Points scored for the standard in relation to Ventilation in Carparks is awarded every bit long as there is airing within the carpark, whether it is through natural or mechanical agencies, and irrespective of the extent of airing. This peculiar point system can be seen to be unequal as it allows for this point system to be easy abused by the awardee. This is because points will besides be awarded to edifices with carparks that remain airless due to a minimum extent of airing merely so to run into the standard of holding airing within the carpark. This would get the better of the principle of the Green Mark[ 2 ], which is to drive Singapore ‘s building industry towards more environment-friendly edifices. Therefore, our squad is of the sentiment that the point presenting footing for this standard can be revised to a footing similar to that of NRB 1-8 Ventilation in Common Areas1 of the Standard, where the extent of coverage must be at least 90 % of each applicable country. It would be more appropriate and sensible to add an extra demand of a certain extent of coverage in order for points to be awarded under this subdivision. Besides in RB 1-7/NRB 1-10 and RB 1-8/NRB 1-11 that awards edifices for their usage of Energy Efficient Features1 and Renewable Energy1 severally in relation to energy nest eggs, the aims are to promote the usage of green characteristics that are advanced and have positive environmental impacts. Our squad is of the position that it is of import that new edifices should integrate the best accepted patterns suggested in the demands under the criterion, and happen that the scaling system may be deficient in promoting and forcing for the coveted consequence as it is merely moving as a fillip constituent. Hence, our squad suggests that this portion of the criterion should be made a prerequisite demand. For illustration, to accomplish a Green Mark GoldPlus or Platinum, the edifice should accomplish 50 % of the points allocated for this standard.
Under Water Usage and Leak Detection1 ( RB 2-2 /NRB 2-2 ) , points are allocated with any proviso of private H2O metre to better manage H2O use. However, considerations for the existent acceptance of such private metre should be included. The intent of the H2O metre is to mensurate use. The organisation may hold it installed but may non use these mensurating devices, which will get the better of its aim. A suggestion will be to implement the application of H2O metres. The organisation should hold a direction program to enter the readings on a regular basis and compare H2O ingestion figures to supervise any unnatural or important addition in H2O ingestion. If there is any unnatural extremum, probe and rectification should be carried out to efficaciously undertake on unsatisfactory H2O ingestions. The authorization will reexamine log books or diaries as documental groundss. Singapore ‘s H2O resources are really scarce and 50 % of the land had been used for H2O catchment. As compared to other constituents in the model, the point weightage allocated under H2O efficiency seems to be undistinguished. Therefore, more accent on its importance should be placed on Water Efficiency by increasing the influence of the strategy.
Under the class for Environmental Protection, one of the defects identified is that the directives given are ill-defined with respects to how the points are awarded. For case, on Environmental Management Practice1 ( RB 3-4/NRB 3-4 ) , points are awarded every bit long as environmental friendly programmes are carried out with marks in topographic point and proper monitoring. However, there is no expressed measuring on the effectivity of the programme. Therefore, there may be possibility of low or easy come-at-able marks set to gain the point. In add-on, points are awarded so long recycling bins or similar installations are provided. With no mention to the needed figure of bins to be provided, this may get the better of the intent of the demand for recycling installations in the edifice. Points are besides awarded for edifices with good entree to public conveyance network1 ( NRB 3-5 Green Transport ) . However, this standard may be unequal as it does non take into consideration the handiness to public conveyance web which may be available in future. This is particularly so for non-populous land sites released for development where really frequently public conveyance is non readily available yet and as such, points will non be awarded during the Green Mark appraisal. A Therefore, to better on the standards, our squad suggests that a minimal mark for the environmental friendly programme is to be achieved in order to gain the point. For points awarded for recycling installation, a suggestion is to hold a minimal figure of bins based on an estimation of the figure of recyclables that will be generated[ 3 ]. Last, points would still be awarded to edifices with no readily accessible public conveyance web every bit long as there is grounds that public conveyance will be accessible in close hereafter, for case grounds from the Singapore Master Plan[ 4 ].
Under NRB 4-3 Indoor Air Pollutants1, the standard merely requires the usage of certified pigments and adhesives in their purpose to understate airborne contaminations. Our squad feels that this class with regard to non-residential edifices should non be limited to these two points and should see other points as good. One illustration will be to place rugs with really low emanations of volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) to assist better indoor air quality, as many non-residential edifices use rugs, particularly in offices. Upholstered furniture and pressed-wood merchandises should besides be considered as they can breathe methanal, which is a likely carcinogen that can besides do annoyance, skin roseola and terrible allergic reactions. Requirements in this standard should hence be more comprehensive to guarantee that indoor air pollutants are minimized. Points are awarded for the proviso of filtration media and differential force per unit area monitoring equipment in Air Managing Unit of measurements ( AHU ) under NRB 4-4 Indoor Air Quality ( IAQ ) Management1. This issue is similar to that of the H2O efficiency standards as stated above, where aims may be defeated when equipment provided are non utilised efficaciously. A direction program should hence be implemented to guarantee that the monitoring equipment are expeditiously used, lending to proper indoor air quality direction.
