Global and enabling customisationyet mass production. This could

Global automotive industry has been experiencing radical transformation since electronic,computer and subsequently information technology industry have made their way in the conventionalautomotive industry. With integrated sensors, computers and hardware techniques,cars have become safer, cleaner yet faster and user-friendly. However, these highly advancedcars require highly precise and quality components. Thus, importance of quality in manufacturinghas become highly important for automotive OEMs and their suppliers.The first industrial revolution of steam engine ignited the spark of mechanising work andusing steam / water power for driving these mechanisms. The second industrial revolution ledto the efficient and mass production systems, facilitating the customers and enabling customisationyet mass production. This could be considered as the foundation of modern automotiveindustry. Further with the development of electronic and IT industry, an automotive transformedfrom a mere transporter to a high-tech demi-residence. Thanks to these technologies, passivesafety, infotainment and communications have been introduced in cars. In fact, these technologieshave made cars even greener and eco-friendly, reducing their carbon footprint.Subsequent to the advancements in the electronics and semiconductor industry, manufacturingof these products gained considerable importance. Microelectronic parts, microprocessors,integrated circuits demanded a high degree of precision and care in the manufacturing. On amacro scale of manufacturing, width in centimetres, purity and cleanliness was not an issue.However, since the inception of semiconductor era, widths on the scale of microns, technicalcleanliness has gained significance in the manufacturing.Semiconductor manufacturing is an extremely complex process, requiring highly automatedand precise machinery, extremely clean and energy efficient production facilities, trained personneland a complex supply chain. Electronic manufacturing industry requires not only specificenvironment conditions while production but also requires highly specific logistics andtransportation systems. This underlines the significance of the supplier manufacturing conditionsfor OEMs.A recent example of how a quality issue of a supplier can cost fortune to a big companyis highlighted the following incidence. One of the biggest players in cell phone manufacturing11 Introductionindustry, Samsung, had to face a big controversy resulting after the recently launched phone,Galaxy Note 7, being reported of battery issues 1 . This defect in the battery was potentially sohazardous that US FAA (United States Federal Aviation Agency) and European Aviation SafetyAgency put on restrictions and limitation on passengers’ usage on prescribed cell phone duringthe flight. After investigations, Samsung’s officials stated that due to a manufacturing defect inthe battery which is produced by a supplier, caused this chaos 2. As a preventive measure forthe future models, Samsung has now turned towards a new Chinese Battery supplier called,ATL (Amperex Technology Limited) 3. Despite of this supplier change, the fact remains thatSamsung lost a big share of customers due to this mishap, moreover Samsung’s reputationgot irreversibly damaged. This underscores the importance of quality in manufacturing, whichalways needs to be monitored and shall be controlled.1.1 MotivationCleanroom technology is a part of manufacturing technology applied in pharmaceutical,medicine, aerospace equipment manufacturing, consumable / FMCG industry as well as Semiconductorindustry. Particle contamination in electronic parts is a common problem, whichcauses functional problems, either at customer’s assembly line or in the field. The parts whichfail at Customer’s end, without going further to the end-consumer, are called 0 km failures. Theparts which gets assembled to a vehicle and reaches to the customer and then fails is referredas Field failure.As mentioned earlier, particle contamination has been causing a substantial resource lossesfor manufacturers and have resulted in productivity losses. From the supplier perspective,this means increased amount of returned goods, increased costs on analysis and documentation,increased costs for sub-supplier management and son on. Despite of being a severeproblem, Contamination has been just a random incidence and a ‘single event failure with noseries appearances’. On the contrary, particle contamination can be avoided with a systematicapproaches, standardization and corrective and preventive measures.ISO 14644 and ISO 16232 series of standards provide a baseline for organizations for developingtheir own standards and implement cleanroom technology in the production facilities.VDA 19 and VDI 2083 can be also considered for establishing specific system in semiconductorproduction. Handling raw material and silicon wafer manufacturing requires a high degreeof cleanroom class. Be it not as stringent as the wafer manufacturers, wire bonding and lotsoldering processes do need a certain cleanroom class. However all the electronic product21 Introductionmanufacturers follow requirements coming from customers (OEMs). It has to be noted thatgeneral SMD processes may not require any specific degree of cleanliness, it has to be decidedby the customer and the supplier mutually for the required cleanliness degree.Continental at location Regensburg produces a wide range of products which mainly includespressure, emission and transmission control and other safety sensors. The processes for themanufacturing of sensors include die bonding, wire bonding, substrate separation, coating andmany such processes which need to be extremely precise and clean the product to be functionalfor the entire product life cycle. However recently, Continental has experienced problemswith contamination in the semiconductor manufacturing processes and has been receivingfield/0 km complaints from the customers due to electronic malfunction of the sensors. Themotivation behind this research is to understand the degree and necessity of measurement ofparticle in the environment and to assess the risk associated with it. This study may result ina systematic research in the particle and technical cleanliness area and could be helpful for abuilding a sustainable system, with the help of standards.1.2 ScopeThe concept of cleanroom is applicable in diverse products and sectors. The internationalstandards