CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES It is an integral part of the study.
It may also be a required part of proposals. The main purpose is to analyze scientific works by other researchers that the researchers used for investigation critically. It is also secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Basically this part of the study focuses on the foreign and local types of water level monitoring system and also the articles involved and necessary for the improvement of the study.And devices which utilized an Ultrasonic sensor, GPRS module and Microcontroller are also included. FOREIGN LITERATURE Rainfall, Stream, and River Level Monitoring System The Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District and the Cities of Napa and St. Helena operate and maintain a network of weather stations that provide real time rainfall data and stream and river levels throughout Napa County, which can be accessed by clicking on the following link: Napa Valley Regional Rainfall and Stream Monitoring System.
The website presents data from a network of some 50 gages that record rainfall and stream and river levels. Website users can easily see current stream and river levels, compared to monitor stage and warning stage levels. The website also has the capability to provide graphs showing data from October 2001 to the present. The website provides: Real-time rainfall intensity and other local weather data; •Current water levels in area creeks and the Napa River with monitor and flood levels; •Historical data for gage sites oeprated by various Napa County agencies dating back to October 2001; •Ability to view data within multiple map views or view lists of gage sites from North Bay regional down to selected portions of the Napa Valley; •Graphing and tabular data downloading functions for selectable time periods between October 2001 and the present; •Links to popular regional weather and river level forecast sites for up-to-the-minute sever weather and flooding outlook.This web interface incorporations data collected at gage sites maintained by the Cities of Napa and St. Helena, Napa County, and the Flood Control and Water Conservation District, referred to as the Alert System, as well as weather and stream gaging sites operated in the area by other agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey (USGS), local airports or other nearby cities and counties. During the summer of 2006, the local gage network was upgraded to include satellite connectivity as a backup to existing radio data transmission.
This enables the collection, storage and display of data gathered in Napa County via the Internet. How to use the website: To access the Real Time data, do the following: 1. Click on Maps on the System Menu on the upper-left of the page. 2. Click on one of the green dots (weather station locations) on the map to jump to the data page for that weather station. 3. On the data page, click the sensor to view the data; e. g.
, Stage, Rain Accumulation, etc. The website is managed by OneRain, Inc. , under contract to the Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District. http://www. countyofnapa. rg/Pages/DepartmentContent. aspx? id=4294968667 What is GLOSS? The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).
GLOSS aims at the establishment of high quality global and regional sea level networks for application to climate, oceanographic and coastal sea level research. The programme became known as GLOSS as it provides data for deriving the ‘Global Level of the Sea Surface’.The main component of GLOSS is the ‘Global Core Network’ (GCN) of 290 sea level stations around the world for long term climate change and oceanographic sea level monitoring. The present definition of the GCN (the definition is modified every few years) is called GLOSS10. The Core Network is designed to provide an approximately evenly distributed sampling of global coastal sea level variations. Another component is the GLOSS Long Term Trends (LTT) set of gauge sites (some, but not all, of which are in the GCN) for monitoring long-term trends and accelerations in global sea level.These will be priority sites for Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver installations to monitor vertical land movements, and their data will contribute to long-term climate change studies such as those of the WMO-UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
http://www. gloss-sealevel. org/ Measuring Water Levels (Diver® – the jewel of level loggers) Diver® level loggers are small, smart and easy to use.
Tens of thousands of these data-loggers are in place, worldwide. Each is accurately, reliably and conveniently recording water level, temperature and, if needed conductivity; 24 hours a day, seven days a week.This smart, reliable monitoring technology complements our e-Sense stable of remote sensing data-loggers, instruments and modems for the automatic measurement, registration and management of groundwater information. http://www. waterlevelmonitoring. co. uk/ Flood Alert Monitoring The technology implemented in the Flood Alert Kits has been used by all major US government monitoring agencies including the USGS and US Army Corp of Engineers, except has been preconfigured and packaged will all the programming and mounting accessories to get the system installed and transmitting.
Components of a Flood Alert System – Water Level Depending on the accuracy and installation location there are 4 methods for measuring water level in a flood alert system. These include submersible pressure sensor, bubbler system, shaft encoder, and the latest technology a non-contact radar level system. The pre-configured kits are available with each technology except the shaft encoder, which requires more components to get started. 2 – Precipitation In most flood alert systems rain precipitation is an early warning trigger to flood events.
