Graphene

There is little doubt that science and technology have changed our lives in many ways. Material with outstanding properties are now used to revolutionize the way we innovate new technologies which can serve us better in the future. In this essay, I am going to talk about a type of nano- material, called Graphene, in terms of its origins, properties and application. Scientists discovered the first 2D nano-material from Graphite and named it as Graphene. It is an allotrope of carbon, arranged in a hexagonal lattice on a single layer of carbon atoms. Each atom has 4 bonds; one ? bond with each of its three neighbors and one ? bond that is oriented out of the plane. Graphene’s stability is due to its tightly packed carbon atoms and sp^2 orbital hybridization which forms the ? bond. These bonds are responsible for the most of graphene’s notable electronic properties. Since free-moving electrons are vibrating via the half-filled bonds, all of these unique structures are associated with its outstanding properties. Graphene is extremely conductive, thermally and electrically. It has the potential to replace steel in the creation of ultra-light and resistant composite material. Besides, Graphene also has high elasticity and is virtually impermeable to all molecules. This enable it has a wide range of applications with a significant potential to be used as optic circuits, night-vision, contact lenses and more effective photo-detectors in high powered supercomputers. All the advantageous properties of Graphene make it an ideal material for use with many of the technological innovations of tomorrow. Graphene has been foreseen as a material that enable further innovation of flexible screen, coating in electric circuits and some other applications at a nano level. As mentioned, the tight and regular pattern of bonds in molecules makes grapheme intensely elastic. The flexibility of curving screens could be manufactured up in a new level, as well as creating night vision contact lenses. As Graphene has a single layer of bonds, the screens and lenses could be stretched as a slim in thickness and because of its high elasticity, the application of grapheme could be small in size but qualified. Furthermore, due to its extremely electric and thermal conductive properties, grapheme coatings can be used on copper wiring in electronic circuits. These properties make possible the development of smaller chips which are more resistant to the concomitant increase in the heat output. The sp2 hybridized orbital alters the structure of the new design of copper coating and allows heat to flow around more readily and make it possible to build computer system with more transistor. Last but not least, grapheme could also modify the properties of other materials. For instance, impermeability applies in the innovation of ‘nano-filtration’, which would revolutionize the effectiveness of desalination and purification technologies and process. This will benefit a lot of coastal cities or water-surrounded countries. In conclusion, with the surprising speed of developments in science and technology, Graphene will be used more widely in the future because of its outstanding properties.