Functions of Management
The ultimate success of any organization is determined by the effectiveness of its management. This is mainly because of the fact that management involves the creative resolving of problems in an organization (Mowday, 2007). The aim of any organization is to realize a sustainable achievement of its goals as set in its strategic plan. It is due to this reason that management involves not only planning but also controlling and directing the execution of duties aimed at achieving set mission. Still clear from the principles of effective organization is that management should function satisfactorily in organizing and staffing the organization with the right human resource which will ensure the sustainable success of the organization (Mowday, 2007).
This paper gives a definition on the four basic functions of management namely: planning, organizing, controlling and leading employees in the organization. The author also gives explanation of these functions of management as they relate to an organization.
The first function of management is planning. Planning can be defined as the continuous process of developing and reviewing an organizations mission and goals (Sheldon, 2003). Planning also involves the process of deciding how the objectives of the organization will be realized. It is to be stated here that the sole aim of an investor is to make profit from their investment. Still, effective running of an organization is mainly based on the effectiveness of the underlying plans for realizing the objectives of the organization (Sheldon, 2003). This is why planning is deemed as a basic function of management. Therefore, planning involves having both a review of the organization to reflective current market requirements and determining the tactics which will aid in realizing this market demands or organization goals. A manager must set objectives and strategies of executing them. Plans for a production company might include marketing, production and employment plans.
The second function of management is organizing. Organizing as a function of management is defined as the process of establishing the different structures of the organization (Mowday, 2007). These include the establishment of departments in the organization. It also involves ensuring effective coordination as well as control structures for the different tasks. This means that organizing ensures the efficient flow of information and duty execution in the organization. Still to be noted is that this process is evidently marked with distribution of duties and authority to the relevant job holders in the organization (Sheldon, 2003). This means that the organization is set for more effective execution of its objectives as organizing ensures reliable coordination between the different divisions of the organization. It is to be understood that having well organized workplace encourages respect of the supervising manager by the workforce thus ensuring optimized throughput by workers.
The third function of management is leading or directing of others in the organization. Leading means the act of giving powerful influence to workers through effective communication, leadership and sustained motivation (Sheldon, 2003). Such influence of other workers behavior also calls for managers to have knowledge of group dynamics. The purpose of leading is mainly to ensure the sustainable changing of the behavior of workers to reflect the underlying mission, objectives and set accomplishment plans of the organization. It is however to be noted that the aim of an organization should be reflective of the common good of its employees. It is due to this reason that leading has the importance of overseeing the successful accomplishment of the workers career objectives. Therefore, good managers have the initiative of understanding the kind of motivation needed by each employee as a way of ensuring sustainable inspiration of the workforce to meet the objectives of the organization.
The last function of management is controlling. This function involves all acts of ensuring the realization of the organization’s objectives and mission. It is the process of monitoring the success execution of planned activities (Sheldon, 2003). Controlling encompasses four main activities. The first is the formulation of performance standards which are reflective of the company’s objectives. This is followed by the measuring and quantifying the actual performance as it relates to the plans being executed. It is to be realized that actual and projected performance in an organization must be compared to ascertain the sustainability of the set objectives (Mowday, 2007). This is also important in the decision making process of the organization as it quantifies the actual problems thus leading to the effecting of corrective measures. It is only by reviewing objectives and their short term progress that an organization can claim of assured long term success of the objectives. This makes controlling an important function of an effective management system.
In conclusion, it is evidently clear that management is the most crucial element in determining the ultimate success or failure of an investment. It is due to this reason that an effective management should function to realize a reliable planning, organizing, leading and controlling structure in the organization. Clearly established is that plans and their effective execution are the main determinants of how successful the organization will be. Therefore, management oversees the sustainability of the organization’s competitive advantage in the market place.
Mowday, R. (2007). Reflections on the Academic Field of Management: An Interview with Lyman W. Porter. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 12, 34-71.
Sheldon, O., & Thompson, K. (2003). The Philosophy of Management. London: Routledge.