To measure rainfall a tipping bucket rain gauge is most typically used.The tipping bucket rain gauge features and SDI-12 output to make integration and troubleshooting the system rather simple. It gets installed to a flat fixed structure, included in the kit is mounting brackets for securing to a flat platform or concrete pad. Optionally a stand may be fabricated to hold the system off the ground and installed in a post hole with concrete footing.
3 – Discharge For many applications measuring water level may be sufficient for determining discharge calculated off of water level. This process requires several service visits to develop a rating curve correlating water level to total water discharge.For systems that are not gravity fed or may have variable backwater water level alone won’t work for calculating the volume of water in a stream. For these applications an acoustic Doppler instrument can be installed to provide accurate velocity information to calculate discharge. 4- Transmit the information Transmitting and alarming is perhaps one of the most important components of a flood warning system. There are three primary options available in the complete flood monitoring kit including: 1- data to the web, 2 – ALERTS network transmissions, 3- point to point data to the desktop.Each of these options are available pre-configured to get the data out to the people who need to act on it.
5 – Installation and Maintenance Our local offices in over 16 locations around the world are able to go beyond the instrument sale with help installing and maintaining your site. Whether it’s building a stationary monitoring platform or rountine calibration and maintenance, YSI Integrated Systems ;amp; Services has the expertise to deliver reliable and cost effective services http://www. ysisystems. com/applicationsdetail.
hp? Flood-Alert-Monitoring-9 Optimization of Water Level Monitoring Network in Polder Systems Using Information Theory Leonardo Alfonso Hydroinformatics and Knowledge Management, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, Netherlands Arnold Lobbrecht Hydroinformatics and Knowledge Management, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, Netherlands HydroLogic BV, Amersfoort, Netherlands Roland Price Hydroinformatics and Knowledge Management, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, Netherlands A method for siting water level monitors based on information theory measurements is presented.The first measurement is joint entropy, which evaluates the amount of information content that a monitoring set is able to collect, and the second measurement is total correlation, which evaluates the level of dependency or redundancy among monitors in the set. In order to find the most convenient set of places to put monitors from a large number of potential sites, a multiobjective optimization problem is posed under two different considerations: (1) taking into account the costs of placing new monitors and (2) considering the cost of placing monitors too close to hydraulic structures.In both cases, the joint entropy of the set is maximized and its total correlation is minimized. The costs are considered in terms of information theory units, for which additional terms affecting the objective functions are introduced.
The proposed method is applied in a case study of the Delfland region, Netherlands. Results show that total correlation is an effective way to measure multivariate independency and that it must be combined with joint entropy to get results that cover a significant proportion of the total information content of the system.The maximization of joint entropy gives results that cover between 82% and 85% of the total information content. http://www. agu. org/pubs/crossref/2010/2009WR008953. shtml LOCAL LITERATURE Water level in some Metro Manila rivers reaches critical mark By Matikas Santos INQUIRER.
net Tuesday, August 7th, 2012 MANILA, Philippines – Water level in some rivers and waterways in Metro Manila has reached critical mark as rains spawned by the southwest monsoon and a shallow low-pressure area continued to pound the region, according to he state-run weather bureau’s water level monitoring system. As of 9 p. m. , the water level at the Tumana Bridge in Marikina hit 18.
95 meters. An hour ago, the water level recorded was 18. 66 meters and then it rose to 18.
86 meters in the next half hour. The critical water level at Tumana Bridge is 18. 30 meters, according to the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Pagasa) Flood Forecasting and Warning System (FFWS). It was the same case for the Sto Nino water level measuring station. The water level was measured at 15. 5 meters around 7 p. m. , and then rose to 16.
13 meters by 8 p. m. At 8:30 p. m. , it went up to 16.
32 meters. As of 9 p. m. its water level was at 16. 40 meters, almost half a meter above the critical level of 16 meters, according to the FFWS. The water level along Marcos Highway also rose quickly within two hours. At 7 p. m.
it recorded a water level of 14. 69 meters, then rose to 15. 02 by 8 p. m.
