Feasbility Of Glassbox To Replace The Blackbox Computer Science Essay

When a plane clang occurs the black box is lost and a batch of attempt is required to happen it.Therefore, apart from salvaging the of import informations into a black box and seeking to happen it after an accident, the feasibleness of conveying informations to a land waiter in existent clip and being able to make it without the load and demand to a physical black box is investigated.

List OF FIGURES

List of Abbreviations

FDR Flight Data Recorder

DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder

SSFDR Solid State Flight Data Recorder

CSMU Crash-Survivable Memory Unit

CVR Cockpit Voice Recorder

FDAU Flight Data Acquisition Unit

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

UDP User Datagram Protocol

Table of Contentss

List of Figures 2

List of Abbreviations 3

Chapter 1 5

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders 6

1.2.1 Flight Data Recorder 6

1.2.2 Cockpit Voice Recorder 7

1.2.3 Current Survivability Standards 8

Chapter 2 9

2.1 Glass Box Current Proposal 9

2.2 Glass Box Main Parts 10

2.2.1 Main Server 10

2.2.1.1 Algorithm for Main Server 10

2.2.2 Plane 12

2.2.2.1 Algorithm for Plane 12

2.2.2.2 Algorithm for Plane II ( Changing Servers ) 14

2.2.3 Small Server 16

2.2.3.1 Algorithm for Small Servers 16

2.2.4 Datas 17

2.2.4.1 Bandwidth Requirements 18

Chapter 3 19

3.1 Data Transfer 19

3.1.1 User Datagram Protocol 19

3.1.2 Datas 20

3.1.2.1 Data Header 20

3.1.2.2 Data ( Excluding Data Header ) 21

3.1.2.3 Adding Reliability 22

3.1.2.3.1 Algorithm for Adding Reliability 22

3.1.3 Packet 24

3.1.3.1 Packet Types 24

3.1.3.2 Security 24

Decision 25

Mentions 26

Appendix 27

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

Harmonizing to the Annual Review of U.S. General Aviation Accident Data 2006 by National Transportation Safety Board Report ( adopted on 7/30/2010 ) sum of entire accidents happened in 2006 was 1,523 and the sum of fatal accidents was 308.

The importance of cognizing the causes of the accidents is undeniable to forestall the hereafter accidents. However it is really improbable to think the correct cause when the aircraft was destroyed and/or there is no lasting individual to supply proficient or utile information about the causes of the accident. That ‘s why the particular recording equipments are placed inside the aircraft. Those recording equipments were made of lasting stuff, designed to maintain recordings of several parametric quantities about the flight and aircraft ‘s status and placed at the most unafraid portion of the aircraft to do it every bit secure as possible in a instance of accident.

After the accident, recording equipments let out signals or pinging noises which can be heard up to 1.25 stat mis ( 2kms ) off for some clip which is approximately a month to assist to do their location detectable. Often ships and pigboats are used in the hunt of black box signals. However in some instances such as Air France A330 flight which crashed into the Atlantic, black boxes could non be found even after months of hunt and $ 40m which leaves the cause of the instance wholly unknown.

My motive on this undergraduate thesis is to analyze the feasiblenesss of different attacks that could work out the job of lost valuable information caused by damaged or non found recording equipments. For this intent, different ways of hive awaying recorded informations alternatively of materially hive awaying them in a box inside the aircraft will be proposed, studied and argued.

1.2.Flight Data Recorders ( FDR ) and Cockpit Voice Recorders ( CVR )

1.2.1 Flight Data Recorder

A flight informations recording equipment ( FDR ) ( besides ADR as accident informations recording equipment ) is an electronic device used to enter any instructions sent to any electronic systems of an aircraft, it ‘s purpose is to do it possible to recover those valuable information which could assist to look into the cause of the accident, if an accident occurs.It records specific aircraft public presentation parametric quantities excepting the conversations, sounds in the cockpit and conversations between the cockpit crew and others. A FDR which is normally called as “ black box ” is by and large placed at the tail of the plane and designed survive after an accident and allow out signals and pinging noises for approximately one month which could be detected in an country of 1.2 stat mis or 2 kilometer to do themselves noticeable.

Flight information recording equipments were foremost introduced in the 1500s.The first coevals of FDRs was merely entering five parametric quantities which were air velocity, acceleration, compass header, clip and height. The information was written on to the metal foil and could enter 400 hours of entering. After that, the recording must be replaced as the foil could non be rewritten. Get downing in 1965, were required to be painted bright orange or bright xanthous, doing them easier to turn up at a clang site.

The 2nd coevals of FDRs named digital FDRs or DFDRs were introduced in 1700s as the demand to enter more informations increased was designed to enter more types of informations. The job is DFDRs were unable to treat the larger sums of incoming detector informations. The solution was development of the flight informations acquisition unit ( FDAU ) which is a device to treat the information coming from detectors, digitize and arrange them to do ready for DFDRs to hive away. DFDRs used 300 to 500 foots long magnetic recording tape and most of them were capable of hive awaying up to 18 parametric quantities for up to 25 hours.

