace ( s ) ( nonfly-by-wire )Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5… … … … … … …0.2 % of fullscope.For aeroplanes that have aflight control interrupt awaycapableness that allows eitherpilot to run the controlsindependently, record bothcontrol inputs. The controlinputs may be sampled alternatelyone time per secondto bring forth the sampling intervalof 0.5.Short240 byte214b. Gape Controlplace ( s ) ( flyby-wire ) .Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5… … … … … … …0.2 % of fullscope.Short240 byte215. Flip ControlSurface ( s ) Position.Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.For aeroplanes fitted with multipleor split surfaces, asuited combination of inputsis acceptable in steador entering each surfaceindividually. The controlsurfaces may be sampledalternately to bring forth thetrying interval of 0.5 or0.25.Short480 byte216. Lateral ControlSurface ( s )Position.Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5 or 0.25 foraeroplanes operatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.A suited combination ofsurface place detectors isacceptable in stead of enteringeach surface individually.The control surfacesmay be sampled alternatelyto bring forth the samplinginterval of 0.5 or0.25.Short480byte217. Gape ControlSurface ( s ) Position.Full Range… … …+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.0.5… … … … … … …0.2 % of fullscope.For aeroplanes with multiple orsplit surfaces, a suitedcombination of surface placedetectors is acceptablein stead of enteringeach surface individually.The control surfaces maybe sampled alternately tobring forth the sapling intervalof 0.5.Short240 byte218. Lateral Acceleration.+/-1g… … … … … .+/-1.5 % soap.scope exceptingdata pointmistake of +/-5 % .0.25… … … … … … .0.004gShort480byte419. Flip TrimSurface PositionFull Range… … …+/-3A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.1… … … … … … … …0.3 % of fullscope.Short120 byte120. Draging EdgeFlap or CockpitControl Selection.Full Range orEach Position( discrete ) .+/-3A° or as Pilot ‘sindex.2… … … … … … … …0.5 % of fullscope.Flap place and cockpitcontrol may each be sampledat 4 2nd intervals,to give a information point every2 seconds.Short60byte0,521. Leading EdgeFlap or CockpitControl Selection.Full Range orEach DiscretePosition.+/-3A° or as Pilot ‘sindexand sufficientto findeach discreteplace.2… … … … … … … …0.5 % of fullscope.Left and right sides, or flapplace and cockpit controlmay each be sampled at 42nd intervals, so as togive a information point every 2seconds.Short60byte0,522. Each PushReverser Position( or equivalentfor propelloraeroplane ) .Stowed, In Transit,and Change by reversal( Discrete ) .

… … … … … … … … …

1 ( per engine ) …

… … … … … … … … …

Turbo-jet-2 discretes enablethe 3 provinces to be determined. Turbo-prop-discrete.Char60byte per engine1 ( per engine )23. Land SpoilerPosition orSpeed BrakeChoice.Full Range orEach Position( discrete ) .+/-2A° UnlessHigher AccuracyUniquelyRequired.1 or 0.5 for aeroplanesoperatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.2 % of fullscope.Short120byte124. Outside AirTemperature orEntire Air Temperature.-50 A°C to +90A°C.+/-2 A°C… … … …2… … … … … … … …0.3 A°C… … … … … .Short60byte0,525. Autopilot/Autothrottle/AFCS Modeand BattleStatusA suited combinationofdiscretes.

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Discretes should demo whichsystems are engaged andwhich primary manners arecommanding the flight wayand velocity of the aircraft.Bool60bit126. Radio Altitude-20 foot to 2,500foot.+/-2 foot or +/-3 % Whicheveris GreaterBelow 500 footand +/-5 %Above 500 foot.1… … … … … … … …1 ft + 5 % above500 foot.For autoland/category 3 operations.Each wireless altimetershould be recorded,but arranged so that atleast one is recorded each2nd.Short120byte127. Localizer Deviation,Master of library scienceAzimuth, orGPS LatitudeDeviation.+/-400Microamps oravailable detectorscope asinstalled.+/-62A°As installed +/-3 % recommended.1… … … … … … … …0.3 % of fullscope.For autoland/category 3 operations.Each systemshould be recorded but arrangedso that at least oneis recorded each second. Itis non necessary to enterILS and MLS at the sameclip, merely the attack assistancein usage demand be recorded.Short120byte128. GlideslopeDeviation, MLSElevation, orGPS VerticalDeviation.+/-400Microamps oravailable detectorscope asinstalled0.9 to +30A°As installed +/3-3 % recommended.1… … … … … … … …0.3 % of fullscope.For autoland/category 3 operations.Each systemshould be recorded but arrangedso that at least oneis recorded each second. Itis non necessary to enterILS and MLS at the sameclip, merely the attack assistancein usage demand be recorded.Short120byte129. Marker BeaconPassage.Discrete ”on ” or”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A individual discrete is acceptablefor all markers.Bool60bit130. Maestro WarningDiscrete… … … … .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Record the maestro warningand record each ”red ”warning that can non be determinedfrom other parametric quantitiesor from the cockpitvoice recording equipmentBool60bit131. Air/grounddetector ( primaryaeroplane systemmention olfactory organor chief cogwheel ) .Discrete ”air ” or”ground ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1 ( 0.25 recommended ) .Bool60bit132. Angle of Attack( If measuredstraight ) .As installed… … ..As installed… … ..2 or 0.5 for aeroplanesoperatedunderA§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .0.3 % of fullscope.If left and right detectors areavailable, each may be recordedat 4 or 1 2nd intervals,as appropriate, soas to give a information point at 2seconds or 0.5 2nd, asrequired.Short240byte0,533. HydraulicPressure Low,Each System.Discrete or availabledetectorscope, ”low ” or”normal ” .+/-5 % … … … … ..2… … … … … … … …0.5 % of fullscope.Bool60byte0,534. GroundspeedAs Installed… … .1… … … … … … … …0.2 % of fullscopeUnsigned int240byte135. GPWS( land propinquitywarningsystem ) .Discrete ”warning ”or ”off ” .1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination ofdiscretes unless recording equipmentcapacity is limited in whichinstance a individual discrete forall manners is acceptable.Bool60bit136. Landing GearPosition orLanding cogwheelcockpit controlchoice.Discrete… … … … .