It continued to rise to 15. 17 by 8:30 p. m. , and as of 9 p. m. the water level was at 15. 24 meters, above the critical water level of 14. 90 meters.
The San Mateo-1 monitoring station recorded a water level of 19. 45 meters as of 9 p. m. , more than a meter above the critical water level of 18. 30 meters.
Pagasa’s FFWS is a new system that obtains water level data from several water monitoring station in Metro Manila’s riverways and updates them online every 10 minutes http://newsinfo. inquirer. net/244037/water-levels-in-some-metro-manila-rivers-reach-critical-level Tigum-Aganan weather monitoring project launched Jan. 20 By Jaime S. Cabag, Jr. Thursday 19th of January 2012 ILOILO CITY, Jan. 9 (PIA6) — The collaborative project in weather monitoring system in Iloilo between the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and SMART Communications, Inc. will have a soft launching at Emilion Function Center here on Jan.
20. DOST Regional Director Engr. Rowen Gelonga said the project called “Tigum-Aganan Weather Monitoring System” is part of the DOST national program on the deployment of weather monitoring equipment in support to government efforts towards disaster risk reduction, particularly by empowering local government units through the provision of real-time information about weather conditions in their respective areas.Gelonga said it will involve the deployment of 5 automatic rain gauges and 3 automatic water level sensors at the Tigum-Aganan river system to monitor the rainfall in the municipalities of Alimodian, Cabatuan, Maasin and Pavia and Iloilo City, which are covered by the river system. The equipment will also measure the water level in three bridges along the river system The soft launching of the project will be led by local government officials including Iloilo Gov. Arthur Defensor, Iloilo City mayor Jed Patrick Mabilog, Iloilo City Congressman Jerry P.Trenas, SMART Communications Public Affairs Group Head Ramon R.
Isberto, DOST-Advanced Sciences and Technology Institute Director Engr. Dennis Villorente, DOST-PAGASA Administrator Nathaniel Servando, mayors of the four municipalities, and other officials of the DOST and Office of Civil Defense. The mayors who have signified to attend are Juanito Alipao of Alimodian, Robert Maroma of Cabatuan, Mariano Malones of Maasin and Aracadio Gorriceta of Pavia. Alipao is also the chairperson of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board.The event will be highlighted by project briefs of the Tigum-Aganan Weather Monitoring System and DOST Nation-Wide Program on Hybrid Weather Monitoring System and media conference. http://www. pia.
gov. ph/news/index. php? article=901326956022 ‘Noah’ Vs Floods Launched By Aurea Calica (The Philippine Star) Updated July 07, 2012 MANILA, Philippines – President Aquino yesterday led the launching of Project NOAH – or Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards – aimed at stepping up efforts toward more intensive disaster risk reduction and management procedures during typhoons and calamities.
Marikina City, which was devastated by tropical storm “Ondoy” in 2009, was chosen as the venue for the launching of the project. The President said no matter how unpredictable the weather, the government could not leave things to chance to ensure the safety of the people. Aquino said Project NOAH, which includes rain gauges and flood monitoring systems, is not a miracle but a product of the cooperation among the Department of Science and Technology, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical nd Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs), Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Science and Technology Information Institute, Department of the Interior and Local Government, University of the Philippines-National Institute of Geological Sciences and Department, and other concerned agencies. http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=824900;amp;publicationSubCategoryId=63 RELATED STUDIES Measurement of Water Level in a Monitoring System of a BathroomDeveloping a monitoring system of bathroom is important for preventing accidents in bathrooms.
Although CCD camera is easily imagined as a monitoring device, it is unsuitable by various problems such as violation of one’s privacy, expensiveness, moistures on the lens, and so on. This paper proposes a new monitoring system by immersing a pipe with an acoustic sensor inside into the bathtub. By the system, we can obtain not only direct sound information from the people in the bathroom, but also the information on the water level of the bathtub.For the measurement of the water level, stationary waves inside the pipe are used and the adaptive selections of data window and optimal modes are considered. Experiments demonstrate that the accurate water level measurement is achieved with the proposed method regardless of sound environment.
http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/xpl/login. jsp? tp=&arnumber=1491709&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore. ieee. org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.
jsp%3Farnumber%3D1491709 Development of Hybrid Weather Monitoring System and Production of Weather and Rain Automated Stations Significance:Every year, the Philippines experiences strong typhoons with heavy rains and flooding during the monsoon season. This natural phenomenon have claimed many lives and damanged millions worth of properties, crops, and livestocks over the years. In order to prevent or minimize damage caused by this natural phenomenon, obtaining timely and accurate data is key to disaster prevention and mitigation.