The 3rd coevals of FDRs ( SSFDR ) was introduced in 1990 and used solid-state engineerings for entering informations which are capable of entering up to 256 parametric quantities for up to 25 hours. Most recent recording equipments utilize solid province engineering. Solid province utilizations stacked arrays of memory french friess, so they do n’t hold traveling parts. With no traveling parts, there are fewer care issues and a reduced opportunity of something interrupting during a clang. Datas from both the cockpit voice recording equipment ( CVR ) and FDR is stored on stacked memory boards inside the crash-survivable memory unit ( CSMU ) .It is now possible to hold 2-hour audio CVRs and DFDRs that can enter up to 256 12-bit informations words per second, or 4 times the capacity of magnetic tape DFDRs.

The most modern FDR systems utilize Emergency Locator Transmitter ( ELT ) and some up-to-date recording equipments are equipped with an Underwater Locator Beacon ( ULB ) to help in turn uping in the event of an overwater accident. The device called a “ pinger ” , is activated when the recording equipment is immersed in H2O. It transmits an acoustical signal on 37.5 KHz that can be detected with a particular receiving system. The beacon can convey from deepnesss down to 14,000 pess.

1.2.2 Cockpit Voice Recorder ( CVR )

A cockpit voice recording equipment ( CVR ) is an electronic device used to enter signals of the earpieces and mikes of the pilots ‘ headsets and an country mike attached to the roof of the cockpit. By FAA demands, a CVR should enter at least 30 proceedingss of voice entering ( in a cringle ) but more than two hours is recommended for efficiency.

The first CVR was developed in 1950s in Australia. After a plane clang in 1960s it was strongly recommended to put in CVRs to all aircrafts after this recommendation Australia was the first state to declare CVRs are compulsory for all aircrafts.

Similar to FDRs, CVRs besides have Underwater Locator Beacons ( ULB ) to help in turn uping in the event of an overwater accident. The device called a “ pinger ” , is activated when the recording equipment is immersed in H2O. It transmits an acoustical signal on 37.5 KHz that can be detected with a particular receiving system. The beacon can convey from deepnesss down to 14,000 pess.

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Figure 1.1 A CVR and a FDR both with ULBs attached on the forepart

1.2.3 Current Survivability Standards

TSO C123a ( CVR ) and C124a ( DFDR )

Fire ( High Intensity ) – 1100A°C fire covering 100 % of recording equipment for 30 proceedingss. ( 60 proceedingss if ED56 trial protocol is used )

Fire ( Low Intensity ) – 260A°C Oven trial for 10 hours

Impact Shock – 3,400 Gs for 6.5 MS

Inactive Crush – 5,000 lbs for 5 proceedingss on each axis

Fluid Immersion – Submergence in aircraft fluids ( fuel, oil etc. ) for 24 hours

Water Immersion – Submergence in sea H2O for 30 yearss

Penetration Resistance – 500 pound. Dropped from 10 ft. with a A?-inch-diameter contact point

Hydrostatic Pressure – Pressure tantamount to depth of 20,000 foot.

Chapter 2

2.1 Glass Box Current Proposal

To get the better of the trouble and the load of the determination FDRs and CVRs ( will utilize the word black box to mention to both FDRs and CVRs ) after a plane accident to understand the causes of the accident the glass box undertaking has been proposed.

The chief thought of the glass box is alternatively of entering limited sum of informations entering in the black box and seeking to turn up it after an accident, the informations recordings of an aircraft could be sent to the land Stationss in existent clip to be saved and analyzed. This manner there will be no fiscal and attempt load of turn uping the black box, no hazard of holding insufficient records because of the insufficient entering clip to understand the jobs taking to accident and no hazard of non being able to happen the black box or happening it damaged and non being able to obtain the informations interior.

The same sum of informations obtained from the aircraft will be transferred to the land based constructions in existent clip to be saved and analyzed. Besides by utilizing this system a malfunction in a portion of an aircraft could besides be sensed automatically in existent clip by utilizing the variables received if the undertaking is expanded farther.

Nowadays Airbus, in France is interested in this thought of the glass box. Although this is a small measure towards the use of the glass box in commercial air hoses, most likely glass box will take black box ‘s topographic point in time.2.2 Glass Box Main Partss

A glass box transmittal technique should dwell of three elements:

-Main Waiter

-Plane

-Small Server

2.2.1 Main Server

Main waiter is the waiter that has two duties. First one is to make a list of little waiters that the plane will be traveling through with regard to its path. This list is sent to the plane and besides the waiters taking topographic point in the list is informed that plane will be coming and they are in the list..

Second duty is having messages from the little waiters. Those messages are eliminated and saved in an order based on their message Numberss.