Part 5 ( Other Green Features1 ) of the Green Mark criterion awards edifices for their usage of green characteristics and inventions in relation to H2O efficiency, environmental protection, and indoor environmental quality under other green demands. The aim is similar in RB 1-7/NRB 1-10 and RB 1-8/NRB 1-11, and the issue identified along with the solution is discussed under energy efficiency above. On top of that, our squad found that points are awarded for the computation of C footmark for edifice development under this portion of the criterion. Our squad is of the sentiment that the computation should be considered as the needed documental grounds in the awarding of points under RB/NRB 3-1 Sustainable Construction1 and the awarding of points under this portion of the criterion is non necessary as it would merely do the points easy come-at-able.
Reasons for pick of edifice
After deliberation within the squad, we have chosen Gardens by the Bay ( “ the Gardens ” ) , a particular non-residential edifice. The grounds for our pick are discussed as follows: –
Our squad was foremost and first attracted by the significance of this development. The Gardens is a major investing of $ 1 billion by the authorities to incorporate nature within a built environment and is besides the first of its sort. Bing a popular tourer attractive force in Singapore, the Gardens contributes to a majority of the touristry industry. The Gardens can besides function as a topographic point for urban out-of-door activities and provides extra recreational chances for our progressively urbanised population to see nature. The Gardens has been designed with the environment in head ; following environmentally sustainable engineerings. The cooled conservatory composite had besides won the World Building of the Year at the esteemed World Architecture Festival 2012. The Gardens is built on rescued land and contributes significantly as a green oasis in the bosom of Singapore ‘s new intriguing downtown territory to populate, work and drama in. An indorsement of Singapore ‘s patterned advance and attempts to postulate internationally in every field, the Gardens is an impressive piece of work and has become a national landmark. As a airy combination of environmental scientific discipline, architecture and landscape gardening, the Gardens have to be heralded as a effort of technology and planning. With these assorted unique features, our squad has therefore decided on the Gardens as our pick of edifice.
Five sustainable characteristics implemented by Gardens by the Bay
Horticultural waste from Parkss around Singapore are normally sent to landfills. The Gardens collects these waste along with those from the person gardens within the Gardens itself and Burnss it in its biomass boiler to bring forth heat and steam. The heat is used by soaking up hair-raisers to bring forth chilled H2O, while the steam thrust a Combined Heat Power ( CHP ) steam turbine[ 5 ]to bring forth electricity that powers the electric hair-raisers which are used to chill the two Conservatories. The usage of biomass5 to bring forth electricity is considered a renewable beginning of energy and is hence likely to gain points for the Gardens under NRB 1-11 Renewable Energy1.
The Supertrees5 at the Gardens are non designed merely for aesthetic intents, but besides to roll up renewable energy from the Sun. Photovoltaic panels are built on the top of these Supertrees, which can garner more than 100kWp during the twenty-four hours. This energy from the Sun is used to illume up all the Supertrees in the dark. Furthermore, the photovoltaic panels are built utilizing Si that is abundant on Earth – this is yet another sustainable characteristic within the Supertree itself. Points were hence likely to be awarded under NRB 1-10 Energy Efficient Practices & A ; Features1 and NRB 1-11 Renewable Energy1. The Supertrees, being a alone advanced characteristic both aesthetically and in footings of environmental-friendliness would hold likely scored under NRB 5-1 Other Green Features & A ; Innovations1 as good.
Dragonfly Lake5 is designed for sustainable H2O rhythm throughout the garden and besides acts as a keeping pool for stormwater direction. Aquatic workss act as natural eco-filter to cleanse H2O before being discharged into Marina Reservoir. It is a natural method of alimentary remotion of N and P and aid to minimise algae roar and enhance H2O quality. Habitats for fish and darning needle are created within the system to keep a diverseness of aquatic workss, good H2O circulation and aeration which prevent possible job such as mosquito genteelness. The natural H2O intervention utilizes rainwater which is collected from the lake ‘s surface every bit good as the slanting construction of the conservatories. The usage of aquatic workss besides contributes to minimum irrigation. The Gardens would hence gain its points through NRB 2-3 Irrigation System and Landscaping1 with the usage of non-potable H2O and NRB 3-7 Stormwater Management1 with its aggregation and intervention of stormwater run-off.
