What types of spores are formed in each group? Give examples of each group? Zygomycota produce zygospores. – Ascomycota (sac fungi) produce ascospores. Also asexual spores called conidia and sexual acospores in sac-shaped cells called asci. Examples are Edible morels and truffles, Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. -Imperfect Fungi- many make asexual spores. Includes the strange predatory fungus Arhrobtrys dactyloides, which captures prey in noose-like hyphae. – Basidiomycota (club fungi) make basidiospores. Examples are Mushrooms, Shelf fungi, Coral fungi, Stinkhorns and Puffballs.
Also Agaricus brunnescens, Armillaria bulbosa and Amanita phalloides. -Zygom ycota – Zygomycete hyphae fuse to produce a thick-walled zygospore -Ascom ycota (sac fungi) – produce ascospores inside a parent cell called an ascus. Most diverse group (30,000 species). They produce sexual spores called conidia and sexual ascospores in sac-shaped cells called asci. Examples are Edible morels and truffles, Neurospora crassa (used in genetic research), Aspergillus (used in food production), Penicillium (used in drug production), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast used in wine production), and Candida albicans (causes yeast infections).
Basidiom ycota (club fungi) – make basidiospores on the surface of a club-shaped cell (basidium). There are 25,000 species made up of mushrooms, shelf fungi, coral fungi, stinkhorns and puffballs. Some club fungi are Agaricus brunnescens (commonly sold dible mushroom), Armillaria bulbosa (one of the largest known organisms), and Amanita phalloides (death cap mushroom). 20. What is Fungi Imperfecti? -Species that have never been observed to form sexual spores. Many do make asexual spores. Includes the strange predatory fungus Arthrobtrys dactyloides, which captures prey in noose-like hyphae.
Those not yet classified. 21 . What is lichen? -Lichen IS a combination of fungus and photosynthetic organism(s) (either a cyanobacteria or algae). 22. What is mycorrhizae? Distinguish between exomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae. -Mycorrhizae- Mutualistic fungus and ree roots. -Ectomycorrihaze-Hyphae form net around roots. Common in temperate forests. -Endomycorrhizae- Fungus actually enters root cell. Form in 80% of vascular plants. Zygomyetes are the fungal partners. Chapter # 16 1 . What are the basic characteristics of the plant kingdom? Nearly all are multicelled, vast majority are photoautotrophs (energy from sun, carbon dioxide from air, and minerals dissolved in water). 2. Discuss the structure of plants. -Has root systems (specialized for absorption of water and minerals), Shoot systems (adapted for exploiting sunlight and absorbing carbon dioxide), Lignin (deposited in cell wall for strength), Stomata (openings that allow air and water to pass), Waxy cuticle for water conservation, and Vascular tissues such as Xylem (which conducts water and minerals) and Phloem (which conducts products of photosynthesis). 3. Describe the life cycle of a plant. Life cycle alter natures between haploid and diploid. Sporphyte is diploid; it undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spores. Haploid spores develop into haploid gametophyte. Gametophyte produces gametes (haploid). Gametes fuse forming zygote that develops into sporophyte. 4. What are the male and emale gametophytes called in plants that reproduce by pollination? -Pollen Grains and Seeds. 5. What are the bryophytes? Include the distinguishing characteristics and examples. -Bryophytes are small, nonvascular, and no woody. They usually live in wet habitats. Flagellated sperm require water to reach eggs.
Gametophyte dominates life cycle; has leaf like, stem like, and root like parts. Types of Bryophytes are Liverworts (simplest), Hornworts, and Mosses (most common). 6. Discuss the seedless vascular plants. Include the different phyla and examples from each. -Seedless Vascular plants like bryophytes live in wet, umid places and require water for fertilization. Unlike bryophytes, Sporophyte is free-living and has vascular tissues and Sporophyte dominates life cycle. Types of Seedless Vascular Plants are Whisk ferns (Psilophyta), Lycophytes (Lycophyta), Horsetails (Sphenophyta), and Ferns (Pterophyta). 7.