2.2.1.1.Algorithm for Main Server

Main waiter invariably receives messages from the little waiters and planes. When a message is received it is either a message from a plane or message from a little waiter. If it ‘s an “ I ‘m on-line ‘ message, this means message is coming from a plane. An recognition and a petition for the path is sent back. Based on the following message if the path is sent, a list of little waiters is created with regard to the path indicated in the message. If it ‘s non a path message, petition for the path is invariably sent. Route list is saved by the chief waiter and besides sent to the plane.

If the message received at first is non an “ I ‘m on-line ” message, intending it is coming from a little waiter and consists of flight informations. Packages incorporating the flight informations are pre-numbered. This feature lets chief waiter to make up one’s mind whether the same information is received earlier or non. Packages transporting the flight informations received for the first clip will be saved, else is discarded.

Figure 2.1 Flow Chart for Main Server

Received a path message?

Ask for its path.

Send an recognition and look into the package figure.

Send an recognition and inquire for its path.

Start

Discard the package.

Salvage the package.

Any package with the same figure saved before?

Make a list of waiters on the path and salvage it.

Receive message from a plane or a little waiter

Is it an “ I ‘m on-line message?

No Yes

No

No

Yes

End Yes

Send the list to the plane.

2.2.2 Airplane

Airplane is the portion which invariably sends packages to the little waiters. The information received and saved by the little waiters and the chief waiter is created by the plane portion. It sends either an “ I ‘m on-line ” message, which means the plane is ready for flight and waiting for the route list or regular packages of message incorporating flight related informations such as parametric quantities. Plane invariably saves values of the parametric quantities but some of the parametric quantities values are non often altering because of their nature. For this sort of informations, timer is used. Timer counts for a specific sum of clip. If the timer expires, the parametric quantity value is sent whether its value is changed or non.

Plane ‘s 2nd duty is being able to delegate itself to the little waiters to direct informations and alter the little waiter in usage when needed. As the little waiters are merely capable of having informations in a limited country, plane must alter waiters clip to clip. This map is done by utilizing the server list and timer.

2.2.2.1 Algorithm for Plane

First message a plane of all time sends is an “ I ‘m on-line ” message. This message is ever replied with an recognition from a chief waiter, inquiring the path of the plane. Plane invariably sends “ I ‘m on-line. ” message if the answer is non a message of recognition and a inquiry for the path. Plane answers with route information and sends back this answer until a server list is received. Server list is the list of waiters on the path to the finish prepared by the chief waiter with regard to the path information sent by the plane earlier. Plane automatically assigns itself to the first waiter in the list.

Plane invariably saves values of the parametric quantities. If the parametric quantity ‘s value is different than the antecedently saved value or the timer is expired for that parametric quantity it is sent in the new package. If non timer continues to number and value is non added to the package. Packet is sent to the waiter the plane is already assigned to.

Start Figure 2.2 Flow Chart for Plane

Assign yourself to the first waiter in the list.

Send “ I ‘m on-line ” message.

Yes

Got a message back?

Send path info to chief waiter.

Got a list of waiters on the path? No

Yes

Salvaging values of the parametric quantities. No

No

Is the parametric quantities ‘ value different than their old values or timer expired?

End

Flight finished? Yes

Fix the packages.

Send the new packages to the waiter you are already assigned to.

Yes

No

2.2.2.2 Algorithm for Plane II ( Changing Waiters )

Every 10 seconds the plane goes through an algorithm. Pinging message is sent to the current waiter which is plane assigned to represented by ServerC and to the following waiter which is the following waiter in the list of waiters represented by ServerN. If the Ping is lost after 10 efforts, PANIC is declared and algorithm terminals. If non round trip clip is calculated based on the Ping message.T1 represents the unit of ammunition trip clip for the Server C and the T2 represents the unit of ammunition trip clip for the ServerN. If T1 ‘s value is larger than T2 ‘s value a waiter alteration is made. ServerN becomes the new ServerC and the waiter coming after the ServerN in the list becomes the new ServerN. If T1 ‘s value is non larger than T2 ‘s value, algorithm terminals and starts once more in 10 seconds.

StartFigure 2.3 Flow Chart For Plane II ( Changing Waiters )

End

ServerC=ServerN

ServerN=ServerN+1

Is T1 & gt ; T2?

Declare PANIC

Compute Round Trip Time T1 and T2

Pinging lost after 10 efforts?

Send ping to ServerC and ServerN

Yes No

No

Yes

Starts every 10 seconds

ServerC: Current Server ServerN: Following Server in the List

2.2.3 Small Server

Small waiter is the waiter that invariably receives the packages coming from the plane and directs them to the chief waiter. The lone duty of a little waiter is having packages and make up one’s minding on whether to maintain a package or discard.

