Gagangeet TORA. As per conclusion AODV and

Gagangeet singh aujla, 6-7,11 discusses about comparative analysis of AODV, DSR, GRP, OLSR and TORArouting protocols. In this paper routing protocols are analysed by varyingnumber of nodes with FTP and HTTP applications over MANETs.

In this analysisconsidered for email, video conferencing, traffic applications over MANET.Performance metrics analysed with throughput, packet end-to-end delay, load,data dropped. 7 analysed performance metrics throughput, delay, load and datadropped for the comparison between DSR, AODV, GRP, OLSR, TORA. As perconclusion AODV and OLSR shows low data dropped. AODV shows highest throughputcompare with OLSR and GRP protocol. This simulation analysis mainly comparedfor the video conferencing. Simulation result 6, 18 shows the AODV protocolgives highest throughput when http usage DSR shows least throughput in allscenarios using FTP.

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Harjeet kaur, 8 focus on thesurvey of proactive, reactive and hybrid routing protocol like OLSR, AODV andZRP. In this paper discuss about AODV less connection delay and loop free OLSRand ZRP provides framework to other routing protocols.Hua Yang, 9 discussesabout proposed continuous Hopfield Neural Networks was used to optimize theroute to seek an optimal or nearly-optimal route, it improves the usability andsurvivability of MANET.

Jaya Jacob, 10 evaluates theperformance of various ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV, TORA, DSDV, DSRand AOMDV. Routing protocols are analysed in terms of energy efficiency. Energyor power consumption is governed by the number of processes and overheadsrequired to maintain connectivity. Simulation parameters are considered forthese analyses are packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay,throughput, number of packets dropped.

Results are obtained as AOMDV providingbetter performance compared to AODV, TORA, DSR and DSDV protocols.Mehran Abolhasan, 13, 15-16have shown comparison analysis, summary of different routing protocols underproactive, reactive and hybrid routing.Rajasekar, S., 17 discussedabout review on the routing protocols for mobile adhoc network issues, applications,challenges.

The objective of this research work is the comparative analysis ofmany routing protocols for MANET in diverse manner. Rajinder Singh, 19 implementedan effective algorithmic approach to optimize the packet loss in the networksimulator ns2. Expected broadcast count algorithm was proposed algorithm forhighest throughput between the each node. Reeta Bourasi, 21 discussedabout reduce the packet dropping nodes by using reliability approach. Rishi P J22 focused node mobility for mobile ad-hoc network protocols.

Satheeshkumar.S, 24 discusses about various attacks 23 in the datatransmission in MANET.

Poposed ACO based approach determines routingperformance at various levels. T.Senthil kumaran, 25 focuses earlycongestion detection for path discovery. Efficient route discovery processmainly analysed with important performance metrics for evaluation packetdiscovery ratio, end-to-end delay, routing overhead compared with EDAODV,EDAPR, EDCSCAODV routing. Shivashankar, et.

al 28 evaluates three different adhoc network routing protocols i.e. EPAR, MTPR, and DSR in different networkmeasures with power consumption. proposed method deals with the problem ofmaximizes MANET network lifetime.Study of performance comparisonanalysis for AODV, DSDV, OLSR and TORA are routing protocols using NS2simulation with several parameters like delay, packet loss, load and throughput,20, 22, 26-27. Comparative study analyses of routing protocols for broadcastin mobile ad hoc networks are discussed 29-31.Yih-chun hu, 32 focuses aboutthe secure and efficient routing in mobile wireless ad hoc network.

Simulationresults are analysed for secure routing through four metrics i.e. packetdelivery ratio, byte overhead, packet overhead, median latency.Yun-sheng yen, et.

al 33 shows theanalysis of AODV, SHORT (Self-healing and optimizing routing techniques formobile ad hoc networks) and RAPLF (Routing with adaptive path and limitedflooding) with detailed route discovery process.AODV is a reactive routing protocolwhich does not maintain a route until it required or requested by other nodes.AODV associate with other distance vector protocols by using sequence ID numberon route update. AODV will respond quickly to the changes in the topologicalnetwork and update only that particular host may be affected by the changeusing the Route request packet (RQP) message. Mainly two messages areconvoluted for the route discovery.

Route request packet (RQP) is used toinitialize the route for finding easiest path between source and destination.Route response packet (RPP) message is used to response from the destinationnode. AODV make certain routes through sequence numbers for easy credentials ofthe desired route 12-14. Fig.1. shows determining a route in the MANET areathrough AODV routing protocol.When a source node initialized a routeto destination for which already it does not have a route to the source.

Nowsource can broadcast a route request packet or message across the network.Every node is receiving this message or packet update their details for thesource node in the route information tables. In additionally to the source nodeaddress, current sequence number, route request and broadcast identifier. Anode getting this route request message may send a response to thecorresponding node. If it is may either the destination node or if it may be a routeto the destination node. If this node is the end in the MANET region thenresponse message back to the source node.

Otherwise it re-broadcast the routerequest message till the destination node identify. Nodes can keep track theroute request messages and broadcast their node broadcast id. Once source nodereceives route response message then it can prepare for send the data packetsto the destination node.

5. Restricted Predictive Flooding basedAd hoc On Demand Vector (RPFAODV)Initially source node initialized a route todestination for which already it does not have a path to the source. Sourcenode send Route request packet (RQP) to neighbour’s node through restrictedflooding technique. Fig.2 shows RQP message initialize from source node todestination node and RPP message reply from destination to source. Routerequest packet is used to initialize the route for finding easiest route basedon the energy level at each node between source and destination node. RQPfields are shown in Table 1.