Fundamental where a canonical example is a

Fundamental physics seeks to answer challenging
questions facing human beings regarding their universe.  Past analytical approaches have focused on
precision experiments involving abstract theoretical reasoning and incorporated
current findings on building blocks of nature. 
One of the fundamental principle identified is that universe is formed
by matter that is under the influence of significant forces.  The first three primary effects are
electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force.  These forces are described using the Standard
Model of particle physics that also highlights all known matter particles both
leptons and quarks that combine to form composite particles that we observe.  According to the Standard Model, all matter
types and forces are defined by the fields filling all the space-time.  These relationships are well represented in
equations that define these fields relating to effects of relativity and
quantum mechanics where Standard Model (SM) is part of quantum field theory
(QFT).  The particles exist as quanta of
the fields where a canonical example is a photon (representing quantum of electromagnetic
fields).  Additionally, the fields
contain abstract mathematical symmetries making QFT also referred to as a (none)-Abelian
gauge theory.  These terms are defined in
paragraphs that follow.

After the three forces described above does General
Theory of Relativity (GR) explain the gravity, which is best.  Therefore, time and space are dynamic and not
static upon which the particles and forces operate.  GR equations prove that energy and matter
warp the fabric of spacetime in a pathway that is prescribed where the
curvature is identified by gravitational force. 
The analogy of how the curvature produces an attractive force is as
shown in figure 1 below.  The figure
shows a curved space with observers A and B who are walking towards the North
Pole (N).  A and B start off mutually
parallel, where due to curvature, they tend to move towards each other,
illustrating a form of attractiveness.

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General Theory of Relativity (GR) underpins the
understanding working of the universe at large scales.  Therefore, black holes may exist where the
world could have expanded outwards due to effects of ‘big bang’ in the past
within a finite time.  Additionally, the
General Theory of Relativity (GR) allows supporting the existence of
gravitational waves representing ripples in the fabric of the space-time, which
are analogous to the wave-like solutions in Maxwell’s equation of
electromagnetism.  On a practical level
is the curvature of spacetime that is sited through satellite communications.  GR is, therefore, part of our daily life
using the positioning systems of smartphones.

Despite advancement in studies on SM and GR, there are
many puzzling questions.  For instance,
one could find it difficult to understand how only four fundamental forces
exist and why the matter has particular properties such as charge and mass
concerning each of the forces.  Another
concern is that classical theory of GR breaks down at extreme points in the
spacetime like the center of the big bang or black hole.  In such cases, a curvature of the spacetime
is infinite (not physically sensible).  Therefore,
theorists in physics believe that SM and GR form part of the broader
theoretical framework that includes quantum effects relating to gravitational
force in line with other forces.  The GR
is turned into quantum field theory where gravity is carried by graviton while
the photon carries electromagnetic force in SM. Quantum gravity solves
inability of the GR to describe the black hole physics, dark energy, or big
bang.  One of the main challenges is
investigating quantum gravity where there is sheer complexity in calculations.

To understanding the interaction between SM and GR,
understanding of double copy is critical. 
It relates to the quantities that are calculated in gauge theory, where
similar quantities can be obtained from the gravity theory.  The original form for this correspondence
requires understanding of scattering amplitudes where complex-valued functions
of momenta that relate to the probability of a particular set of particles
interact.  However, the discussion
introduces other than gauge and gravity theories to include standard solutions
such as the black holes.  Additionally,
other similar correspondences occur between different field theory types
whether or not they have supersymmetry.  The
double copy gives the potential for physicists to understand gravity taking
into account that it relates to theories such as SM where the quantum behaviour
is well known with gravity.

One should note that if one thinks of gravity in the
right approach, it could be more straightforward in comparison to other
traditional calculators demonstrated in GR. 
This opens up an understanding of the gauge theory.  In double copy approach, there are scattering
amplitudes between gravity and gauge theories. 
Results of gauge theory are written in a way that they obey intriguing
symmetry between parts relating to their momenta, polarisations, and elements
that relates charges in each of the gluons, which is known as the BCJ duality
usually imply that various degrees of freedom are closely related than
previously thought.  It is important to
study the gauge theories in details as explained in following sections to
define double copy in a better way.