2.2.3.1 Algorithm for Small Server

Small waiter receives a message from the plane. Sends an recognition and checks the package figure. If a package with the same figure is saved before, package is discarded. If it is a alone package, package is saved.

Figure 2.4 Flow Chart for Small Server

Start

Get message from a plane

Send an recognition and look into the package figure.

Any package with the same figure saved before?

No

Salvage the package.

Yes

End

Discard the package.

2.2.4 Datas

Datas to be sent, received and recorded are the parametric quantities that a regular black box device records. They are ordered to be recorded by Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) .

Table of 88 parametric quantities compulsory to enter for conveyance aeroplanes is below.

Detailed list of 88 parametric quantities and related information can be found in appendix.

Gram: THESISParams.gif

Figure 2.5 Flight Data Recorders For Transport Airplanes

2.2.4.1 Bandwidth Requirements

Typical velocities presently used in the wireless connexion in aircrafts hovers between 500 and 600 kbits per second ( Kbps ) and upload velocities ranges 250 to 300 Kbps. Based on the elaborate tabular array in Appendix, entire bandwidth is calculated for every parametric quantity listed.

Calculations shows that about 1.80 Kbps is needed. Compared with the typical velocity of wireless connexion used in the commercial aircrafts and maintaining in head that engineering is presently developing.1.80 Kbps is a acceptable value to apportion for the transmittal of the flight data..

Chapter 3

3.1 Data Transportation

3.1.1 User Datagram Protocol

Because of the its nature, User Datagram Protocol ( UDP ) is preferred. UDP uses a simple transmittal theoretical account without the demand of handshaking duologues. Although it is lightweight, UDP lacks of dependability, telling or unity. There is no mistake look intoing or rectification. Duplicate or package loss is besides can be experienced. However UDP is the best pick for real-time systems as dropping package is more preferred than waiting for delayed packages.

To make a datagram, a UDP heading is added to the informations when sending.

Figure 3.1 UDP Header

Source Port #

Destination Port #

Length

Checksum

A UDP heading consists of 4 parts:

Beginning Port Number: This field identifies the transmitter ‘s port figure and should be assumed to be the port figure to direct a answer if needed. If non used, its value should be zero.

Destination Port Number: This field identifies the receiving system ‘s port figure. It is required to direct a message.

Length: This field specifies the length of the full datagram, which is header and informations, in bytes. The minimal length is 8 bytes as a UDP heading ‘s length is 8 bytes.

Checksum: This field is used for error-checking of the heading and the informations underneath. If there is no checksum generated by the sender its value is zero.

3.1.2 Datas

3.1.2.1 Datas Header

To forestall entry duplicates and out of order nest eggs of the information, another heading is placed underneath the UDP heading. This heading is a portion of the informations portion of the datagram and wholly independent of the UDP heading. It is non related to the UDP construction but added merely for package ordination and to supply extra informations to the related application.

Figure 3.2 Data Part of a Datagram ( Merely Data Header )

Flight #

Departure Date

Black Box ID

Packet #

A information heading consists of 5 parts:

Flight Number: This field identifies the separating figure of the flight. Length of 3 byte.

Departure Date: This field identifies the day of the month the flight is taken topographic point. Length of 4 byte.

Black Box ID: To field identifies the alone designation number/serial figure of the black box interior. Besides it is the alone figure or the beginning that provides the flight data..Length of 4 byte.

Package No: The figure of the package sent. It is used to forestall the double/triple recording of a package and besides used for telling the packages received. Length of 4 byte

A information heading, which is a portion of the information sent, is 15 bytes per heading.

3.1.2.2 Data ( Excluding Data Header )

Data ( Excluding the informations heading ) is the portion of the informations portion and consists of flight information such as parametric quantity values.

Figure 3.3 Datagram

Source Port #

Destination Port #

Length

Checksum

Flight #

Departure Date

Black Box ID

Datas

3.1.2.3 Adding Dependability

Because of the nature of UDP, transmittal is non dependable. Therefore to be able to supply a dependable bringing, an attack similar to Selective Repeat/Reject over UDP can be used. Based on the Selective Repeat attack, a window of pre-determined figure of packages is created and the packages are sent without waiting for the recognitions. If all of the recognitions are received for all of the packages, the window slides frontward and new packages are sent. If a package ‘s recognition is non received, that package is sent once more and once more until an recognition is received.

As it is non possible to wait for an recognition of a package everlastingly in this system, a timer is introduced for each package. Deciding whether to direct the package once more or drop the package and skid the window to direct the new packages.

3.1.2.3.1 Algorithm for Adding Reliability

A window of pre-determined figure of packages is created and the packages are sent to the already assigned server. If the recognition for the packages are received, window is slided frontward and new packages are sent. If non, timers for non acknowledged packages are initialized. Merely the packages which did n’t have recognitions for are sent once more.