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination ofdiscretes should be recorded.Bool15bit0,2537. Drift Angle.As installed… … ..As installed… … ..4… … … … … … … …0.1A° … … … … … … ..Short30byte0,2538. Wind Speedand Direction.As installed… … ..As installed… … ..4… … … … … … … …1 knot, and 1.0A° .Short & A ; Short60byte0,2539. Latitude andLongitudeAs installed… … ..As installed… … ..4… … … … … … … …0.002A° , or as installed.Provided by the PrimaryNavigation System Reference.Where capacitylicenses Latitude/longitudedeclaration should be0.0002A° .Short & A ; Short60byte0,2540. Stick shakerand pusher activation.Discrete ( s ) ”on ”or ”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … ..

A suited combination ofdiscretes to find activation.Bool60bit141. WindshearDetection.Discrete ”warning ”or ”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

Bool60bit142. Throttle/PowerLevel place.Full Range… … …0.2 % of fullscopeFor aeroplanes with non-mechanicallylinked cockpitengine controls.Short2byte143. Additional EngineParameters.As installed… … ..As installed… … ..0.2 % of fullscopeWhere capacity permits, thepreferable precedence is indicatedquiver degree, N2,EGT, Fuel Flow, Fuel Cutofflever place and N3,unless engine makerrecommends otherwise.Additionals are non compulsory, non calculated.44. Traffic Alertand CollisionAvoidance System( TCAS ) .Discretes… … … ..As installed… … ..1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination ofdiscretes should be recordedto find theposition of-Combined Control,Vertical Control, UpAdvisory, and Down Advisory.( ref. ARINC Characteristic735 Attachment6E, TCAS VERTICAL RADATA OUTPUT WORD. )Bool60bit145. DME 1 and 2Distance.0-200 NM… … …As installed… … ..4… … … … … … … …1 NM… … … … … ..1 stat miUnsigned Short30byte0,2546. Nav 1 and 2Selected FrequencyFull Range… … …As installed… … ..4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Sufficient to find selectedFrequencyUnsigned Short30byte0,2547. Selected barometricscene.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..0.2 % of fullscopeUnsigned Short2 byte148. Selected Altitude.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … …100 footUnsigned Short120byte149. Selectedvelocity.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … …1 knotShort120byte150. SelectedMach.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … ….01Short120byte151. Selectedperpendicular velocity.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … …100 ft/minUnsigned Short120byte152. Selectedheader.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … …1A°Short120byte153. Selected flightway.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1… … … … … … … …1A°Int240byte154. Selected determinationtallnessFull Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..1 footUnsigned Short2byte155. EFIS showformat.Discrete ( s ) … … …

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Discretes should demo theshow system position ( e.g. ,away, normal, fail, composite,sector, program, nav AIDSs,conditions radio detection and ranging, scope,transcript.Bool15bit0,2556. Multi-function/Engine AlertsDisplay format.Discrete ( s ) … … …

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Discretes should demo theshow system position ( e.g. ,away, normal, fail, and theindividuality of show pagesfor exigency processs,need non be recordedBool15bit0,2557. Thrust bid.Full Range… … …+/-2 % … … … … ..2… … … … … … … …0.2 % of fullscopeInt120byte0,558. Thrust markFull Range… … …+/-2 % … … … … ..0.2 % of fullscopeInt4byte159. Fuel measurein CG spare armored combat vehicle.Full Range… … …+/-5 % … … … … ..( 1 per 64 sec. ) ..1 % of full scopeUnsigned Short1,875byte0,01562560. Primary NavigationSystemMention.Discrete GPS,INS, VOR/DME, MLS,Loran C,Omega, LocalizerGlideslope.

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination ofdiscretes to find thePrimary Navigation System