Gibbons V Ogden Essay

R. J smith Gibbons v Ogden This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal’s decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states’ rights. John C. Calhoun John C. Calhoun was part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks.

Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers. 2nd Bank of the United States It was a federal establishment operated by the gov’t as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay’s American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819. Nicholas Biddle icknamed “Czar Nicholas I,” he was president of the Bank of the United States. He was known for his massive loans as bribes (“Emperor Nick of the Bribery Bank”). Jackson wanted to weaken the Bank and Biddle, so he gradually stopped making deposits, instead stowing his money in his “pet banks. ” Jackson destroyed the Bank in 1832. Whig Party The Whig party was a party that formed for those who opposed Jackson’s views. It was created in the 1830s and the 1840s. When Jackson was elected, Clay and Calhoun formed a party for those who opposed Democratic views.

The first Whig to become president was Harrison in the 1840 election. Whigs thought that Jackson’s views were selfish. Democratic-Republicans Once shortened to “Republicans”, when Andrew Jackson came into power he renamed the party “Democrats”. The Jacksonian Democrats were very democratic and were opposed to the Whigs. Jackson was a real common man and believed in the common man. Opposed to very strong national bank. When he was president the Whigs called him “King Jackson”. This party is the present day Democratic party. Tariff of 1832 ariff passed in 1832; passed to meet Southern demands about previous tariffs; failed because it didn’t meet demands but it did do away with the worst of the abominations of 1828 and lowered tariff of 1824 by ten percent; caused Nullification Crisis; was amended by the Compromise Tariff of 1833 Panic of 1837 Nations first economic depression. Banks loaned too much money out for Western expansion and they began to fail one by one. Hardship was acute and widespread and hundreds of banks collapsed. Martin Van Buren (who was president at the time) tried to “divorce” the government from banking altogether.

This idea was not highly supported but the Independent Treasury Bill passed congress in 1840. Although the Whigs repealed it the next year, the scheme was reenacted by the democrats in 1846. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a law passed by the United States Congress and signed by President Andrew Jackson to facilitate the removal of American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River in the United States to lands further west. The law was enacted on May 26, 1830, and was reflective of a long-standing U. S. government approach to dealing with Native American tribes by moving them; see Indian Removal.

The Cherokee nation, located in the state of Georgia, sought to remain on its territory and be viewed legally as an independent, sovereign nation. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), the tribe fought the state of Georgia’s attempts to assert jurisdiction over Cherokee lands. The Cherokees appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, arguing that they were protected by treaties negotiated with the U. S. government. Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the majority, ruled that the Court had no jurisdiction to hear the Cherokees’ lawsuit.

Marshall defined the Cherokees as a “domestic, dependent nation,” rather than a sovereign nation. Therefore, under Article III of the Constitution, the Court had no basis for entertaining the lawsuit. Hudson River School the first coherent school of American art; active from 1825 to 1870; painted wilderness landscapes of the Hudson River valley and surrounding New England Martin Van Buren From New York Martin Van Buren was Jackson’s own choice as his successor. Van Buren became our eighth president in 1836. He was doomed from the start, though, as the people thought he was only “mediocre” and the democrats hated him.

He was also left to deal with some very difficult situations, such as a developing depression. Van Buren tried to do his best through such things as the controversial “Divorce Bill,” but Martin Van Buren’s efforts were futile, as he is not our most memorable president. The United States presidential election of 1840 saw President Martin Van Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression and a Whig Party unified for the first time behind war hero William Henry Harrison and his “log cabin campaign”. Rallying under the slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler, too,” the Whigs easily defeated Van Buren.