A cheque for recognitions is made after each sending. If the recognitions are received window slides frontward, if non the packages are sent once more until the timer expires. Packages which are non acknowledged until the termination of the timer is dropped finally and the window is slided frontward to direct new packages.

Figure 3.4 Flow Chart For Adding Reliability

Start

Make a window of packages and direct the packages to the waiter you are assigned to.

Did you receive recognitions for your packages?

Slide the window of packages Yes

Start timers for the non acknowledged packages. No

Send merely the packages you did n’t acquire recognitions to the assigned waiter. ( Assigned Server may hold changed at this clip. )

Did you receive recognitions?

Yes

Did timer expired? No

Drop the expired package No

3.1.3 Packages

3.1.3.1 Packet Frequency

Different types of informations have different frequence of measurement, therefore it would be best to bring forth two different package types.

Package A: Could be besides named as “ Fast Packet ” . This type of package is used to hive away informations with low frequence of measuring. In the tabular array of parametric quantities in Appendix, information with frequence of 2 and lower takes topographic point in this package.

Therefore a new Packet A will be created every second, nevertheless the information with the frequence of 2, is added to every other package. Datas with the frequence of measuring lower than 1 will hold more than one value in a Packet A. For illustration conceptually, informations with a frequence value of 0.25 will hold four different values in a package. However, if the value is non altering, based on the algorithm for the plane, same values of a parametric quantity may non be sent to cut back the unneeded load of conveying the same values once more and once more.

Package Bacillus: It could besides be named as “ Slow Package ” . This type of packed is used to hive away informations with high frequence of measuring. In the tabular array of parametric quantities in Appendix, all informations with frequence higher than 2 takes topographic point in this package.

Therefore a new Packet B will be created every 4 seconds. Datas with the frequence higher than 4, which is merely one parametric quantity with the frequence of 8, will be added to every other Packet B.

3.1.3.2 Packet Security

Security can be easy added to a package by a shared key between the plane & A ; chief waiter and little waiters. Based on the algorithms of plane and chief waiter and figure 1.1 and figure 1.3, chief waiter can easy make a random key every bit shortly as it receives an “ I ‘m On-line ” message from a plane and direct back the random key to the plane attaching to a list of little waiters. The key is besides shared with the little waiters by the chief waiter while it informs the little waiters in the list. Any safe cardinal distribution protocol could be used to accomplish such security.

Decision

To get the better of the job of recovering the black box from a clang site in by and large hazardous, hard-to-find or unsafe conditions in instance of an accident, flight information informations from the black boxes of aircrafts, glass box is proposed. Originally informations from CVR with the informations from FDR is besides saved to a black box, nevertheless we analyzed the feasibleness and the demands of a FDR information transmittal.

Parameters of informations to be sent and saved, the manner of directing them and guaranting the safety of them, the function of the plane, chief waiter and the little waiters are analyzed. Therefore the glass box is found more efficient than a black box to supply a faster, riskless and easier range to the valuable enlightening informations

However, although holding a glass box job and an accident in the same clip is an highly little possibility, maintaining black boxes in an aircraft to supply extra storage of informations in instance of a malfunction in a glass box system would be a good thought.

Mentions

ICAO Annex 6, Part I: Parameters to enter

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2328722,00.asp Last Accessed: 05.06.2011

hypertext transfer protocol: //wlanbook.com/airplane-wifi-wireless-internet/ Last Accessed: 05.06.2011

IP Based Aviation Networks

V. Ragothaman, M.S. Ali, R. Bhagavathula, and R. Pendse

Beyond The Black Box August 2010 aˆ? IEEE Spectrum

Krishna M. Kavi

Glass-Box: An intelligent flight informations recording equipment and real-time monitoring system

Krishna M. Kavi and Mohamed Aborizka

BEA Flight Data Recorder Read-Out Technical and Regulatory Aspects

MA±nA±stere Des Transports, De L’equA±pement, Du TourA±sme Et De La Mer – Bureau D’enquetes Et D’analyses Pour La SecurA±te De L’avA±atA±on CA±vA±le

Appendix

Parameters

Scope

Accuracy ( Sensor Input )

Seconds Per Sampling Interval

Resolution

Remarks

Types

Bandwidth

Frequency

1. Time or Relative

Timess

Counts.

24 Hrs, 0 to

4095.

+/- 0.125 % Per

Hour.

4… … … … … … … …

1 sec… … … … … ..

UTC clip preferred when

available. Count increases

each 4 second of

system operation.

Unsigned Short

30 byte

0,25

2. Pressure Altitude.

-1000 foot to max

certificated height

of aircraft.

+5000 foot.

+/- 100 to +/

-700 foot ( see

tabular array, TSO

C124a or TSO

C51a ) .

1… … … … … … … …

5aˆ? to 35aˆ? … … … … .

Datas should be obtained

from the air informations computing machine

when operable.

Short

30 byte

1

3. Indicated airspeed

or Calibrated

airspeed.

