Following began to take center stage. Since

Following WW2, after the destruction
of nearly 80 million people, many of the major world leaders came together and
embraced the notion that all human beings have fundamental rights and freedoms simply
because they are human. The newly created UN decided to embrace the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights in order to guarantee the rights of individuals. As
time went on new issues arose across the world demanding the need for the UN to
uphold the fundamental laws for the preservation of peace. This is most
apparent in the early 1990s, when HIV/AIDS began to take center stage. Since
the origination of HIV/AIDS, the disease has claimed over 35 million lives. As
the epidemic continues to circulate globally, it has become one of the leading
public health issues and consequently, the United Nations and Canada have begun
to take a more active role in the prevention of the disease to uphold the
rights and freedoms set by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. More
specifically, the fight against HIV/AIDS focuses on upholding Articles 1, 2, 3,
and 25 of the UNDR. Each article stands as a central factor in the global
initiative to prevent HIV/AIDS infections and deaths. Ultimately, medical care
and the right to living a healthy life fall under the fundamental rights and
freedoms guaranteed by Canada’s Health Act and Articles 1, 2, 3 and 25 of the
UN Declaration of Human Rights.  Through
the international initiative, global engagement, and collaborative efforts,
Canada and the UN have made a substantial impact in the prevention of
HIV/AIDS-related deaths and infections. Since
the early 1990s HIV/AIDS has become a major epidemic globally. Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the body’s immune systems
after spreading through certain body fluids.1 An
individual may be at risk to contract HIV/AIDS in many ways. Specifically,
through unprotected sex, contaminated needle and transmission of body fluids.2
Once an individual has contracted HIV/AIDS they are forced to live with the
disease for the rest of their lives. The disease explicitly targets human CD4
cells reproducing after annihilating the cells. Over time, as the virus
destroys a vital number of CD4 cells the body can no longer fight off the
As the number of CD4 cells within the human body decreases to less than 200
cells per cubic millimeter the body weakens, and forms of infection and disease
invade signifying the transition from HIV to AIDS.4
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the terminal stage of HIV where
the individual’s immune system is irreversibly damaged. In addition, they are
likewise susceptible to illnesses known as opportunistic infections.

Individuals living with AIDS live, on average, between 1-3 years after
transitioning into the most dangerous phase of HIV.5  As of 2016, an estimated 36.7 people
worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS.  5%
of people surviving with HIV/AIDS are children and in 2016 alone over 1 million
deaths arose due to HIV/AIDS.6
Moreover, as of 2016 nearly 76% of all individuals living with HIV/AIDS were
geographically located in Africa and in 2016 a reported 1.8 million new
infections of HIV were documented.7
However the reported 1.8 million was a 300, 000 decreases from 2.1 million in
2015 and infection rates among the general populous have steadily fallen 16%.

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However most notably since 2010 there has been a 47% decrease in the rate of
infections among children in part due to the efforts of Canada and the United

In the
battle to prevent HIV/AIDS Articles 1, 2, 3, and 25 have played major roles.

Article 1 enlists the idea that “all beings are born free and equal in dignity
and spirits.”1
Article 1 enlists the idea that “all beings are born free and equal in dignity
and spirits.” This article influences the prevention of HIV/AIDS as it provides
us the foundation that those infected with the disease are all born of freedom
and equal dignity and therefore cannot be put down and condemned. Similarly,
Article 2 states that each person is entitled to their fundamental rights
regardless of age, gender, race or any other distinguishing characteristics.

Moreover, Article 3 states that each individual has the right to life, liberty,
and protection of their person. Without proper health care, individuals living
with HIV/AIDS lose their fundamental right to life and

liberty as a termination of the
conditions set by the disease.  Lastly,
and perhaps the article that has played the largest role in the prevention of
HIV/AIDS, Article 25. Which states that everyone has the right to adequate
health and wellbeing for themselves and family including medical care. Furthermore,
the article states that mothers and children are entitled specialized care. Through
the support of these four articles within the UN Declaration of Human Rights
the prevention against HIV/AIDS in the past years has steadily increased.