To prepare for such calamities, the project will deploy the network for Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and Automated Rain Gauge (ARG) Stations in different strategic locations across the country to complement PAGASA’s weather forecasting system.Project Overview: The Automated Weather Stations are monitoring stations equipped with different sensors capable of measuring the following weather parameters: * wind speed and direction * air temperature * air humidity * air pressure * rain amount, duration and intensity The Automated Rain Gauges, meanwhile, are developed to gather and record the amount of rainfall over a set period of time. The weather and rainfall data sent wirelessly through the cellular network as a text message or Short Messaging System (SMS).Each station is equipped with the ASTI-developed data-logger platform GSM Data Acquisition Terminal (G-DAT) that serves as the mini-computer or brain that intelligently controls all the fucntions and data communications of the station. Designed to be rugged and standalone, these stations can be deployed even in the harshest remote areas and can operate continuously as it gets power from the sun, backed-up by the internal rechargeable battery. All weather and rainfall data from the remote stations are collected on a central database server and further analyzed.The processed data are readily available and easily accessible the local authorities over the Internet, in real time.
Objectives: * To produce 80 automated weather stations and 100 automated rain gauge stations using local technological resources; * To deploy the AWS and ARG in key areas across the Philippines to complement PAGASA’s weather forecasting facilities; * To develop and incorporate satellite communication capability to the system as an alternative option for GSM/GPRS communication for timely and continuous weather information access; and * To ensure reliable and continuous oepration of the AWS and ARG. ttp://embedded. asti. dost. gov. ph/projects/hybrid-weather-monitoring-station/ SMS BASED WATER-LEVEL MONITORING SYSTEM Mariel Love P. Palafox, Ric Francis Rey F. Agub, Abdallah M.
Asfour, Precious Joy B. Dela Cruz, Charm V. Macarubbo Abstract This project is an early warning device which monitors the flood water level of rivers and other bodies of water particularly during typhoons and unusual heavy downpours. At critical water levels, it sends via Short Messaging Service (SMS) information to concerned persons or government agencies who in turn will sound the alarm.The project is composed of two main parts, the Base Unit and the Sensors.
The Base Unit is comprised of the UP-IRC Slimboard with ZiLOG Encore! Z8F6421 microcontroller, BenQ GSM Modem Module, LEDs, and a piezoelectric buzzer. The sensors are made up of wires which are connected to make a simple switch. Each sensor switch is attached to a plastic ball used as a floater. There are three sensor switches each placed 30 cm above the other. When a sensor is triggered, the microcontroller will follow the set of instructions programmed to it which includes instructing the GSM Modem Module to send warning messages per level reached.
When the third level is reached, the microcontroller will additionally turn on the piezoelectric buzzer. The program used is encoded in C++ programming language and is downloaded to the microcontroller using Zilog Developer Studio version 4. 11. http://journals. smu.
edu. ph/index. php/pear/article/view/38 The Long-Range Monitoring System of Water Level Based on GPRS Network Abstract Through a combination of detection technology and GPRS communication technology, rainfall stations and watershed hydrological stations in each observation point will be used as the system terminal.
Those data collection terminals are composed of sensor unit and microcontroller system, mainly in charge of on-site water level, flow, and rainfall and other signal acquisition, software filtering, processing, storage and display. Real-time data collected will be stored, or transmitted through the RS232 and GPRS network to the data terminals, after post-processing by the central computer, provided to upper management. This system has been achieved a long-range, wide range of data transmission, and provided a scientific way for flood control decision. SYNTHESISThis is the part wherein the review of related literatures and studies has been combined to form a significant thought as a whole. The elements that have been use are mainly about water level monitoring, the use internet and wireless technology, and devices with GPRS module or microcontroller interface that can be used by the researchers for the development of the design projects.
Thus, the collected elements are found to be useful and necessary to the overall development of the design project that may be helpful in the field of communication and general information.