Discuss the seed bearing plants. Distinguish between the gymnosperms and the angiosperms and give examples of each. -Seeds appeared about 360 million years ago. Seed ferns and gymnosperms were dominant at first. Angiosperms rose later. Seed-Bearing Plants have Microspores that give rise to pollen grains. Megaspores inside ovules. More water-conserving than seedless vascular plants. -Gymnosperms are plants with “naked seeds”. Seeds don’t form inside an ovary. Sporophyte dominates. Four groups are Conifers, Ginkgo’s, Cycads, and Gnetophytes. -Angiosperms are flowering plants. Dominant land plants (260,000 species).
Sporophyte dominates. Defining feature: Ovules and (after fertilization) seeds are enclosed in an ovary. Two classes are Monocots and Dicots. Monocots include grasses, lilies, and major food crops. Dicots include shrubs, trees, and herbaceous plants. 8. Discuss the difference between monocots and dicots. Monocots-grasses, lilies, major food crops. Dicots- shrubs, trees, and herbaceous plants. Chapter # 17 1. Discuss the characteristics and body plans of animals. -Multicelled heterotrophic eukaryotes. Require oxygen for aerobic respiration. Reproduce sexually and perhaps asexually. Motile at some stage.
Develop from embryos. 2. Describe the following phylum’s: (include classes if we discussed them in class) a. Porifera-No symmetry (asymmetry), No tissues, No organs, Reproduce sexually, Microscopic swimming-larval stage. B. Cnidarians- Only animals that produce nematocysts, nerve net, hydrostatic skeleton, aclike gut. Scyphozoans (Jellyfish), Anthozoans (Sea anemones and Corals), and Hydrozoans. C. Platyhelminthes-Acoelomate, bilateral, cephalized animals. All have simple or complex organ systems and most are hermaphrodites. Three classes are Turbellarians (Turbellaria), Aukes (Trematoda), and Tapeworms (Cestoda).
D. Nematoda-(Roundworms)-False coelom and complete digestive system. E. Mollusks-Bilateral, soft-bodied coelomate, most have a shell or reduced version of one, mantle drapes over body and secretes shell, most have a fleshy foot, and many have a radula for shredding food. Molluscan Diversity includes Gastropods, Chitons, Bivalves, and Cephalopods. F. AnneIids- (Phylum Annelida) – Segmented, coelomate worms, classes include polychaete, Oligochaete and Hirudinea- polychaetes are mostly marine, bristles extend from paired, fleshy parapods on each segment, and head end is specialized.
Hirudinea (leeches) are predators and parasites, less obvious body segmentation, and most have sharp jaws. Oligochaete (earthworm) has no parapodia, few bristles per segment. g. Arthropods (include crustaceans, insects, millipedes and centipedes, arachnids) -Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda) – The phylum with the greatest umber of species. pour lineages include Trilobites (all extinct), Chelicerates (spiders, mites, scorpions), Crustaceans (crabs, shrimps, barnacles), and uniramians (insects, centipedes, and millipedes).
Hardened exoskeleton, jointed appendages, fused and modified segments, respiratory structures, specialized sensory structures and division of labor. Millipedes have two pairs of legs per segment and are scavengers. Centipedes are flattened with one pairs of legs per segment and are predators. Crustaceans are marine, some freshwater and a few terrestrial, head has two pairs of antenna, three pairs of ood-handling appendages and examples are copepods, crayfish, barnacles, lobsters, shrimps, crab and isopods (pill bugs).
Insects are thorax and usually has three pairs of legs and one or two pairs of wings, abdomen contains most internal organs and specialized structured for reproduction, three-part gut, and malpighian tubules attach to midgut and serve in elimination of wastes. H. Echinoderms- Deuterostomes, almost all are marine, body wall has spines or plates of calcium carbonate, no brain and adults are radial with bilateral features. Include Sea stars, Brittle stars, Sea cucumbers, Sea urchins, heart rchins, sand dollars, and Crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars). 3. Discuss the difference between protostomes and Deuterostomes. Protostomia are a taxon of animals. Together with the deuterostomes and a few smaller phyla, they make up the Bilateria, mostly comprising animals with bilateral symmetry and three germ layers. The major distinctions between deuterostomes and protostomes are found in embryonic development. Deuterostomes are a superphylum of animals. They are a subtaxon of the Bilateria branch of the subregnum Eumetazoa, and are opposed to the protostomes. Deuterostomes are distinguished by their embryonic evelopment; in deuterostomes, the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus, while in protostomes it becomes the mouth. . What are the four distinctive features of all chordates? -Notochord supports body. Nervous system develops from dorsal nerve cord. Embryos have pharynx with slits. Embryos have tail that extends past anus. 5. What are the three subphyla of chordates? -Two invertebrate subphyla are urochordata (tunicates) and Cephalochordata (lancelets). Subphylum Vertebrata (the vertebrates) have backbone of cartilage or bone and their brain is encase in protective skull. 6. Give xamples of the Urochordata, cephalochordate, and hemichodata.
