First successful for several reasons, which include

First SectionUber was founded in 2008 and has
become a well recognized brand today. They began as a car ride service and have
evolved to delivering food and packages. They operate in 633 cities worldwide,
and 82 countries. (, 2017). In the US, Uber has been successful for
several reasons, which include the ease of use and quick accessibility in many
cities within the states. Another advantage they possess, is the unlimited
number of drivers and vehicles available, with a variety of options for
different occasions. (Pestleanalysis, 2015). In Albania, the majority of their
road infrastructure remains as dirt roads. (Sylvester, 2015). This is a
modification Uber will face if they enter this country, they can concentrate on
vehicles equipped for dirt roads. By making this modification Uber can
remarkably benefit because it will be accommodating the citizens of Albania and
potentially attract tourist.            Uber is a
company constantly interested in the development and the opportunity of
constant growth, customer satisfaction is one of the most important concepts
for the company. As a new service being introduced to Albania, Uber plans to
improve their culture values in order to provide a better functioning (Korosec,
2017). An example for this specific country would be to create a better
environment in the areas of customer service since the people from Albania are
known to be very hospitable and humble. Political and Government StabilityIn 2006 Turkey and Albania signed a
Free Trade Agreement but this agreement did not become effective until 2008.
The Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: “Albania has strategic
importance for Turkey which supports Albania for European and Euro-Atlantic
institutions, and which invested in Albania over one billion Euros as the
second main trade part of Albania in 2016” In 2014, Albania experienced one of
their best growth rate average in history with a 2.4% increase. Up on this
date, all non-tariff and tariff barriers has been eliminated in their totality
from the trade between Turkey and Albania. Tax PolicyThe tax system is conformed by the
value added tax (VAT), the real estate tax, profit tax, and personal income
tax:?       Value Added Tax is for all the people who make
taxable supplies including Individuals and legal entities that involve in the
import/export. The standard rate is 20% of all the goods customs value basing
in imports. VAT taxpayers have to report and submit all their purchase and
sales books within the 14th of each month. The VAT declaration has to be fill
in two copies because the taxable person has to submit one copy to the
respective bank within 14 days after the tax period expires.?       Real Estate Tax: Individuals that own more than one
residential property?       
 Profit Tax: the taxpayer has to pay one month in
advance, this tax has to be paid no later than the 15th of each
month.?       Personal Tax: Individuals who have a permanent residence in Albania or
those who have been present in Albania for more than 183 days within a 365 day
period.Labor LawThe main pieces of the employment
law that Albania has are: The law on Civil Servants and the Labour Code.  Temporary Employment of foreign citizens in
Albania was passed in December 2015 stipulating: “A foreign company may
stranger one or more of its employees to work in Albania for a maximum duration
of 12 months. The employment contract of the foreigner citizen has to be
entered and signed with an Albanian based company. The Albanian based company
might be either a subsidiary or branch of the transferring company or a
temporary- work agency acting in Albania. The Employment relationship of the
transferred employee’s maximum working hours, minimum annual leave, work
conditions, health, safety, and security, etc.” 
Environment and GeographyAlbania is located at the European
Southeastern between Greece, Serbia and Montenegro. Their capital and largest
city is Tirana ad.