50 KIAS or lower limit

value to

Max Vso to 1.2

V. D.

+/-5 % and +/

-3 % .

1… … … … … … … …

1 karat… … … … … … ..

Datas should be obtained

from the air informations computing machine

when operable.

Short

30 byte

1

4. Heading ( Primary

flight crew

mention ) .

0-360A° and Discrete

”true ” or

”mag ” .

+/-2A° … … … … … .

1… … … … … … … …

0.5A° … … … … … … ..

When true or magnetic header

can be selected as the

primary heading mention,

a distinct indicating choice

must be recorded.

Unsigned Short & A ; Bool

30 byte + 60bit

1

5. Normal Acceleration

( Vertical ) .

-3g to +6g… … .

+/-1 % of soap

scope excepting

data point

mistake of +/

-5 % .

0.125… … … … … ..

0.004g… … … … …

Short

960 byte

8

6. Flip Attitude..

+/-75A° … … … … ..

+/-2A° … … … … … .

1 or 0.25 for aeroplanes

operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.5A° … … … … … … ..

A trying rate of 0.25 is

recommended.

Short

480 byte

1

7. Roll attitude

+/-180A° … … … …

+/-2A° … … … … … .

1 or 0.5 for aeroplanes

operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.5… … … … … … …

A trying rate of 0.5 is recommended.

Short

240 byte

1

8. Manual Radio

Sender

Identifying or CVR/

DFDR synchronism

mention

On-Off ( Discrete )

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … ..

Preferably each crew member

but one discrete acceptable

for all transmittal

provided the CVR/

FDR system complies with

TSO C124a CVR synchronism

demands

( paragraph 4.2.1 ED-55 ) .

Bool

60bit

1

9. Thrust/Power

on Each Engine-

primary

flight crew mention.

Full Range Forward.

+/-2 % … … … … ..

1 ( per engine ) …

0.2 % of full

scope

Sufficient parametric quantities ( e.g.

EPR, NI or Torque, NP ) as

appropriate to the peculiar

engine be recorded

to find power in forward

and change by reversal push,

including possible overspeed

status.

Byte

60bit

1 ( per engine )

10. Autopilot Engagement.

Discrete ”on ” or

”off ” .

… … … … … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Bool

60bit

1

11. Longitudinal

Acceleration.

+/-1g… … … … … .

+/-1.5 % soap.

scope excepting

data point

mistake of +/

-5 % .

0.25… … … … … … .

0.004g… … … … …

Short

480 byte

4

12a. Flip Control (

s ) place

( non-fly-by-wire

systems.

Full Range… … …

+/-2 % Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

For aeroplanes that have a

flight control interrupt away

capableness that allows either

pilot to run the controls

independently, record both

control inputs. The control

inputs may be sampled alternately

one time per second

to bring forth the sampling interval

of 0.5 or 0.25, as applicable.

Short

480 byte

2

12b. Flip Control (

s ) place

( fly-by-wire systems )

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required..

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) ..

0.2 % of full

scope.

Short

480 byte

2

13a. Lateral Control

place ( s )

( non-fly-by-wire ) .

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

For aeroplanes that have a

flight control interrupt away

capableness that allows either

pilot to run the controls

independently, record both

control inputs. The control

inputs may be sampled alternately

one time per second

to bring forth the sampling interval

of 0.5 or 0.25, as applicable

Short

480 byte

2

13b. Lateral Control

place ( s )

( fly-by-wire ) .

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

Short

480 byte

2

14a. Gape Control

place ( s ) ( nonfly-

by-wire )

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5… … … … … … …

0.2 % of full

scope.

For aeroplanes that have a

flight control interrupt away

capableness that allows either

pilot to run the controls

independently, record both

control inputs. The control

inputs may be sampled alternately

one time per second

to bring forth the sampling interval

of 0.5.

Short

240 byte

2

14b. Gape Control

place ( s ) ( flyby-

wire ) .

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5… … … … … … …

0.2 % of full

scope.

Short

240 byte

2

15. Flip Control

Surface ( s ) Position.

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

For aeroplanes fitted with multiple

or split surfaces, a

suited combination of inputs

is acceptable in stead

or entering each surface

individually. The control

surfaces may be sampled

alternately to bring forth the

trying interval of 0.5 or

0.25.

Short

480 byte

2

16. Lateral Control

Surface ( s )

Position.

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5 or 0.25 for

aeroplanes operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

A suited combination of

surface place detectors is

acceptable in stead of entering

each surface individually.

The control surfaces

may be sampled alternately

to bring forth the sampling

interval of 0.5 or

0.25.

Short

480byte

2

17. Gape Control

Surface ( s ) Position.

Full Range… … …

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

0.5… … … … … … …

0.2 % of full

scope.

For aeroplanes with multiple or

split surfaces, a suited

combination of surface place

detectors is acceptable

in stead of entering

each surface individually.

