Globalization, which is fundamental element of this work, is a powerful and real aspect of the new world system that represents one of the most influential forces in determining the future course of the planet. It has many dimensions such as economic, political, social, cultural, environmental, security, and others. This peace of paper is firstly focused on describing concept of globalization, its origin, four types of changes, and several examples of globalization.
Secondly is mentioned why and since which time globalization is considered more negatively as positively. Then writing shortly illustrates some example of positive as well as negative impact of globalization. Finally are briefly described some chosen examples of negative form of globalization such as terrorism, spreading diseases, creating bigger gap between some parts of the world, expansion of crime.
However globalization is phenomena often used in nowadays society, there are no unified opinions weather is good or not.This is the purpose of the assignment. To pointed out also some negative impact of globalization. To be people aware even they have lot of opportunities to travel it still has some negative consequences in form spreading diseases, crime ad so forth. Globalization The globalization lacks precise definition, however, the term globalization covers a wide range of distinct political, economic, and cultural trends.It has quickly become one of the most fashionable buzzwords of contemporary political and academic debate.
Globalization is often used as synonym for phenomena such as free market, economical liberalization and growing dominance of western also known as Americanization. In other words the sharing of goods and culture from country to country is called Globalization. According to Appadurai (2001) there are five types of globalization: * Ethnoscapes – movements of people, tourists, immigrants, refugees, and usiness travelers * Financescapes – global flows of money, interconnected currency markets, stock exchanges, and commodity markets * Ideoscapes – the global spread of ideas, political ideologies, and social movements * Mediascapes – the global distribution of media images, celebrities, what’s hot and who’s who * Technoscapes – the movement of technologies around the globe The driving idea behind the globalization is free market capitalism – the more country lets market forces rule and the more it opens economy to free trade and competition, the more efficient country’s economy will be.Globalization means the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world. Many people use to thing that globalization has become commonplace only in the last two decades.
Over the 20 years, for instance, more and more of United State’s goods and culture have made its way around the globe as well many goods from countries such as China, Brazil, Chile have made their way to United States. But already Friedman recalled that globalization is not a new phenomenon. From the mid 1800s to the late 1920s the world experienced a similar era of globalization.If we compare the volumes of trade and capital flows across borders, relative to GNPs, and the flows of labour across borders, relative to populations, the period of globalization preceding World War I was quite similar to the one we are living through today (Friedman, 2000). Globalization is characterized by four types of changes. First, it involves a stretching of social, political, and economic activities across frontiers, regions and continents. Second, it is marked by the intensification of flows of trade, investment, finance, migration, and culture.
Third, it can be linked to a speeding up of global interactions and processes, as the development of worldwide systems of transport and communication of ideas, goods, information, capital, and people. And, fourth, the growing impact of extensity, intensity, and velocity of global interactions. The effects of distant events can be highly significant elsewhere and specific local developments can come to have considerable global consequences. In this sense, the boundaries between domestic matters and global affairs become increasingly fluid.However globalization is there for many years, the current globalization proceeded by several stages of evolution. First stage enabled to get advantages in transport, communication and reduced trade barriers. Lately were created much integration such as NAFTA, GATT, OECD, and so on. But the last stage that created worldwide almost one global village is ultimately the fundamental for criticism of globalization and the main reason of negative impacts.
Factors that empower globalization include television, the Internet, and ease of communication goods across the oceans.More and more televisions channels and Internet sites are translated in many different languages. Companies that were originally based in one country have spread to different countries, and people in several countries have begun to purchase and try things that they are not used to.
For example McDonald’s are serving in 100 different countries and Wal-Marts are available in nine different countries and so forth. But globalization is more than the transfer of goods and television shows, it is also the fact that globalization helps people understand that they can reach beyond what is offered in their own country.Globalization helps us to realize we are very similar human beings who want and need similar goods and services. Globalization breaks barriers that may make some people believe that one country is better than another. It helps us to be interconnected to each other. Impact and possible downfall of globalization Many economists and experts proclaim that globalization is already death and perceive the current crisis merely as its necessary funeral.
