“What is Human Nature?… Aristotelian understanding of being human is presented as the philosophical core of King’s conceptual system. King’s theory then turns to what Aristotle teaches about the composition of the world and what it means to be a human being. Wallace’s life-powers model of the soul brings these insights into contemporary thought. Aristotelian philosophy completes King’s account of the personal system by providing insight into what it is to be human. ” In the mid 1960s, Imogene King formulated a conceptual nursing model with the thought that man are like open systems that interact with his environment (King, 1981).
She started to formulate this model, together with the Theory of Goal Attainment, during the period when nurses were trying to be scientists and professional practitioners. King intentionally designed a conceptual nursing framework as a forerunner to a theory that explains the rationale for the actions of nurses (Fawcett, 2001). The need to choose fundamental content of a new masteral nursing degree program prompted King to formulate her conceptual model (King, 1988). Instructional theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth.
Originating in the United States in the late 1970s, instructional theory is typically divided into two categories: the cognitive and behaviorist schools of thought. Instructional theory was spawned off the 1956 work of Benjamin Bloom, a University of Chicago professor, and the results of his Taxonomy of Education Objectives — one of the first modern codifications of the learning process. One of the first instructional theorists was Robert M. Gagne, who in 1965 published Conditions of Learning for the Florida State University’s Department of Educational Research.
Renowned psychologist B. F. Skinner’s theories of behavior were highly influential on instructional theorists because their hypotheses can be tested fairly easily with the scientific process. It is more difficult to demonstrate cognitive learning results. Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed had a broad influence over a generation of American educators with his critique of various “banking” models of education and analysis of the teacher-student relationship. http://www. dsa-atlanta. org/pdf_docs/Macedo_intro_POTO. df On the first page of Chapter 2 of Pedagogy of the Oppressed Freire explains: “Narration (with the teacher as narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” into “receptacles” to be “filled” by the teacher. The more completely she fills the receptacles, the better a teacher she is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are. ” http://www. dsa-atlanta. org/pdf_docs/Macedo_intro_POTO. pdf In this way he expains that in this since the educator creates an act of depositing knowledge in a student.
The student thus becomes a repository of knowledge. Freire explains that this system that lacks creativity and knowledge suffers. Knowledge according to Freire comes about only through the learner by inquiry and pursuing the subjects in the world and through interpersonal interaction. Freire further states, “In the banking concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing. Projecting an absolute ignorance onto others, a characteristic of the ideology of oppression, negates education and knowledge as processes of inquiry.
The teacher presents himself to his students as their necessary opposite; by considering their ignorance absolute, he justifies his own existence. The students, alienated like the slave in the Hegelian dialectic, accept their ignorance as justifying the teacher’s existence — but, unlike the slave, they never discover that they educate the teacher. The raison d’etre of libertarian education, on the other hand, lies in its drive towards reconciliation. Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students. “