Bing a garden, the paramount importance is to guarantee that sufficient sunshine reaches the workss in the conservatories while cut downing solar heat addition during hot conditions. As such, the conservatories[ 6 ]are constructed in a gridshell and arches construction to let maximal light possible to make the workss in the conservatories. Ribs of the conservatories are besides painted white to reflect visible radiation and heat. Specially selected glass panels are besides used in the construction of the conservatories. These glass panels allow optimum light transmittal while minimising solar heat addition with its low solar heat addition coefficient. On top of that, the roof is besides fitted with a sensor-operated retractable canvass, which are concealed within the arches, to supply shadiness and minimise heat addition when necessary. The design of the conservatories besides helps to conserve heat with a high volume to little surface country design during showery conditions. The conservatories are besides designed to lean towards Marina Bay to be in the north facade so that it is self-shaded and does non have the full blaze of the Sun. The design of the edifice and usage of the specially selected Windowss are likely to lend to NRB 1-1 Thermal Performance of Building Envelope – ETTV1 where heat addition is minimised and therefore chilling burden demand is reduced, every bit good as NRB 1-5 Daylighting1 where minimum unreal lighting is required, therefore cut downing the demand for energy usage.
The chilling procedure is particularly of import in the Flower Dome as a ice chest temperature is required for the growing and survivability of the flowers that would non hold survived the hot clime in Singapore. The usage of a liquid drying agent system5 de-humidifies the air in the Dome while chilling it so that lesser energy is required in the chilling procedure. This will represent to important energy nest eggs in the long tally, as such, the system will lend to the Green Mark hiting under energy efficiency. Additionally, the liquid drying agent ( drying agent ) is reclaimable when wet is removed by utilizing the waste heat from the combustion of biomass, and therefore besides lending to the Green Mark hiting under the usage of sustainable products1 ( NRB 3-2 ) .
Four sustainable characteristics that could hold been moderately implemented
Covered paseos are scarce at the Gardens and there is none that links it to the nearest MRT, which would otherwise gain an extra point under NRB 3-5 Green Transport1. The intent of such a covered paseo is to advance the usage of public conveyance which is greener and more sustainable. Additionally, solar panels can be installed on top of the covered paseos, leting greater energy nest eggs with the usage of renewable energy, hiting points under NRB 1-11 Renewable Energy1.
Lifts and escalators at the Gardens invariably run even when there are no visitants utilizing it, ensuing in a waste of energy. Therefore, our squad suggests the installing of Variable Voltage Variable Frequency[ 7 ]( VVVF ) motor and detectors. In lift applications, VVVF control regulates input electromotive force and frequence to the motor throughout the journey. As compared with other motor thrusts, it draws much less current during its operation. In escalator applications, it can be incorporated with automatic gesture detectors or automatic two-speed control to change the escalator velocity harmonizing to the rider flow. Since the operation of these escalators is determined by the absence or presence of riders, energy can be saved when the escalator is idle. By put ining the VVVF motor and detectors, it saves energy without impacting the convenience it provides to the visitants. Furthermore, it reduces wear and tear, therefore increasing the lifetime of these installations. Therefore, the VVVF motor and detectors can be moderately implemented and extra points can be earned under NRB 1-9 Lifts and Escalators1.
Hybrid carpark tonss is recognized as one of the cardinal characteristics in the BCA Green Mark award. Points are besides awarded for the proviso of electric vehicle bear downing Stationss under NRB 3-5 Green Transport1. The Gardens provides household carpark tonss, which is catered for large household autos. However, it does non hold hybrid carpark tonss which gives precedence to hybrid auto users. By holding intercrossed carpark tonss, the Gardens encourages the usage of intercrossed electric autos, which contributes to environmental sustainability due to its fuel-free characteristic. This could hold been moderately implemented as they merely have to put aside a few carpark tonss for intercrossed autos.
As of now, the frontage of the domes are manually cleaned A by cleaners. A more sustainable manner of cleansing is the usage of a self-cleaning frontage system[ 8 ], that can be motorized or by the coating of chemicals on the spectacless. The motorized self-cleaning frontage system is activated by rainfall and uses the rainwater to clean the frontage. The other method which coats chemicals, Titanium Dioxide ( TiO2 ) , on the glass panes utilizes the sunshine adsorbed to organize a “ protective ” bed that decomposes bacteriums. As such, our squad recommends the usage of the motorized system as it would non interfere with the surface assimilation of sunshine by the workss in the dome, even though both types of the system will lend to the hiting under H2O efficiency and other advanced green characteristics.