Governance in World and its Power Essay

Governance in World and its Power

Power has many different meanings and these meanings deviate with situation. Now a days power is given the position of noun while, the fact is that the qualities, characteristics or position determines the power a person possesses. Every human being has power but the level of powers differ for example a companies manager has power to direct the labor. Even poor who think that they lack power are wrong, as they have power to control their desires an example of which can be the power to control huger. “Power is based on what one knows, what experience one has, and what special skills or talents one has”. Some of the ways through which one can define power are: (power. PDF application PDF object)

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controlling influence;
qualities ( like mental qualities) required to do something or get something    d                        done
a state powerful enough to influence events around the world ( first world countries)
physical strength
the force or power for the functioning of equipments
power can be of many different forms; among these are: expert power, reward power, legitimate Power, referent power, coercive power, information power, Tradition power and charismatic power.

Now a day’s government holds the maximum power in a society. Government generally means an organization that exercises authority over the financial, judicial, technological, industrial, educational and military units. Thus it is evaluated that government has the power to rule, to change and to amend any unit of the territory it is governing. These changes might have direct and indirect effects on the people of the country it is leading as well as people of other nations.

History of Government

The development of governments has a direct relationship with population. In Stone Age their were very few people only two to three families living together. Thus their was no need for a government, people used to decide amongst them selves and any family who disagreed could shift to join other families. In new Stone Age or Neolithic period the number of families had increased and therefore disagreements also increased giving rise to need for a leader. From that time onwards the trend for a government started first in the form of one person government to gradually increasing to a group of people.

There were many popular governments in history amongst which the Egyptian government, Greek government and Roman government stand out. These governments gradually shaped the structure government has today. In Egypt all the land was owned by the Pharaoh was king of Egypt and every body had to obey his commands this was known as monarchy. As he was not able to order every one he chose men to represent his orders. At his time the king had maximum power the rich had little power while the poor had no influential power. Greece followed in the footsteps of Egypt by developing monarchies but with time in the archaic period these monarchies were transformed into oligarchies. Oligarchies are a system in which a group of rich people have the controlling power but this system could not survive and was soon taken over by tyrants. Tyrants are a system in which one rich men rule like kings but with no legal rights. Finally in 510 BC the system of tyrant’s government was taken over by democratic government. It was just illusion of democracy as most people in Greece could not vote amongst which children, women, slaves and foreigners were.

Then their was the Roman Empire in which a republican was established in around 500 BC in which there were two counsels who had the controlling power and this was the time when the power to veto (I forbid) was invented. In this period there was senate that used to advice the counsels, and then there were tribunes and an assembly. Thus this was the time when the government began to evolve. We are in the 21st century and government has quite a different structure now which is written in the constitution of America in 1787 but since then it is amended The Constitution consists of three parts;

“the Preamble, defines the philosophy on which the government is based
the Articles, define the government duties and responsibilities
the Amendments, defines individual rights” (Reference library – social studies- US government- The constitution)
The there is federal government who is sub divided in three branches

Executive Branch, of the President, Vice President, executive departments and independent agencies. It is responsible for implementing the laws of the United States.
·         Legislative Branch or Congress, consists or the Senate and House of Representatives. The

      Legislative Branch is responsible for creation the laws which govern the country.

“Judicial Branch consists of the federal courts such as the “Supreme Court, Court of Claims, Court of Customs, Circuit Courts of Appeals and District Courts. They are responsible for interpreting the laws and ensuring that the rights or the people are protected”. (Civics 101_unit 1) “The local government is not based directly on the U.S. Constitution it is liable for managing local programs such as police and fire departments, public health and safety, building and repairing roads, collecting garbage, maintaining schools, and so on.” (Reference library – social studies- US government- The constitution)

Thus it can be evaluated that as the population is increasing divisions of governments are increasing and power is getting distributed too. In ancient times the king possessed all the power while now power is getting divided and then subdivided.

Types of Governments

There are several types of governments other then monarchy, regional government and federal government. There in anarchy is a “situation where there is no government. This can happen after a civil war in a country, when a government has been destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take its place Anarchists are people who believe that government is a bad thing. They say it stops people organizing their own lives” (BBC).then there are capitalist societies in which people can own their own businesses and property. “People can also buy services for private use, for healthcare”. (Not Available)

Some governments provide free health care, educational and other services. Exact opposite of capitalism is communism a government in communist country owns things like businesses and farms. “It provides its people’s healthcare, education and welfare.

Dictatorship is a country ruled by a single leader. The leader has not been elected and may use force to keep power. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control an example of which can be Pakistan”. The leader has the all the power a president controls. Then there is republic, republic is a country that has no monarch the head of the country is generally an elected president. (Not Available)

Transitional A country that is shifting from one type of government to another has transitional government. “For example, a dictatorship may turn into a democracy after the dictator dies. The change between governments can take several years”. If a government is overthrown by force, the new ruling group is sometimes called a revolutionary government. (CBBC News round guide world types of government)

Thus it can be seen that there are several different kinds of governments in this world and in every case government has the maximum power over its territory the government might change from democratic to dictator ship and even the ruler might change but the structure of power associated in government remains the same.

Distribution of Power

Most of the world has democratic governments in which people can vote to the person they think possesses qualities to become a leader. Thus people have the power to choose but is that true or is it just an illusion? It is really an illusion the President of the United States is voted by the States through the Electoral College. “The people simply elect a slate of voters from the two major groups who ballot for the presidential nominee their party has approved”. (Bill Barnstead- The Ombudsman).  Then it is also assumed that the people who are working under the president have the power to veto president’s decision. While in reality this is not the case president is not dependent on anyone he can make major and minor decisions without anybodies approval. The president has the power to amend or change the rules in any kind of systems either it be judicial or tax laws. While the president and sometimes even the presidents family does not abide to the laws and even then they are not punished.