Additionally, Canada has played a large part in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.

Through the articles in the UNDR but also under the influence of Section 7 of
the Charter of Rights and Freedoms which states that each individual has the
right to life, liberty and security of their person. The Canadian Health Act
also influences Canada’s role internationally against HIV/AIDS as Public
Administration, Universality, and Accessibility are all key figures in the
battle against the disease.1


Canada’s Role

Canada has played a major part in addressing the
HIV/AIDS epidemic across the globe, providing prevention and support programs
in addition to formulating a plan of action to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS both
economically and socially. The Canadian Federal Initiative researches the
causes, symptoms, risk and treatment for individuals who are infected for
HIV/AIDS. In addition, they seek to preclude the transmission of the disease
while also improving the quality of life for those already infected. Canada
embeds its Federal role in the effort to fight against HIV/AIDS through action
taken at many layers of government and networking through people, organizations
and dedicated systems aimed towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Canada has
aligned both the provincial and federal government functions and
responsibilities to determine the factors affecting the health and wellbeing of
individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the Canadian Government also
proposes to build strong relations with NGOS and community partners in the
fight against HIV/AIDS. The Federal Initiative has named it their plan to
tackle the issue through public health care and resources, professional and
private sectors aiming to prevent HIV/AIDS, international partners and
individuals who are susceptible or living with the disease. Canada also hopes
to make services available to individuals living with HIV/AIDS, including
programs to sustain their health from opportunistic illnesses. The prevention
of HIV/AIDS internationally, the federal initiative aims to establish

collaborative efforts with the Public Health Agency of
Canada, Health Canada and many other organizations domestically to prevent the
transmission of the disease in Canada. By introducing programs, acquiring
knowledge about HIV/AIDS, spreading awareness through communication and social
marketing, coordinating, planning, evaluating and reporting trends in HIV/AIDS
infections and finally global engagement, Canada has played a major role in the
fight to prevent HIV/AIDS.


UN Role

While Canada has undoubtedly played
a large part in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, the UN has ensured public health
against the disease. The UN Initiative attempts to utilize organizations, NGOs
and UN countries in order to bring affirmative action against the HIV/AIDS
epidemic. Most notably, the UN and World Health Organization’s response to
HIV/AIDS deals with information for focused action, interventions for the
impact and range of services required, covering the populous in need of
services, financing treatment for sustainability and innovation to lengthen the
lifetime of those living with the disease.1 The
UN focused their attention towards a treatment known as Antiretroviral Therapy
(ART) that can dramatically extend their lifespan by allowing the body to
regain the ability to fight off infections.2


As a result of the Canadian and UN initiative
53% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS had access to lifesaving treatment in
2016. Over 19.5 million people received Antiretroviral Treatment.3
By 2020 it is estimated that over 30 million people will receive treatment for
HIV/AIDS. Now, 76% of pregnant adult females living with HIV have the medical
care needed to prevent the transmission of the disease to their child as part
of the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT).4
As a outcome of Canadian research and funding, tuberculosis related deaths have
declined by one third from 2007 to 2016.5
Thanks to the lifesaving ART medical care, individuals suffering from any of
the 3 stages of HIV may live

nearly as long as healthy people.

Finally, as of 2017 over 122 countries have adopted the ART treatment and over
76.3% of the population living with HIV is now eligible for the lifesaving
treatment.1 ConclusionThrough both the perspective of the
Canadian Federal Initiative and UN, it is most evident through their actions to
prevent the transmission and deaths related to HIV/AIDS that both upheld the
pillars of law that keep Canada and International at peace. As a result of the
efforts to vindicate Article 1, 2, 3 and 25 of the UN Declaration of
Independence and S.7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as the core
principles of the Canadian Health Act individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS are
no longer suffering and can live normal lives. In essence, by applying the
fundamental rights and freedoms and upholding the very basis of our beliefs it
is indisputable that people can accomplish tasks that seem utterly impossible.