                      Albania’s territory is 28.748 sq km,
which 27,398 sq km of its territory is land and 1,350 sq km is water. Albania
has so many climatic regions for the small area that in reality it is: The
coastal lowland is dominated by Mediterranean weather having mild winters with
a daytime temperatures of 7°C. Summers with a 24° C average, temperature
sometimes hitting the 30° C. In the southern lowlands the temperatures around
the year is always 5 degrees higher. The highlands are dominated by the
continental influenced climate. Natural Advantages: Some natural resources that
this country has are coal, petroleum, copper, chromite, natural gas, nickel,
iron ore, timber, hydropower, and salt. Natural Disadvantages: Some natural
hazards this country experiencing are tsunamis mostly occurs in the
Southwestern coasts; drough, destructive earthquakes, and floods. The
Precipitation average in Albania is very high but central uplands have the
heaviest rainfalls in comparison with the rest of Albanian regions, which
causes local flash-floods.Social cultural peopleAlbania is a country with a high
context communication style, nonverbal communications in Albanian culture show
drastic differences comparing to some other people’s’ culture around the world,
one example of this is how Americans smile freely at strangers, while in
Albanian regions it is considered strange and sometimes impolite            The
main means of transportation in Albania are the trains, buses, taxis and car
rentals, which are used by both locals and tourists, although the last two are
more popular among tourists. Since this is a high context country, there are
unwritten rules when communicating and using certain services, like for example
when using a taxi, the local Albanian people know that taxis don’t carry meters,
or rate cards, so the cost of the trip has to be agreed upon before taking the
trip, this is something tourists might not be aware of, and as a result they
might get taken advantage of. Another mean of transportation for tourists is
the car rental, but that too has its downsides, as tourists have to take into
consideration the differences in quality of road surfaces across the country,
as well as the local driving standards. 
We believe there is gap in the transportation services that is more
accommodating to tourists, and this is where Uber has an opportunity to enter,
since the company is recognized internationally, and most people are already
familiar with it, it would provide an easier way of transportation for
tourists.            As
for advertising, in recent years advertising in Albania has been growing at a
steadily rapid pace, and companies are realizing this, since there aren’t many
rules for advertising, they are quickly taking advantage of all the means of
communication that are primarily used in Albania, and using them to advertise
their products and services.According to Television
is currently the most used mean of advertising in Albania, but Albanian locals
also subscribe and get their information from all means, such as magazines,
radio and newspapers. So in terms of advertising, the best way to create
awareness, and provide information about our company to the locals, would be
through television.            Albanian
people in general are very hospitable. Their principles are based on the values
of the family, heritage, children’s education, and the care for others; They
prefer to live all together; husband, wife, children, father, mother, brothers,
and sisters; since they consider family to be unconditionally stable.One of the greatest values of
Albanian people is the coexistence and religious tolerance.Even though there are groups of
people who practice religion in Albania, the Albanians don’t give that much
importance to religion, they do not judge people for religious convictions or
preferences, for them, faith is a personal matter and it is not taught at home;
in fact, Albanians have a history of peaceful coexistence of different
religion, differences in religion are not significant.  Albanians are friendly people and appreciate
the same from the people who they interact with. The traditional Albanian
culture shows that the people don’t antagonize people who are different, or see
as enemies, they simply just accept them, and coexist in a peaceful manner            One of the factors that greatly
contributes to the rapid growth of the Albanian economy, is tourism, since
Albania offers such a wide range beautiful landscapes, like beaches, regions
with beautiful mountains, and the facades of their buildings, this has
attracted tourists from all over the world, who are looking to experience them.According to, some of the
most attractive sites attractive sites to visit in Albania Include: The city of
Tirana, which is the capital of Albania, and is where the most frequented nightclubs
are located, so this is the destination that would be more attractive to young
tourist who are looking to party and have a good time; additionally, the people
in the city are very friendly, and the prices are very low. Another city that
has proved to be attractive to tourists, is the city or Saranda, which is where
a lot of the most attractive Albanian beaches are located, which draws in many
tourists who are looking for a beach getaway, and opportunities to take
beautiful pictures.Last there is Thenth, which is a
considerable distance away from the capital and the rest of Albania’s bog
cities, but it is also on the biggest tourist attractions, home to the Grunas
waterfall, which is one the most beautiful sites to experience in all of the
county of Albania. (, 2017). So drawing in tourists is no problem for
Albania, as it has enough beauty within its borders to have people want to go
and visit and experience all the locations and culture the country has to
offer. That’s the opportunity of providing the Uber services comes in, as there
are all these people visiting, and they need a service to transport them to all
these sites they are looking to visit.            As
for the acceptance of American products and services, based on their culture, it
is known that Albanian people are very friendly and accepting to everybody, but
they have a certain affection towards Americans, as Edi Rama, Albanian Prime
Minister famously declared “Albania is for sure the most pro-American
country in Europe, maybe even in the world.” (Ghitis, 2016)The United States has been a strong
partner and friend to Albania as it has made progress to consolidate democracy,
to open up its economy, and to provide opportunity for all its people.
