Forum: electro-mobility, the technology of the present

Forum:                 Second Committee of the General
Assembly

Issue:                   Discussing ways to promote environmentally friendly
electro-mobility

Student
Officer:   Lennart Frahm (Lübeck, Germany)

Position:               Deputy Chair

 

Introduction

“At times of dwindling fossil fuel resources, it is high time to think
about alternative forms of mobility.” – Dr. Maria-Luise Mathiaschitz

 

 

Fossil fuels are one of the main essentials of the modern globalized
world. We are facing the problem that their supplies are decreasing which is
becoming a main threat for all of us. Since fossil fuels have become scarce and
climate change has a big impact on our everyday life, governments and committed
people have started to strive for solutions and for better ideas to save the
planet. One of these is electro-mobility, the technology of the present and our
future. In 2014 more than 1 billion cars were counted worldwide. Only 2,48
million of these are assigned to the electro mobility industry.

A vehicle is defined as
electro-mobility friendly, when it has one or more electric engines, which are
connected to a rechargeable battery or storage. Plug-in´s (PEVs), hybrid
electric cars (HEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), belong to the category of
electric powered vehicles. The engine makes the car move forward in an
environmentally-friendly way and diminishes or reduces emissions and therefore
is supposed to keep the world clean. A huge issue for the vast distribution of
this technology is that most of these vehicles are not affordable and mostly
don’t pay off. Charging time, excessive costs for electricity, origin of
energy source used by such vehicles are unknown or even life time of the
batteries are too short.LB1  These are huge problems, which must
be solved in near future, so that electro-mobility has a faster and better chance
to entrench in modern society and can be found in the future.

 

The electro-mobility market
is also one of the fastest growing markets which creates a lot of jobs and has
a great future ahead of it. Many countries provide charging stations on parking
lots, that make it possible for cars to charge their batteries, these are
mostly provided by the country, state or city. It is very important to not only
help these products integrate in the economy but also help integrate this
technology into society by promoting or buying products based on e-mobility.

 

Definition of Key TermsLB2 

Climate change:

Is a change in the usual climate on earth or in
specific areas.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

Are vehicles that combine electric and diesel or
petrol engine for actuation. Gasoline powered combustion are the main power
source.

Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs):

Are vehicles that have the possibility to be
recharged by connecting them with an electrical source.

Electro mobility market:

Is the act where buying or selling of electro
mobility happens. It also determines over financial fluctuations of the products.

Charging stations:  

Are infrastructural element which allows electric
vehicles such as plug-in vehicles to recharge their batteries.

 

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV):

Are vehicles that consist of an electric and diesel
or petrol engine. The electric powered combustion is the main power source.

Background Information

How can a country promote electro mobility?

There are many ways how to promote
electro-mobility. There are several good reasoning’s why to buy such a vehicle.
These could be cost savings, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission and noise,
the improvement of the air quality or higher efficiency. Moreover, a government
can take financial measures for instance fuel or registration exemptions,
purchase bonuses, campaigns based on electro-mobility or urban measures for
example the use of bus lanes or parking priority. It could be very important
for customers to have a feasible network of charging stations in a country or
city. These could be funded by the country and can be free of charge in the
beginning for promotional reasons. Many customers state that a one-time bonus
for purchasing a vehicle, provides an incentive to buy an electro friendly car.
Promoting environmentally friendly cars is not that difficult to do, but what
countries and governments are struggling with the most is to convince buyers/citizens
to purchase such a product.

What are the advantages of using electro mobility?

Gas efficiency

Environmentally friendly vehicles
are often based on either pure electricity or have a dual power source. Both
are efficient. Vehicles based on a pure electric source don’t use any gas and are
therefore more efficient. A vehicle using two motors can either use the electric
motor for partial use or use it when gas consumption is maximum to diminish
consumption. Both examples contribute to a cleaner and better climate.

Wider spectrum of choice

Due to a vast growing market customers
have a wide choice of vehicles. From a pure electric to a hybrid craft. From
batteries that cover long distances to short distances. Companies have made it
possible and will develop this technology in the future.

 

 

Financial potential

Vehicles powered by a battery use
electricity to get recharged. Electricity is cheaper than gas and is therefore
a huge advantage. Electro-mobility friendly vehicles have become cheaper over
the years due to mass production of for example batteries.  Many governments provide financial bonus
payments if electro mobility friendly cars are purchased and either refund
parts of the purchase price or offer tax bonuses even both.

Prospect

Considering that the electro-mobility
market is a relatively new one, there is still a huge potential for future
development. Better batteries, longer distances and efficiency play a key role
for the future development of electric powered crafts.

What are the disadvantages of using electro-mobility?

Recharging stations

Recharging
points are still in development stages. This means they are not distributed
everywhere, which can lead to problems, such as stuck in traffic with a
depleted battery. Most of these recharging points are not developed far enough
and it can take several hours for the batteries to recharge.

 

Driving range and tempo

As mentioned before due to mass
production a lot of batteries are produced and can be implemented in such
vehicles. A big controversy is that these batteries are not developed far
enough and therefore can´t cover huge distances. Due to battery saving their
capability of driving at high speeds is very restricted.

Recharging time

Another issue is the time spent on
recharging such a vehicle. Compared to a couple of seconds spent on refuelling
a car with gas the procedure with electricity takes many hours. Fast charging
stations are still in development and are only available for specific brands.