But look to history we can see that globalization has lived through many crises such as the Industrial Revolution or the Great Depression.The only differences today lie in the scale of the crisis, the speed of change and its global visibility. The past crises affected much smaller sections of the planet. The speed of the reversal is very well illustrated by global trade which volumes are expected to fall by 2.
8 % since the crises erupted last September. It will be the first time in a quarter century that global trade will decline. This dramatic collapse of global trade across the board can be described, for instance, by the drying up of credit for exporters, rising nemployment, and increasing consumer demand. Therefore some people believe that globalization has a positive impact because it increases trade, enlarges corporations, enables more goods and services to be purchased, and creates more international jobs.
But still more and more people believe that globalization has negative impact because it exploits the developing world, denigrates the world’s environment and transfers jobs of developed and well-prosperous countries to other countries.These facts lead to wide disagreements as to whether the impacts of globalization are beneficial or harmful. Factors of globalization Most experts believe that the process of globalization has bettered the world that we are living in. The establishment of some international institutions, such as the United Nations (UN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Trade Organization (WTO) is evidence of the good things that globalization can bring. And of course do not forget on European Union (EU) that connects almost every country within Europe.
Those institutions have been trying their best to have countries, to resolve disputes in every corner of the world. The IMF, for instance, provides loans to countries that have accumulated foreign debt so that they can maintain the value of their currencies and repay. The defenders of globalization list as favourable effects: • Improving communication • Decreasing time needed for transport of goods and people • Increasing world trade • The generation of new wealth and economic growth Increase in capital availability for investment purposes • Technology transfer to economics lacking capacities • The creation of linkage, alliance, collaboration of weak groups on behalf of human rights, peace, gender, justice and so on • Globalization can easily become a useful scapegoat in failures of national policy, such as causing high unemployment and undermining social welfare across countries with different levels of development • Globalization putting a premium on overseas studiesBut as was mentioned before still more and more are pointed out negative influences of globalization. Among negative effects critics list: • The creation of economic inequalities by concentrating gains in wealth creation in global trade and investment sector • Generating unemployment by “crowding out” local capacities of investment, production, and consumption. • Job insecurity.
Earlier people had stable, permanent jobs. Now people live in constant dread of losing their jobs to competition. Increased job competition has led to reduction in wages and consequently lower standards of living. Sovereign countries lost control of their economies and that such control is shifted to more powerful countries, multinational firms, and international financial institutions • Enemy nations can spread propaganda through the Internet• Terrorists have access to sophisticated weapons enhancing their ability to inflict damage. Terrorists use the Internet for communicating among themselves.
• Anti-American sentiments are rising around the world. Anti-Americanism will persist because some people see America as a cultural threat. Deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS are being spread by travellers to the remotest corners of the globe. • Increasing threats to human health by promoting unregulated trade in genetically altered foods • Globalization and industrialization are causing diseases to spread from humans to animals. • The benefits of globalization are not universal. The rich are getting richer and the poor are becoming poorer. • Closing down the borders.
Terrorism Terrorism, and the issues which it involves, are lately the biggest problem for the whole world. US has become one of the world leaders and set up the rules almost in every area of life.Not every nation liked it and therefore tension that has existed created anti-Americanization. It is usually accompanied by terrorism. The worst impact of terrorism is the terrorist attacked from September of 11th, 2001. The terrorist group called Al-Qaeda and an unknown number of groups that would like to destroy the United States and their allies, attacked more than 80 countries at one time. They did this by hijacking airliners filled with fuel and used them as bombs to destroy the World Trade Centre in New York City, the Pentagon in Washington, D.
C. and at least one more target in the United States that is unidentified because one plane did not strike its target. Citizens from many nations were at work on the day of the attacks. These events resulted in a “war on terrorism”. As President Bush said in an address to Congress on September 20, 2001, “Our war on terror begins with al-Qaida, but it does not end there.