Currently, trade with the United States accounts for a good part of Albania’s
trade, and is focused on a narrow range of goods and services. Major imports
from the United States include food, vehicles, machinery, and computer and
electronic equipment. As there is an already established trade relationship
between the United States and Albania, and considering Albanian people already
have an affinity towards Americans, product acceptance would not be an
impediment for an American company like Uber to enter and get established in
the country.  Economic environmentAlbania has been improving their
economic environment throughout the years and have increased their relations
with other countries. Today, they are an open-market economy, which allows an
opportunity for Uber to enter this market. (CIA, 2017). In 2016, the GDP per
capita was  $11,800, and has a GDP real
growth rate of 3.4%. (CIA, 2017). The sum of exports and imports equals 71% of
their GDP. Inflation rates in Albania are 1.9%. (Forbes, 2017). Major
industries include agriculture, hydropower, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil,
mining, basic metals, cement, chemicals. Although the unemployment rate is
17.3% in Albania, it is predicted to decrease to 13.9% in 2017. (Forbes, 2017).
Income inequality is present in Albania, with a GINI index of 28.96 in 2012.
(Knoema, 2017). Albania populates approximately 3
million people. (Forbes, 2017). The religion in Albania is composed of
56.7%  Muslim, 10% Roman Catholic, 6.8%
Orthodox, 2.5% Atheist, 2.1% Bektashi, 5.7% other, and 16.2% are unspecified.
The most common races are Albanian and Greek. (Global Edge, 2017). The age
structure in Albania is composed of approximately 18.37% in the age groups of
0-14 years, 18.09% in the age groups of 15-24 years, 40.73% in the age groups
of 25-54 years, 11.23% in the age groups of 55-64 years, and 11.58% of the
population is 65 years or older. (Index mundi, 2017). The age groups Uber will
be considering to target, 15-54 years contribute to approximately 59% of the
population, which converts to 1.7 million people. Uber has an opportunity for
more than half of the population in Albania. The standard of living is
considered to be middle class and upper middle class, which also encourages
Uber to enter Albania.              The education structure in Albania
is similar to the structure in the United States. Their literacy rate is
estimated at 99%. (Classbase, 2017). The school year is divided into 2
semesters, it begins in September or October and ends in June or July.  (Classbase, 2017). The primary education
segment includes 9 grade levels. The secondary education segment takes 3 years
to complete, which concentrates on teaching and preparing for college. They
also provide an alternative form of school, called vocational education and
takes 2 to 5 years to complete depending on the program selected. Finally,
tertiary education which is private or public universities and offer studies in
economic sciences, foreign languages, history & philology, medicine,
natural sciences, law, social sciences, and physical education. (Classbase,
2017).   Legal systemAlbania is a Parliamentary Republic
and their system of government is based on a separation of powers and a checks
and balances system within the legislative, executive and judicial powers. The
unicameral Parliament is their legislative branch. It has 140 seats, which is
based on a proportional regional system. Parliament consists of the Speaker,
Deputy Speaker’s, Bureau of Parliament, Parliamentary Groups, and Parliamentary
Commissions (Gentry, 2015). The executive branch is represented by the
President as the Chief of State, Prime Minister as the Head of Government, and
they are followed by the Council of Ministers (Gentry, 2015). The President is
chosen by being elected by a three-fifths majority vote of all Parliament
members and is able to serve for up to two, five year terms.  Albania’s current judicial system has been
established over the past twenty years. In November 1998, through a popular
vote, Albanians voted on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, and had
it approved. Albania has a civil law system. Judicial power in Albania starts
with the courts of first instance, appeal courts and finally, the Supreme
Court, which has final and absolute authority.Albania was among the last
previously communist countries to start on their economic transformation as it
was left as one of the poorest, most isolated, most repressive and least
knowledgeable country in Europe (Tartari, n.d.). When they first stepped out of
communist rule the challenges left behind included high unemployment, chronic
corruption, widespread decay of buildings, deep rooted organized crime
networks, and endemic political gridlock (O’Connell, n.d.). Uber is aware of
the chaos left in place but it sees the potential in this country as Albania,