and regulations are also applicable for these sectors, however the details aboutCleanrooms change drastically as the manufacturing product changes. This section explains,what are the boundaries of this study and which products, processes and conditions are consideredin this master’s thesis.The starting point of this study was to analyse the international standards for cleanlinessand cleanroom. Even though there are plenty of standards available for cleanrooms focusingon hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and other medicinal products however, only internationalstandards concerning electronic manufacturing are considered in this study. Continental’s centralquality has already addressed this issue and developed own standards for cleanrooms andtechnical cleanliness. However, speaking at the Continental’s central level still leaves score formaking specific standards.This study mainly focuses on the practices and standards in electronic manufacturing area.Analysis of manufacturing processes in semiconductor manufacturing and influence of particlecontamination in this industry. As a basis of study, processes at Continental Automotive GmbHat Regensburg are taken as a reference and analysed. All the international standards like ISO,VDA and guidelines like VDI are considered only for electronic manufacturing processes.31 Introduction1.3 Document StructureThe first chapter of this thesis provides a general overview about Cleanroom technology,functions and necessity of cleanrooms. Moreover, general introductory information about ContinentalAutomotive GmbH, like products, processes and organizational structure could befound in the first chapter.The second chapter gives insights about what other experts have to say about this topic ofcleanroom quality management for electronic components and processes. A literature reviewof many renowned books, articles and research papers can be found in this section. At the endof this section, a general conclusive remark is also mentioned in order to identify what couldbe extracted from which literature for electronic manufacturing industry.Chapter 3 provides a concrete and deep analysis about the current standards and requirementsfor cleanroom management. ISO are the international range of standards and VDA arethe german counterparts of the ISO standards which are considered. Apart from these standards,there are VDI guidelines, which are widely referred in industries. Moreover, there aresome outdated yet important standards which are analysed in this section.The fourth chapter emphasizes on Best practices followed across the industries to measurecleanliness and clean technologies. This chapter provides information about technologicalforerunners like NASA, Pharmaceutical sector where paramount cleanliness required and otherexamples.Chapter 5 illustrates method and procedure to asses the risk of particle contamination onelectronic products and processes. An insight in the electronic manufacturing process flow,process FMEA with particle perspective and information about ‘No Trouble Found’ parts canbe found here.Establishing Quality management systems in the Cleanrooms is important in order to ensuresustainable Quality and smooth operations. So, an overview about how to establish suchsystem and a brief general overview about project planing can be found in Chapter 6.The last chapter provides a conclusive remark about how cleanroom operations should becarried out, which factors are important to monitor in the cleanrooms and what could be thefuture developments with cleanrooms.1.4 Cleanroom TechnologyCleanroom is a tailor-made facility for manufacturing of specific products like semiconductors,medicines, aerospace products and consumables. Unlike the name suggests, Clean-41 Introductionrooms are not clean from pollutants, rather according to the class of cleanroom, certain amountsand sizes of particles are allowed in the air. Further, some of these regulations apply to productsand processes as well.According to VDI, Cleanroom and clean area is defined as: “A cleanroom or clean area is aspace where a specified limit for the concentration of airborne and other contaminants will bemonitored and maintained. The clean area may be open or enclosed and could be within oroutside of a clean room” 4The first recognition of importance of cleanliness must be credited to the scientists Semmelweisand Lister. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was an Austrian-Hungarian gynaecologist andJoseph Baron Lister was a Scottish surgeon who first recognized the significance of Cleanlinessin the operating rooms in the late 19th Century. The implementation of hygiene measuresand medicinal cleanliness increased mortality rates in the patients 5. These activities thenresulted into further research on invisible contamination sources and harmful particles. Initiallymeant to be used for medical purposes, the applications of cleanrooms later diversified intoproduction of Medicinal products and aerospace industry. Further Cleanrooms were installedfor the mass production of semiconductor products. However, there are different parametersto be controlled as per the product to be manufactured like the airflow, humidity, temperature,velocity of the airflow, particles of a specific material etc. Today, Cleanrooms are widelyused in the area such as textile, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, consumables and aerospacemanufacturing products.1.4.1 Purpose and Tasks of CleanroomCleanroom technology is considered to be a comprehensive term for technical and operationalmeasures for minimizing and controlling the contamination and unwanted particles andmaterials. Rather Cleanroom technology also includes interdisciplinary fields like material analysis,Process machinery, layout, environmental conditions, material flow and internal logisticsetc.The important task of cleanroom is to ensure good quality of product for the end customer. Inthe case of many products, particle contamination can result into direct dysfunctionality of theproduct resulting into customer dissatisfaction. The second task of cleanroom is to protect thepersonnel who are working in the area. In the case of extreme working conditions, with handlingof toxic gaseous or materials, glass manufacturing where operating temperature is wayhigher than normal, cleanroom plays a very important role of achieving required product quality,preventing contamination simultaneously preventing personnel from extreme environmental