 

Price

The last issue is excessive costs
which emerge while production due to development methods or special technology which
were created for these specific vehicles. Seeing that batteries may get cheaper
due to mass production,  they still cover
the main costs of these vehicles which makes up a high amount of the costs.

Production rates for environmentally friendly vehicles

Since 2010 production rates have
increased by vast numbers. In 2010 only 50 000 vehicles were sold, that had an
electric motor implemented. In the following years production rates rose and
increased rapidly. In 2016 production rates rose to 14 times as much as in
2010. Which means 2016 more than 700 000 vehicles where produced having an
electric power source implemented.

Major Countries and Organizations Involved

Germany

Germany plays a
key role in not only producing but also promoting electro-mobility friendly
vehicles. Germany is on a clever way in becoming lead supplier in this specific
category. They also have numerous programs based on research and development.
The German Government provides companies with funds, which serve as such to for
example finance promotion. One goal of this is to increase the number of electric
vehicles and to expand the affected sector. But the main goal is to reach
climate protection targets. Electro mobility can play a key role in reaching
this goal. Germany´s main goal is to implement 1 million vehicles by 2020, 5
million by 2030 and exclude fossil fuels from any urban transport way by 2050.

 

The Netherlands

The Netherlands is
a country that has a great future in the sector electro mobility. Their goal is
it to implement 200 000 vehicles into daily traffic by 2020 and 1 million
vehicles by 2025. The Netherlands is also a member of the international
Implementing Agreement for co-operation on Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
Technologies (IA-HEV), which is run by the International Energy Agency. They
also serve as a role model for other countries, to improve their way of
promoting and integrating electro mobility in to their economy and society. The
Government of the Netherlands provides citizens, who are in possession of such
a vehicle with tax benefits.

China

China has big
problems fighting greenhouse gas emissions, mass oil consumption and protecting
the environment. Therefore, it is important for such a big nation like China to
start promoting and integrating electro mobility in everyday life. China
doesn’t only have the biggest vehicle market in the world, but now even has the
fastest growing e-mobility market worldwide. It is important for China to not
only promote electro mobility but effectuate it fast, due to growing climate
concerns. With the help of Germany, it is Chinas goal to  prevent a big climate catastrophe as fast as
possible. Nevertheless only 1,1% of all registered vehicles in China drive
clean.

Norway

Norway is one of
the most developed countries regarding electro-mobility. Norway has created
many plans to prevent CO2 emissions and therefore is eager to reach
these goals in near future. One of these big goals is to reduce 30% of all
climate gases, counting on from 1990. They have also established fundamental
ways in promoting such vehicles. Communication and social media are two very
important aspects, that must be considered in their opinion. In October 2014
more than 35 000 vehicles were counted, which is massive in comparison to the
actual population. Norway even considers a malus system for people, who are
willing to buy cars that are excluded from electro-mobility. They can raise
buying taxes to up to more than 85% on the original buying price, which is why
a lot of the people are willing to buy environmentally friendly vehicles.

 

 

Timeline of Events

Date

Description of event

Started in 2010

Electric Vehicle
Initiative (EVI) started. Their goal is to reach 20 million vehicles that
drive clean by 2020. This initiative is supported by several big nations such
as China, USA and Germany. They have created various methods and ways how to
promote and invest in electro-mobility.
 

 
December 3rd, 2015

 
Paris Declaration on Electro-Mobility and
Climate Change & Call to Action. The initiative was launched at COP21,
which is the Conference of Parties which was held in Paris in 2015. It was
discussed to integrate 20% environmentally friendly vehicles in comparison to
all vehicles by 2030.
 

 

Possible Solutions

As mentioned
before, electro-mobility is the future for not only economy but can be an
essential factor of climate change. Promoting and implementing electro-mobility
in your country is important. First, your country could try encouraging
citizens to buy such vehicles by providing citizens with fund or relief taxes
that make it cheaper to buy these vehicles as they are expensive but also help
save your environment or the world’s climate. Second, giving these citizens
benefits could encourage potential buyers on these products. As a government,
it also makes sense to use social networks or media to make aware of such
vehicles. Advertisement always plays a key role in distributing your country’s
interest to the citizens.  Finally, it is
very logical to invest in the economic sector which electro-mobility is a part
of as this may lead to not only the modernization of your countries economy but
can strengthen the income of the country.

Questions Delegates should consider During Research

How does your
country promote electro-mobility friendly vehicles?

What are the
measures taken in your country to promote these vehicles?

Which issues does
your country face in implementing electro mobility?

Which goals does
your country have for the future? (Correlating to electro-mobility)

Does electro-mobility
play a key role for your economy?

Useful Links and Sources

          
I.       
General
facts on electro-mobility

(17.02.17)

 

         
II.       
Siemens Forecast
on electro-mobility

(17.02.17)

 

        
III.       
Challenges
electro-mobility will/is face/facing

(17.02.17)

 

       
IV.       
Problems of
electro-mobility


(17.04.17)

 

        
V.       
Promoting
electro-mobility and solutions


(17.04.17)

 

       
VI.       
Electro-mobility
in Europe


(17.04.17)

 

 

 

 

           

 

 LB1What about the energy that is used in those cars but comes from
power plants which harm the environment?? Additionally

 LB2Stick to the template! (Format)

Also write is a full sentence, not a
bullet point