Gender Disparities in Anxiety Disorders
Specifications: 2 Pages, 6 Sources, APA Style
Description: Preferred language style: English (U.S.)
Please pick a topic from the attached paper and expand on it further then the writer did in APA format at PH.D. Level only writing.
You can pick any topic covered in the paper of interest, but it must be Ph.D. level writing and the references must be from current (past 5 years) peer reviewed psychology journals/books only. Thanking the writer in advance.
In this paper, I would be speaking about “Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Women’s Issues”
OCD is an anxiety disorder in which obsessions and/or compulsions develop, resulting in serious distress and difficulty in performing normal functioning at the home, school, workplace, and in social settings. The condition occurs slightly more often in women compared to men (Eisen & Rasmussen, 2002). However, in childhood, the disorder is more frequently seen in boys compared to girls (O’Sullivan & Jenike, 2001).
OCD is usually treated by medications and/or behavioral therapy. Some of the medications that may be required to treat OCD include SSRI’s, and other antidepressants. Behavioral therapy seems to be effective in treating the condition (O’Sullivan & Jenike, 2001).
The chances of OCD occurring in women after the delivery are high. This condition is known as ‘postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (PPOCD)’. A Study was conducted top determine the causative factors associated with the development of PPOCD and to compare it to the regular OCD. The Study was conducted in a Turkish Maternal Nursing Home in August 2005 to November 2005, and about 300 women were involved in the study as cases. On the other hand, 33 women who were suffering from OCD were brought in as controls. The cases were interviewed on the first day after childbirth and 6 weeks later. Several psychiatric diagnostic tools such as Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were utilized to determine the symptoms and diagnose OCD. It was found that about 4 % of the women suffered from OCD during the postnatal period. Some of the most common symptoms of PPOCD included contamination, aggressive, aggressive obsessions, etc. Hence, it can be seen that the postpartum period can be a risk for women to develop OCD (Uguz, Akman, Kaya, et al, 2007).
During pregnancy, the condition may also occur, and in such as situation it would be better to avoid administering any medication as it may be harmful to the developing baby in the womb. Instead, psychotherapy could be utilized to treat the condition (O’Sullivan & Jenike, 2001).
In a study conducted in women suffering from Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, about 27 % had and anxiety disorder which includes OCD. Hence, it has been suggested that all women suffering from PMDD, be mentally evaluated for any symptom of OCD (Alpay & Turhan, 2001).
Another study was conducted to determine the involvement of the sexual function between women affected with OCD and those affected with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Several psychiatric diagnostic tools such as Maudlsey Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, were utilized in the study to obtain data regarding the mental status and sexual status. It was found that women suffering from OCD were sexually not so sensitive compared to women with GAD. Besides, women suffering from OCD avoided sex more often. Hence, in women suffering from certain sexual disorders, OCD should be excluded (Aksaray; Yelken; Kaptano?lu; et al, 2001).
Another study was conducted to determine the gender variations and the symptom dimensions of OCD. Several diagnostic tools such as Yale Brown OC scale and the Hamilton Depression and anxiety scale were given to all 186 patients who were a part of this study. The age of onset of the OCD symptoms was determined by directly asking the patient. The study found that between the genders there was a variation in the two symptoms dimensions of OCD, namely the contamination/cleaning dimension and the sexual/religious dimension. Cleaning was higher in women compared to men and the sexual/religious dimension was lower in females compared to males. Thus it can be said that the symptom expression of OCD may vary from a contamination/cleaning dimension to a sexual/religious dimension (Labad, Menchon, Alonso Et al, 2007).
Aksaray, G., Yelken, B., Kaptano?lu, C. et al (2001), Sexuality in women with obsessive compulsive disorder, J Sex Marital Ther, 27(3), 273-277. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=11354932&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
Alpay, F.B. & Turhan, N.O. (2001), Intermittent versus continuous sertraline therapy in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorders, International Journal of Fertility & Womens Medicine, 46(4), pp. 228-231.
Eisen, J. L. & Rasmussen, S. A. (2002). Phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive
disorder. In D. J. Stein & E. Hollander (Eds.), Textbook of anxiety disorders
(pp. 173-189). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Labad, J., Menchon, J.M., Alonso, P. et al (2007), Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions, Depress Anxiety, April. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17436312&ordinalpos=10&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
O’Sullivan, R.L. & Jenike, M.A. (2001), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (Online). In. Jacobson, J.L. & Jacobson, A.M. (Eds). Jacobson: Psychiatric Secrets. Philadelphia: Henley & Belfus.
Uguz, F., Akman, C., Kaya, N. et al (2001), Postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: incidence, clinical features, and related factors, J Clin Psychiatry, 68(1), 120-121.