The control surfaces may

be sampled alternately to

bring forth the sapling interval

of 0.5.

Short

240 byte

2

18. Lateral Acceleration.

+/-1g… … … … … .

+/-1.5 % soap.

scope excepting

data point

mistake of +/

-5 % .

0.25… … … … … … .

0.004g

Short

480byte

4

19. Flip Trim

Surface Position

Full Range… … …

+/-3A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

1… … … … … … … …

0.3 % of full

scope.

Short

120 byte

1

20. Draging Edge

Flap or Cockpit

Control Selection.

Full Range or

Each Position

( discrete ) .

+/-3A° or as Pilot ‘s

index.

2… … … … … … … …

0.5 % of full

scope.

Flap place and cockpit

control may each be sampled

at 4 2nd intervals,

to give a information point every

2 seconds.

Short

60byte

0,5

21. Leading Edge

Flap or Cockpit

Control Selection.

Full Range or

Each Discrete

Position.

+/-3A° or as Pilot ‘s

index

and sufficient

to find

each discrete

place.

2… … … … … … … …

0.5 % of full

scope.

Left and right sides, or flap

place and cockpit control

may each be sampled at 4

2nd intervals, so as to

give a information point every 2

seconds.

Short

60byte

0,5

22. Each Push

Reverser Position

( or equivalent

for propellor

aeroplane ) .

Stowed, In Transit,

and Change by reversal

( Discrete ) .

… … … … … … … … …

1 ( per engine ) …

… … … … … … … … …

Turbo-jet-2 discretes enable

the 3 provinces to be determined. Turbo-prop-discrete.

Char

60byte per engine

1 ( per engine )

23. Land Spoiler

Position or

Speed Brake

Choice.

Full Range or

Each Position

( discrete ) .

+/-2A° Unless

Higher Accuracy

Uniquely

Required.

1 or 0.5 for aeroplanes

operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.2 % of full

scope.

Short

120byte

1

24. Outside Air

Temperature or

Entire Air Temperature.

-50 A°C to +90

A°C.

+/-2 A°C… … … …

2… … … … … … … …

0.3 A°C… … … … … .

Short

60byte

0,5

25. Autopilot/

Autothrottle/

AFCS Mode

and Battle

Status

A suited combination

of

discretes.

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Discretes should demo which

systems are engaged and

which primary manners are

commanding the flight way

and velocity of the aircraft.

Bool

60bit

1

26. Radio Altitude

-20 foot to 2,500

foot.

+/-2 foot or +/

-3 % Whichever

is Greater

Below 500 foot

and +/-5 %

Above 500 foot.

1… … … … … … … …

1 ft + 5 % above

500 foot.

For autoland/category 3 operations.

Each wireless altimeter

should be recorded,

but arranged so that at

least one is recorded each

2nd.

Short

120byte

1

27. Localizer Deviation,

Master of library science

Azimuth, or

GPS Latitude

Deviation.

+/-400

Microamps or

available detector

scope as

installed.

+/-62A°

As installed +/

-3 % recommended.

1… … … … … … … …

0.3 % of full

scope.

For autoland/category 3 operations.

Each system

should be recorded but arranged

so that at least one

is recorded each second. It

is non necessary to enter

ILS and MLS at the same

clip, merely the attack assistance

in usage demand be recorded.

Short

120byte

1

28. Glideslope

Deviation, MLS

Elevation, or

GPS Vertical

Deviation.

+/-400

Microamps or

available detector

scope as

installed

0.9 to +30A°

As installed +/

3-3 % recommended.

1… … … … … … … …

0.3 % of full

scope.

For autoland/category 3 operations.

Each system

should be recorded but arranged

so that at least one

is recorded each second. It

is non necessary to enter

ILS and MLS at the same

clip, merely the attack assistance

in usage demand be recorded.

Short

120byte

1

29. Marker Beacon

Passage.

Discrete ”on ” or

”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A individual discrete is acceptable

for all markers.

Bool

60bit

1

30. Maestro Warning

Discrete… … … … .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Record the maestro warning

and record each ”red ”

warning that can non be determined

from other parametric quantities

or from the cockpit

voice recording equipment

Bool

60bit

1

31. Air/ground

detector ( primary

aeroplane system

mention olfactory organ

or chief cogwheel ) .

Discrete ”air ” or

”ground ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1 ( 0.25 recommended ) .

Bool

60bit

1

32. Angle of Attack

( If measured

straight ) .

As installed… … ..

As installed… … ..

2 or 0.5 for aeroplanes

operated

under

A§ 121.344 ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

0.3 % of full

scope.

If left and right detectors are

available, each may be recorded

at 4 or 1 2nd intervals,

as appropriate, so

as to give a information point at 2

seconds or 0.5 2nd, as

required.

Short

240byte

0,5

33. Hydraulic

Pressure Low,

Each System.