This shows that the government is expected to be democratic while the system in truth is still a monarch system. Therefore it can be further evaluated that the distribution of power is quite uneven the president has more power then the rest of the government. Even the public does not posses power. An example of which can be “President Bush has quietly claimed the authority to disobey more than 750 laws enacted since he took office, asserting that he has the power to set aside any statute passed by Congress”(sf gate). The effect of this uneven distribution is that sometimes a corrupt government gets control of a certain territory they have the power to amend the laws for their own satisfaction instead of the future of the people.

The power that some people sustained is the power in the hands of the rich and influential, some people are influential enough that they can demand directly or indirectly certain amendments in the government. An example of this can be that a an industrialist does not want a bill to pass according to which tax is to be  increment on all  machines  imported passed till a certain date as he is importing a lot of machines. If he has enough power he can indirectly delay this bill.

The government sometimes even possesses the power of influencing other governments. Like fist world countries have the power to influence third world countries. If a first world country makes a decision it is quite to impossible for a third world country to go against it. The reasons why a third world country can not disagree with a first world country is because third world country lacks social, economical and technological stability. While the first world has plenty of it.

First world has stable economic conditions and thus they can help the third world at times of need. An example of which can be in 1994 Red Cross an organization funded by the first world provided aid which reduced sufferings in Africa. Then there is technological power which is also in the hands of first world countries. They have command over all latest inventions in the field of medicine and media to name few which are unaffordable for third world even though they are necessary for development. The first world thus provides third world countries with latest technologies at the lowest costs.

The first world does not help the third world just because it can but it helps third world for personal benefits. An example can be that any financial aid provided by the third world has some kind of interest attach to it which is impossible for the third world to pay and thus the dept keeps on increasing every year. Then any other kind of help is done so that in future the first world can ask for favors. An example of this can be using the third worlds territory to attack another country which is becoming a threat for the first world. Thus it can be evaluated that even in this case one government has more power then the other. The government of the third world has power over their country while the first world government has power over most of the third world country. Therefore even in this case the power is unequally divided the effect of which is that it is getting very difficult to clear all the debts and thus the chances of development are diminishing.

Then there is military power this power is even regulated by the government, one of the major issue for every country is the protection of their boundaries or border and the fear of war. Every country either being economically stable or not keeps their military organized and ready for any kind of attack. The invention of nuclear weapons has given power to the countries who acquire nuclear bombs. “The destructive power of nuclear weapons was instantly apparent from the moment the first atomic bomb was tested in the desert near Alamagordo, New Mexico during World War II”(nuclear weapons). “The United States had started the critical task of converting nature’s power into the world’s most powerful weapon because they wanted to defeat Hitler in this scientific chase which they achieved with the blast over Hiroshima. Since 1945, nuclear explosives have been the most feared of the weapons of mass destruction, in part because of their ability to cause enormous instantaneous devastation and because of the persistent effects of the radiation they emit – undetectable by unaided human senses”. (Avoiding Armageddon-Nuclear Weapons)

From that time onwards many countries are afraid of countries that have developed nuclear weapons amongst them are Pakistan and India. The reason being that if a country with nuclear power decides to attack another country the other country has no chance to escape. Even though many treaties are signed for controlling the use of nuclear weapons the hidden fear of nuclear weapons is so obvious that it can not be classified as being invisible.

Thus it can be evaluated that military power is even unevenly distributed depending on the advancement in technology a country has and the government of that country acts accordingly.

Power Struggle

Power is an asset which every human being dreams to enjoy a power struggle is the most common phenomena people try to accumulate power through force, through argument, through re-election and any other way the can.

Conclusion

After evaluating the existence of power in government I have reached a conclusion determining that government is based on power. Every kind of power either it be technological or coercive power it has immense importance in the field of government.

References

Avoiding Armageddon-Nuclear Weapons

http://www.pbs.org/avoidingarmageddon/learnTheFacts/learn_02_03.html Accessed, April 23, 2007

BBC

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/world/united_nations/types_of_government/newsid_2151000/2151885.stm

Accessed, April 23, 2007

Bill Barnstead- The Ombudsman

http://www.newswithviews.com/Barnstead/bill5.htm Accessed, April 23, 2007

Barnstead- The Ombudsman

http://www.newswithviews.com/Barnstead/bill5.htm Accessed, April 23, 2007

Civics 101_unit 1

http://www2.sec.state.ri.us/cpi/civics_101/civics101_unit1.pdf Accessed, April 23, 2007

CBBC News round guide world types of government

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_2150000/newsid_2151900/2151921.stm

Accessed, April 23, 2007

Nuclear weapons

http://www.pbs.org/avoidingarmageddon/learnTheFacts/learn_02_03.html

Accessed, April 23, 2007

Not Available

http://classroom.jc-schools.net/SS-units/presentations/gov-types.ppt Accessed, April 23, 2007

PDF application PDF object

http://www.umpi.maine.edu/~petress/power.pdf Accessed, April 23, 2007

Power. PDF application PDF object

http://www.umpi.maine.edu/~petress/power.pdf Accessed, April 23, 2007

Accessed, April 23, 2007

Reference library – social studies- US government- The constitution

http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/SocialStudies/GovStructure/Constitution.htm

Accessed, April 23, 2007

SF Gate

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/10/MNGEPJC47R1.DTL

Accessed, April 23, 2007

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