It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and defeated. ” The lack of information and deeper misunderstanding of facts may lead someone to think that the war on terrorism is a war on Islam.That is why many Americans and Europeans think of Muslims as strange, frightening and inevitably linked to headlines of terrorism events. However Muslims have had to deal with religious extremism and terrorism from early days, Islam and Islamic law have condemned terrorism. Therefore is not true at all that war against terrorism is the war against Islam. Worldwide diseases The bad impacts of globalization are broadly criticized in the media. Globalization has made it possible for infectious diseases to spread rapidly around the globe.
In 2003, for example, a deadly form of pneumonia known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) originated in China and quickly posed a worldwide health threat as airline passengers infected with the virus spread the illness. The worst illness HIV is also the result of globalization. It was firstly announced by USA researchers in 1981 also known as AIDS. During the more than 25 years it has spread to almost every corner in the world and 25 million of people died due to AIDS till 2006. The world suffers really by many horrible diseases in last decades.However they brake up at on continent, they spread very quickly at others. It sometimes does not last more than few weeks or months and huge amount of world population is influenced.
Mention few as BSE, Bird flu and Swine flu that are well-known and caused by factory farming and poor animal welfare. The Swine-flu pandemic is originated from a pig farm near La Gloria, Mexico, 155 miles east of Mexico City. Swine flu, is also called influenza A (H1N1), is thought to have started with a pig contracting a mixture of bird and human flu, which then spread to a human.Early signs in humans include fever, headaches and diarrhoea. It started early this year in Mexico but spread quickly to USA and Europe. At the end of 2009 the most suffered country is our eastern neighbour Ukraine. Other interesting fact in this debate is the newest research.
Researchers from The Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh have shown that a strain of bacteria has jumped from humans to chickens. It is believed to be the first clear evidence of bacterial pathogens crossing over from humans to animals and then spreading since animals were first domesticated some 10,000 years ago.The study identified a form of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus – of which MRSA is a subtype. Deepening of inequalities Globalization has had negative implications for small and disadvantaged groups of people. It can be shown on example of Indian women. Their plights are similar to those of women in other developing regions such as Africa and Asia. Globalization has made many international corporations richer by the billions.
However, what most people are not aware of is that women in these developing countries are suffering enormously due to this expansion of corporate empires.According to estimates from World Development Indicators, “Women work two-thirds of the world’s working hours, produce half of the world’s food, but earn only ten percent of the world’s income, and own less than one percent of the world’s property (Tomlinson)”. Expansion of crime As the boundaries between the countries are closing down, the businesses known as organized crime are still profiting more and more. As borders come down within and beyond Europe, it is not only legitimate businesses that are benefiting, but also those that produce illegal drugs, traffic in humans, manufacture fake luxury goods, and counterfeit euros.
While the white economy remains in crisis, liberalization, low-cost airlines, and China’s low-wage economy are all helping Europe’s gangsters to thrive. Such groups are taking advantage of the same process of liberalization that has profited many EU businesses. A noteworthy development is the use of the Balkan Route through the Black Sea to Romania and the Mediterranean Sea to ports in Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro. Trade liberalization in the Balkan region, its geographical position in relation to Europe, and the presence of pre-established transnational organized crime networks are strong facilitators in this development.Globalization makes it possible for criminals to recruit internationally and to obtain more financial support as well as expand their logistical operations. Illicit markets of drugs, money, commodities, and people provide excellent cover for criminals. The annual trade in illicit drugs was calculated at $ 400 billions in 1999.
It represents roughly the size of the Spanish economy and about 8% of world trade. Conclusion To summarize achieved knowledge about globalization I would say that like in each sphere exists pros and cons, the globalization is not exception.However many people think that it is phenomenon of latest years, it is there for many hundreds of year. Especially at the beginning it was perceived as advantage for people, economy, technology and culture. But wider the globalization is, the more people realize that it has some disadvantages. Few mentioned negative impacts of globalization are for instance terrorism, worldwide diseases, inequality, and world crime.
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