Discrete or available

detector

scope, ”low ” or

”normal ” .

+/-5 % … … … … ..

2… … … … … … … …

0.5 % of full

scope.

Bool

60byte

0,5

34. Groundspeed

As Installed… … .

1… … … … … … … …

0.2 % of full

scope

Unsigned int

240byte

1

35. GPWS

( land propinquity

warning

system ) .

Discrete ”warning ”

or ”off ” .

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination of

discretes unless recording equipment

capacity is limited in which

instance a individual discrete for

all manners is acceptable.

Bool

60bit

1

36. Landing Gear

Position or

Landing cogwheel

cockpit control

choice.

Discrete… … … … .

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination of

discretes should be recorded.

Bool

15bit

0,25

37. Drift Angle.

As installed… … ..

As installed… … ..

4… … … … … … … …

0.1A° … … … … … … ..

Short

30byte

0,25

38. Wind Speed

and Direction.

As installed… … ..

As installed… … ..

4… … … … … … … …

1 knot, and 1.0A° .

Short & A ; Short

60byte

0,25

39. Latitude and

Longitude

As installed… … ..

As installed… … ..

4… … … … … … … …

0.002A° , or as installed.

Provided by the Primary

Navigation System Reference.

Where capacity

licenses Latitude/longitude

declaration should be

0.0002A° .

Short & A ; Short

60byte

0,25

40. Stick shaker

and pusher activation.

Discrete ( s ) ”on ”

or ”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … ..

A suited combination of

discretes to find activation.

Bool

60bit

1

41. Windshear

Detection.

Discrete ”warning ”

or ”off ” .

… … … … … … … … …

Bool

60bit

1

42. Throttle/Power

Level place.

Full Range… … …

0.2 % of full

scope

For aeroplanes with non-mechanically

linked cockpit

engine controls.

Short

2byte

1

43. Additional Engine

Parameters.

As installed… … ..

As installed… … ..

0.2 % of full

scope

Where capacity permits, the

preferable precedence is indicated

quiver degree, N2,

EGT, Fuel Flow, Fuel Cutoff

lever place and N3,

unless engine maker

recommends otherwise.

Additionals are non compulsory, non calculated.

44. Traffic Alert

and Collision

Avoidance System

( TCAS ) .

Discretes… … … ..

As installed… … ..

1… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination of

discretes should be recorded

to find the

position of-Combined Control,

Vertical Control, Up

Advisory, and Down Advisory.

( ref. ARINC Characteristic

735 Attachment

6E, TCAS VERTICAL RA

DATA OUTPUT WORD. )

Bool

60bit

1

45. DME 1 and 2

Distance.

0-200 NM… … …

As installed… … ..

4… … … … … … … …

1 NM… … … … … ..

1 stat mi

Unsigned Short

30byte

0,25

46. Nav 1 and 2

Selected Frequency

Full Range… … …

As installed… … ..

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Sufficient to find selected

Frequency

Unsigned Short

30byte

0,25

47. Selected barometric

scene.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

0.2 % of full

scope

Unsigned Short

2 byte

1

48. Selected Altitude.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

100 foot

Unsigned Short

120byte

1

49. Selected

velocity.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

1 knot

Short

120byte

1

50. Selected

Mach.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

.01

Short

120byte

1

51. Selected

perpendicular velocity.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

100 ft/min

Unsigned Short

120byte

1

52. Selected

header.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

1A°

Short

120byte

1

53. Selected flight

way.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1… … … … … … … …

1A°

Int

240byte

1

54. Selected determination

tallness

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

1 foot

Unsigned Short

2byte

1

55. EFIS show

format.

Discrete ( s ) … … …

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Discretes should demo the

show system position ( e.g. ,

away, normal, fail, composite,

sector, program, nav AIDSs,

conditions radio detection and ranging, scope,

transcript.

Bool

15bit

0,25

56. Multi-function/

Engine Alerts

Display format.

Discrete ( s ) … … …

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

Discretes should demo the

show system position ( e.g. ,

away, normal, fail, and the

individuality of show pages

for exigency processs,

need non be recorded

Bool

15bit

0,25

57. Thrust bid.

Full Range… … …

+/-2 % … … … … ..

2… … … … … … … …

0.2 % of full

scope

Int

120byte

0,5

58. Thrust mark

Full Range… … …

+/-2 % … … … … ..

0.2 % of full

scope

Int

4byte

1

59. Fuel measure

in CG spare armored combat vehicle.

Full Range… … …

+/-5 % … … … … ..

( 1 per 64 sec. ) ..

1 % of full scope

Unsigned Short

1,875byte

0,015625

60. Primary Navigation

System

Mention.

Discrete GPS,

INS, VOR/

DME, MLS,

Loran C,

Omega, Localizer

Glideslope.

… … … … … … … … …

4… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

A suited combination of

discretes to find the

Primary Navigation System