Fourth Generation (4G) Cellular Networks
“4G is the short term for fourth-generation wireless, the stage of broadband mobile communications that will supercede the third generation (3G). While neither standards bodies nor carriers have concretely defined or agreed upon what exactly 4G will be, it is expected that end-to-end IP and high-quality streaming video will be among 4G’s distinguishing features.” (What is 4G? – a definition from Whatis.com – see also: 4-G, fourth generation)
The world of today is based on better communication facilities. Communication is a source to interact with persons who are strangers and expand the social circle. Today the human and technological survival without communication is impossible because communication is as essential as food, clothes or survival. Communicating facilities have been improved in past centuries by some new technologies and many useful innovations. Technological advancement has been a great source of popularity for many things, which were raw material and now their image, and their outlook has been totally changed. Something like this has been introduced in the communication world, which is generation four of cellular communications popularly known as Fourth Generation or G4/4G.
4G is the short form of fourth generation of the cellular communication system. However, today or now there is no definition, which can define it briefly, but its features nearly show that it may be the best feature and innovation of the 21st century in the cellular communication world. The 4G will be a feature that will provide best communication throughout the world indoor or outdoors at a high speed of Internet connection with reasonable amounts. It will be a super and mastermind technology after the technologies of wireless Internet systems anywhere in computers or in machines that are used in factories for the production of material. It will be a great technology if once the technology of wireless Internet service providers either outdoors or indoors will be succeeded. This technology will be further appreciated if high security and several other features such as speed and the QoS facility will be introduced in the generation 4 technologies.
QoS stands for quality of standards. This key word or this abbreviation was firstly used in the field of telephonic conversations and telephonic phenomena. Quality of standards, this term clearly shows and clarifies that every technology needs some sorts of high-level standard or quality to further move and complete its objectives. A technology even a small product of market is rejected or accepted or recognized by its quality and the standard on which it has been made. Sometimes the companies, which have big names, too fail to achieve their goals not because they had fewer users in their respective fields but the engineering faculty is not educated so they fail to stand by the company standards and then the respected or esteemed institution gets a bad name for its bad quality internet service providers. It is a thorough matter on Internet, which gets deeper and deeper when we look into it. Internet is a source through which we can communicate with people living on the next side of the globe.
This service is termed as a god gifted because this service has not only made communication easy but people today are doing businesses on the World Wide Web. This technology has been many times attacked by hackers, which mar the computers of many people who got affected by severe viruses. These viruses are available on the Internet and when we operate a website these sorts of viruses enter the computer system causing many severe damages to it.
Computer systems can be attacked by the viruses often and then they are almost a piece belonging to wreckage for about two or three days. In that connections people having businesses cannot wait or they would face a great loss on their work and their customers would be lost. Even website owners too try to not face this situation and as it is said that “prevention is better than cure”, if we still fail to prevent then it is must to find possible alternate ways to switch on to the business networking system known as the Internet. The generation 4 technologies are looking forward to improve the standards of networking through wireless communicating equipments such as a mobile phone. Today we can switch over to the Internet and connect on to the World Wide Web through mobile Internet but sometimes it gets weak and the remaining works remains incomplete.
The Internet problem is a great problem for those people who are online employees and are unable to deliver their respective given assignments or projects on time. That is why technicians are bringing forward the technology of wireless Internet connection on mobile phones through which people can communicate with their friends, their working places and go through their internet experiences.
There are many other technologies through which communication through wireless equipments is easy and these technologies will help in the making of the Fourth Generation technology of the cellular networks. First of all understanding the terminology of these technologies is must. TDMA or Time division multiple access is a technology used in radios and cell phones. Basically, TDMA has many transmitters so that many people could get connected through a number of transmitters because at a time many people are using their cell phones and when they roam here and there talking on the phones, the first problem comes is of the network and that is why this technology has been introduced in which many transmitters of radio and cell phones work together at one time.
Secondly, FDMA or Frequency division multiple access is a technology through which frequency fixed ob a radio or cell phone through which multiple access is distributed amongst he users and frequency division describes that how multiple access is done in this whole procedure.
Lastly, Code division multiple access or CDMA is a technology, which divides the spectrum of radio channels nor through the techniques of TDMA or FDMA but through different code sequences fixed for each user.
There is another technology, which is very useful in the initiation of the fourth generation. The name of this wonderful technology is Internet Protocol Version 6. It is designed for better Internet works protocol for the next generation of the Internet as the technology of Ipv6 also helped in the success of the Ipv4 protocol, which is currently, used version of the Internet Explorer. The acceptance of Ipv6 after the success of Ipv4 is easy because to run business or mobility applications little or no change is required in this technology and that is the reason why this technology will be helpful in the initiation of fourth generation of cellular networks.