in order to step out of these undesirable characteristics, for the past 20
years, has been undergoing a transformation from a communist, centrally planned
economy to a liberal free market economy (Tartari, n.d.). Albania has put in
place many economic, political, legal and institutional reforms, so progress
could be made, and has been made, on many fronts (Tartari, n.d.). With the aim
of social progress, foreign investment and European Union integration, among
other things, Albania is working on making an environment in which intellectual
property rights are guaranteed (Intellectual Property Watch, 2012).One of the deterrents to foreign
investment is counterfeiting. In order for Uber to bring their service into
Albania, there must be certain protections in place so that Uber can protect
themselves in this new environment. The counterfeiting of goods protected by
trademark, patent rights, utility models, industrial design or geographical
indication, which all fall under industrial property, had not been considered a
criminal offense until recently, when the changes in the Albanian Criminal Code
gave it a consequence (Cami, 2012). The law No. 23/2012 of March 1, 2012, which
was put into effect on April 11, 2012, specifies, among other things, that
counterfeiting is now considered a criminal offense. The clause covers all
areas of industrial property — patents, industrial designs, trademarks and
geographical indications (Cami, 2012). It states that manufacturing and
distributing a product protected by an IP right, including importing,
exporting, releasing the good on the market, supplying the good and trading
with it, is now considered a criminal offense (Cami, 2012). If the law is
broken, as punishment you may have to pay a fine or you may be sentences with a
year in prison. If the action is divided among several people or if it is done
more than once, a fine is assigned or there is a penalty of up to two years in
prison. In the fight against counterfeits being able to charge individuals for
counterfeiting gives IP right holders a massive advantage. Such provision is
expected to have a positive impact on the economy in Albania (Cami, 2012). For
example, now because there are harsher penalties in place, it is less likely
that business owners will sell fake products, or attempt to imitate new
services a new company brought in. Now, there is an incentive to fight piracy
in Albania. With this new law in place Uber will have less doubts in regards to
bringing their services to Albania.Market Environment Even though Albania is considered a
small country, with a population of almost 3 million people and a GNI per
capita of USD 4,300 in the year of 2015, the country shows many growth
opportunities in their economy (, 2017). In the year of 2016 Albania
registered a GDP with a value of 11.93 billion US dollars; in the year of 2017
a growth of consumer consumption was registered and a 4.06% increment in their
Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Rate (Trading Economies, 2017).     Tourism plays a significant part in
the possibility of growth for the Albanian economy, because of the country’s
history, the coastline located in the Adriatic Sea and culture, Albania invites
people to get involved in this country (, 2017).The “Public transportation” in
Albania is restricted, the country has some taxi companies that offer a service
for their habitants, although some of the tourists would rather rent a car and
a driver during their visit (, 2017).Uber is a company dedicated into the
customer service and the company offers many benefits, this creates an
advantage over the taxi services, since it’s all about satisfying the clients
need and their
goal is driving anyone that has a place they need to go (Moore, 2015). Since
we are introducing Uber as a new service in Albania, as a company we are in the
first stage of the life cycle, which is the introduction phase. In this phase
Uber will be presented to the Albanian community.Entry strategy  In Albania, there are not a lot of
restrictions and limitations in mode of entry therefor, joint venture is the
best option for Uber in this market. The government is open to this type of
entry, they are a modern open-market economy. JV’s are common and growing in
Albania, allowing our taxi drivers to consider their oppositions and negotiate
alliances such as partnering with Ford providing unique discounts for Albanian
citizens planning to purchase a vehicle for the use of Uber. An advantage
example of this strategy is there are not a lot of JV’s in Albania so people
will definitely buy JV’s to increase passenger maximum capacity and getting
more space to keep their passengers in a comfort area as well. One disadvantage
of this strategy is the exporting cost, which can reflect a higher cost with
the demand increase. Major barriers of entry in infrastructure of this country
are the dirt roads giving a hard time to pass by especially when it’s raining.