Subphylum Urochordata- most are tunicates, larva is free-swimming filter feeder, and adult is sessile. Example are Sea pork and Sea peach. Subphylum Cephalochordata- lancelets, fish-shaped filter feeders that lie buried in sediments, chordate characteristics of an adult are pharynx has gill slits, tail extends past the anus and notochord lies under dorsal nerve cord. 7. Discuss the following vertebrate classes: A. Agnatha-Jawless fishes. Living Agnathans are descendants of early jawless fishes. Cylindrical body. Cartilaginous skeleton. No paired fins.
Two groups: hagfishes and lampreys. B. PIacodermi-Jawed armored fishes (extinct). Most diverse and numerous group of vertebrates. Two classes are Chondrichtyhes (cartilaginous fishes) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes). C. Chondrichthyes- Cartilaginous fishes. Most are marine predators. Cartilaginous skeleton. Main groups are Sharks, Chimaeras (ratfishes), and Skates and rays. D. Osteichthyes-Bony fishes. Includes 96 percent of living fish species. Three subclasses are Lung fishes, Lobe-finned fishes, and Ray-finned fishes. E. Amphibia-Amphibians.
Evolution of amphibians-obe-finned fishes arose uring the early Devonian and used their fins to travel over land from pool to pool. With early amphibians, Lungs become more effective and chambers of the heart became partially separated, making circulation more efficient. With Modern Amphibians, they all require water at some stage in the life cycle; most lay eggs in water, lungs are less efficient than those of other vertebrates, and their skin serves as respiratory organ. Living Amphibian groups include frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians. F. ReptiIia- Reptiles. Evolution of Reptiles- they arose from amphibians in the
Carboniferous and their adaptations to life on land include tough, scaly skin, internal fertilization, amniote eggs and water conserving kidneys. Adaptive radiation produced numerous lineages. Existing groups include Therapsids (ancestors of mammals), Marine plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs and Dinosaurs and pterosaurs. Four orders made it to the present day which are Crocodilians, Turtles, Tuataras, and Snakes and Lizards. Turtles and Tortoises have an armor like shell, horny plates instead of teeth and lay eggs on land. izards and snakes are the largest order (95 percent of living reptiles).
Most lizards are insectivores with small peg like teeth and all snakes are carnivores with highly movable jaws. Tuataras are only two living species and live on islands off the cost of New Zealand and look like lizards, but resemble amphibians in some aspects of their brain and in their way of walking. GAves- Birds (Phylum Aves). Only birds have feathers. They arose from reptilian ancestors (feathers are highly modified reptilian scales). Like reptiles, birds produce amniotes eggs. Inside the egg, the embryo is enclosed in a membrane called the amnion which protects the embryo from drying out.
Four-chambered heart. Highly efficient respiratory system. Lightweight bones with air spaces and powerful muscles attach to the keel. H. Mammalia- Mammals (Phylum Mammalia). Hair, Mammary glands, Distinctive teeth, highly developed brain and extended care for the young. 200 million years ago, during the Triassic, synapsids gave rise to Therapsids. Therapsids were the reptilian ancestors of mammals. The first mammals had evolved by the Jurassic. Three Mammalian Lineages are Monotremes (egg-laying mammals), Marsupials (pouched mammals), and Eutherians (placental mammals). Living
Monotremes have three species (Duck-billed platypus and two kinds of spiny anteaters). They all lay eggs. With living Marsupials, most of the 260 species are native to Australia and nearby islands. Only the opossums are found in North America. Young are born in undeveloped state and complete development in a permanent pouch on mother. And finally with living Placental Mammals, they are the most diverse mammalian group. Young develop in mother’s uterus. Placenta is composed of maternal and fetal tissues; nourishes fetus, delivers oxygen, and removes wastes. placental mammals develop more quickly than marsupials.