Besides all of this, there are many other problems, which need to be tackled, but analysts suggest that the fourth generation would be a great revolution in the communication world.
However, according to business analysts “Wireless companies are in a three-way battle with traditional landline [companies] and cable television. GPS-type services [could be an enterprise driver]. More and more companies require fleet management. They are thinking about things such as RFIDs and GPS-type services.” (The Early Word on 4G | IT Business Edge)
Fourth Generation according to the Wireless World Research Forum (W. W. R. F) is described as a communicating network that functions the internet or web facility with the combination of other technologies such as the Wi-Fi and WiMAX. The speed of this communicating network is high at about 100 Mbit/s in cell phones. One thing more that why people should choose this technology because this is a reliable one and a combination of many latest technologies is available at a very reasonable amount so it is better for the internet working of a cell phone.
Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) is named above and this institution is a global one, which was founded in August 2001. The aims and objectives of this institution are to promote latest technologies among the Internet networking and telephonic conversations.
This forum is trying to create and take future prosperous steps for the betterment of the technological field as well as the easiness for the people who are too busy to take a single sandwich. Many latest and unique technologies have been introduced by this organization, which always helped and will be helping the companies with strategically ideas. The technologies which have been introduced by this organization have been mostly used by companies and now these technologies are also termed as industrial ones because industries cannot strive their objectives without it and all of those technologies helped the respected companies to tackle their most often and simple problems.
Generation 4 is developed to standardize the quality of satellite applications and a quick and easy access to the wireless and broadband access. Some examples are Video Chat, Mobile TV, Mobile Internet and Multimedia Messaging Service or MMS. These services can be found anywhere generation 4 is being developed and functioned too. The main objectives, which have been stated by the working senior groups of generation 4 stnadards, tell that:
“Spectrally Efficient System (in bits/s/Hz and bit/s/Hz/site)
High network capacity
Nominal data rate of 100 Mbps at high speeds and 1 Gbps at stationary conditions as defined by the ITU-R
Data rate of at least 100 Mbps between any two points in the world
Smooth handoff across heterogeneous network
Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks
High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)
Interoperable with the existing wireless standards
All IP system, packet switched network.” (The Power of Thedys’ Blog » Blog Archive » 4G)
To understand what generation 4 is it is a necessary factor to understand that what was the past in completions that made the need of generation 4 or G4.
The first generation was similar to analog systems or it can be purely defined as the analog period because first generation was the period in which voice was considered as the main component and all the innovations and technologies that time were based on voice commands.
All the equipments of this generation were digital ones and they belonged to that of the European standards.
“To meet the growing demands in the number of subscribers (increase in network capacity), rates required for high-speed data transfer and multimedia applications 3G standards started evolving. The systems in this standard are basically a linear enhancement of 2G systems. They are based on two parallel backbone infrastructures, one consisting of circuit switched nodes, and one of packet oriented nodes. Currently, transition is happening from 2G to 3G systems.” (4G: Information from Answers.com)
“The evolution of 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile telecommunications technologies has been researched and written about ad infinitum. More recently, the topic of WiMAX, a particular 4G technology that promises to deliver 70 Mb/s data speeds over a 50 km radius, has been the focus of much attention and hype. Many telecom analysts had come to the conclusion that 4G was just a distraction from making 3G work until the IEEE approved the 802.16e standard for mobile WiMAX in December 2005. Subsequently, the WiMAX Forum announced the first certified fixed WiMAX (802.16d or 802.16-2004) equipment in January 2006.” (Impact of 3G ; 4G Wireless Technology on Carriers)
Although many criticism and negative analysis have been made throughout the period in which this technology was created. But somehow the technicians managed to fulfill the requirements on the respected criteria and they used the criticism of other analysts to made this technology useful so that in future no body could prove this as a disastrous or a wastage one. Generation 4 is still helping people and in the future it will be of a great use.
4G: Information from Answers.com
http://www.answers.com/topic/4g Accessed June 3, 2007
The Early Word on 4G | IT Business Edge
http://www.itbusinessedge.com/item/?ci=23196 Accessed June 5, 2007
The Impact of 3G ; 4G Wireless Technology On Carriers’ Network Development Strategies – Market Research Reports – Research and Markets
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=328269 Accessed June 3, 2007
The Power of Thedys’ Blog » Blog Archive » 4G
http://thedys.com/Blog/?p=9 Accessed June 3, 2007
What is 4G? – a definition from Whatis.com – see also: 4-G, fourth generation
http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid40_gci749934,00.html Accessed June 3, 2007